Pastis is an anise-flavoured spirit and apéritif from France containing less than 100 g/l sugar and 40–45% ABV. Pastis was first commercialized by Paul Ricard in 1932 and enjoys substantial popularity in France in the southeastern regions of the country Marseille, the Var department. Pastis emerged some 17 years after the ban on absinthe, during a time when the French nation was still apprehensive of high-proof anise drinks in the wake of the absinthe debacle; the popularity of pastis may be attributable to a penchant for anise drinks, cultivated by absinthe decades earlier, but is part of an old tradition of Mediterranean anise liquors that includes sambuca, arak, rakı, mastika. The name "pastis" comes from Occitan pastís which means "mash-up". By legal definition, pastis is described as an anise-flavored spirit that contains additional flavor of licorice root, contains less than 100 grams/l sugar, is bottled at a minimum of 40% ABV or 45% ABV. While pastis was artisanally produced from whole herbs like most spirits at the time of its creation, modern versions are prepared by mixing base alcohol with commercially prepared flavorings and caramel coloring.
Pastis is associated with its historical predecessor, yet the two are in fact different. Pastis does not contain the herb from which absinthe derives its name. Pastis obtains its anise flavor from a distillation of star anise, a herb of Asian origin, whereas absinthe traditionally obtains its base flavor from green anise, a European herb. Furthermore, pastis traditionally exhibits the distinct flavor of licorice root, not a part of a traditional absinthe. Where bottled strength is concerned, traditional absinthes were bottled at 45–74% ABV, while pastis is bottled at 40–50% ABV. Unlike a traditional absinthe, pastis is a "liqueur", which means it is always bottled with sugar. Pastis is diluted with water before drinking five volumes of water for one volume of pastis, but neat pastis is served together with a jug of water for the drinker to blend together according to preference; the resulting decrease in alcohol percentage causes some of the constituents to become insoluble, which changes the liqueur's appearance from dark transparent yellow to milky soft yellow, a phenomenon present with absinthe and known as the ouzo effect.
The drink is considered a refreshment for hot days. Ice cubes can be added. However, many pastis drinkers decline to add ice, preferring to drink the beverage with cool spring water. Although consumed throughout France, pastis is associated with southeastern regions of the country the city of Marseille, where it is nicknamed Pastaga, with such clichés of the Provençal lifestyle as pétanque. 130 million litres are sold each year. Pastis beverages become cloudy; such beverages contain oils called terpenes, which are soluble in an aqueous solution that contains 30% ethanol or more by volume. When the solution is diluted to below 30% ethanol, the terpenes become insoluble; the same chemistry causes absinthe to go cloudy. Among the better known cocktails using pastis and syrups are: Rourou: made with strawberry syrup Tomate: made with grenadine syrup Perroquet: made with green mint syrup Mauresque: made with orgeat syrup Feuille morte: made with grenadine and green mint syrup Violet Pastis with lavender syrup Rômarino Pastis with Rosemary syrup Sazerac: made with cognac or rye whiskey.
The baccalauréat known in France colloquially as bac, is an academic qualification that French students are required to take to graduate high school. Introduced by Napoleon I in 1808, it is the main diploma, required to pursue university studies. Similar university entrance qualifications exist elsewhere in Europe, variously known as Bachillerato in Germany and Italy, Bachillerato in Spain and South America as well as Baccalaureus in the Netherlands and Sweden. There is the European Baccalaureate, which students take at the end of the European School education, it gives access to a wide range of university education. It differs from British A levels and Scottish Highers but is similar to a US two-year college diploma in that it is earned comprehensively and can be obtained in streams requiring a high level in a number of different subjects, depending on the stream; the general streams are Sciences and Social Sciences and Literature. Much like British A levels or European Matura, the baccalauréat allows French and international students to obtain a standardised qualification at the age of 18.
It qualifies holders to work in certain areas, go on to tertiary education, or acquire some other professional qualification or training. Although it is not required, the vast majority of students in their final year of secondary school take a final exam. Unlike some US high school diplomas, this exam is not for lycée completion but university entrance; the word bac is used to refer to one of the end-of-year exams that students must pass to get their baccalauréat diploma: le bac de philo, for example, is the philosophy exam, which all students must take, regardless of their field of study. Within France, there are three main types of baccalauréat: the baccalauréat général. For entrance to regular universities within France, there are some restrictions as to the type of baccalauréat that can be presented. In some cases, it may be possible to enter a French university without the bac by taking a special exam, the diploma for entrance to higher education. Though most students take the bac at the end of secondary school, it is possible to enter as a candidat libre without affiliation to a school.
Students who did not take the bac upon completion of secondary school and would like to attend university, or feel that the bac would help them accomplish professional aspirations, may exercise that option. The exam is the same as the one administered to secondary-school students except that free candidates are tested in Physical Education, but students' Physical Education grade is calculated based on evaluation throughout the year; the students who sit for the baccalauréat général choose one of three streams in the penultimate lycée year. Each stream carries different weights associated with each subject. Another terminology is sometimes used, which existed before 1994 and further divided the different séries; until it was possible to sit for a bac C or D, B, or A1, A2, A3. People who passed the baccalauréat before the reform still use that terminology in referring their diploma. However, the streams for the baccalauréat général are now as follows: The baccalauréat permits students to choose to sit for exams in over forty world languages or French regional languages.
The S stream prepares students for work in scientific fields such as medicine and the natural sciences. Natural sciences students must specialise in either Mathematics, Physics & Chemistry, Computer science or Earth & Life Sciences. Students of the Baccalauréat économique et social prepare for careers in the social sciences, in Philosophy in management and business administration, in economics; the subject Economics & Social Sciences is the most weighed and is only offered in this stream. History & Geography and Mathematics are important subjects in ES. Students in the L stream prepare for careers in the humanities such as education, literature, law and public service, they have interests in the arts. The most important subjects in the literary stream are Philosophy and French language and literature and other languages English and Spanish; the majority of the baccalauréat examination takes place in a week in June. For lycée students, the end of the last year, terminale. Most examinations are given in essay-form.
The student is given a substantial block of time to complete a well-argued paper. The number of pages varies from exam to exam but is substantial considering all answers have to be written down and justified. Mathematics and science exams are problem sets but some science questions require an essay-type answer. Foreign-language exams have a short translation section, as well. In the S stream, the Mathematics and the Earth & Life Sciences examinations sometimes contain some multiple-choice questions. All students have to work on a scientific research project; those are conducted in groups of 2, 3 or 4 and focus on a subject determined by the students, under the supervision of a faculty member. When taken in mainland France, the baccalauréat material is the same for all students in a given stream. Secrecy surrounding the material is tight, a
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses. DNA and ribonucleic acid are nucleic acids; the two DNA strands are known as polynucleotides as they are composed of simpler monomeric units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases, a sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group; the nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone. The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules, with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA; the complementary nitrogenous bases are divided into two groups and purines. In DNA, the pyrimidines are cytosine. Both strands of double-stranded DNA store the same biological information.
This information is replicated as and when the two strands separate. A large part of DNA is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences; the two strands of DNA are thus antiparallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of nucleobases, it is the sequence of these four nucleobases along the backbone. RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription. Under the genetic code, these RNA strands specify the sequence of amino acids within proteins in a process called translation. Within eukaryotic cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. Before typical cell division, these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing a complete set of chromosomes for each daughter cell. Eukaryotic organisms store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus as nuclear DNA, some in the mitochondria as mitochondrial DNA, or in chloroplasts as chloroplast DNA. In contrast, prokaryotes store their DNA only in circular chromosomes.
Within eukaryotic chromosomes, chromatin proteins, such as histones and organize DNA. These compacting structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed. DNA was first isolated by Friedrich Miescher in 1869, its molecular structure was first identified by Francis Crick and James Watson at the Cavendish Laboratory within the University of Cambridge in 1953, whose model-building efforts were guided by X-ray diffraction data acquired by Raymond Gosling, a post-graduate student of Rosalind Franklin. DNA is used by researchers as a molecular tool to explore physical laws and theories, such as the ergodic theorem and the theory of elasticity; the unique material properties of DNA have made it an attractive molecule for material scientists and engineers interested in micro- and nano-fabrication. Among notable advances in this field are DNA origami and DNA-based hybrid materials. DNA is a long polymer made from repeating units called nucleotides.
The structure of DNA is dynamic along its length, being capable of coiling into tight loops and other shapes. In all species it is composed of two helical chains, bound to each other by hydrogen bonds. Both chains are coiled around the same axis, have the same pitch of 34 angstroms; the pair of chains has a radius of 10 angstroms. According to another study, when measured in a different solution, the DNA chain measured 22 to 26 angstroms wide, one nucleotide unit measured 3.3 Å long. Although each individual nucleotide is small, a DNA polymer can be large and contain hundreds of millions, such as in chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is the largest human chromosome with 220 million base pairs, would be 85 mm long if straightened. DNA does not exist as a single strand, but instead as a pair of strands that are held together; these two long strands coil in the shape of a double helix. The nucleotide contains both a segment of the backbone of a nucleobase. A nucleobase linked to a sugar is called a nucleoside, a base linked to a sugar and to one or more phosphate groups is called a nucleotide.
A biopolymer comprising multiple linked nucleotides is called a polynucleotide. The backbone of the DNA strand is made from alternating sugar residues; the sugar in DNA is 2-deoxyribose, a pentose sugar. The sugars are joined together by phosphate groups that form phosphodiester bonds between the third and fifth carbon atoms of adjacent sugar rings; these are known as the 3′-end, 5′-end carbons, the prime symbol being used to distinguish these carbon atoms from those of the base to which the deoxyribose forms a glycosidic bond. When imagining DNA, each phosphoryl is considered to "belong" to the nucleotide whose 5′ carbon forms a bond therewith. Any DNA strand therefore has one end at which there is a phosphoryl attached to the 5′ carbon of a ribose and another end a
Prince of Scotland
Prince and Great Steward of Scotland are two of the titles of the heir apparent to the throne of the United Kingdom. The current holder of these titles is Prince Charles, who bears the other Scottish titles of Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Lord of the Isles and Baron of Renfrew, is known outside Scotland as the Prince of Wales; the title of Prince of Scotland originated in a time when Scotland was a kingdom separate from England. The title was held by the heir apparent to the Scottish throne, in addition to his being Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, Great Steward of Scotland. Before the English and Scottish crowns were united under James VI and I, sources indicate it was intended to be used in much the same way the title Prince of Wales was used to designate the heir-apparent to the English throne, although the Scottish heir-apparent was addressed only as Duke of Rothesay until that time; the title of Prince of Scotland originated from a charter granting the Principality of Scotland to the future James I of Scotland, the heir apparent, granted on December 10, 1404, by Robert III.
During the reign of James III, permanency was enacted to the title. The designation "Principality of Scotland" implied not Scotland as a whole but lands in western Scotland, in areas such as Renfrewshire and Kirkcudbrightshire appropriated as patrimony of the Sovereign's eldest son for his maintenance. In modern times, the Prince remains in these lands; the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. Act 2000, abolished most remaining feudal duties and privileges attaching to the Principality, leaving the Prince's status as titular. Prior to the 2000 Act the Principality was feued out to tenants and brought in a small income. All title deeds in Ayrshire and Renfrewshire required to be sealed with the Prince's seal. Revenue gained from feudal dealings were counted as income for the Duchy of Cornwall, a more substantial estate held by the monarch's child, heir apparent; the Great Stewardship of Scotland was granted to Walter Fitz Alan by David I, came to the Sovereign through the accession of Robert II, son of Robert I's daughter Marjorie and Walter Stewart, 6th Great Steward of Scotland, on 9 April 1327.
Since that date it has been enjoyed by the Sovereign's eldest son. The titles Prince and Great Steward of Scotland are conjoined in legislation. Since James VI became the King of England and Ireland in 1603, the titles have fallen from habitual use, the holder from on also being Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Wales and Duke of Rothesay, which were preferred, is now referred to, except as the last in the conventional list of the Prince of Wales's titles. Similar to the process of Crown consent, in order for any bill affecting, directly or by implication, the personal property or interests of the Prince and Great Steward of Scotland to be heard in Parliament, Parliament shall not debate any question whether the Bill be passed or approved unless such consent to those provisions has been signified at a meeting of the Parliament. In the Scottish Parliament such consent is signified by a member of the Scottish Government; when the Sovereign had no son, there has been uncertainty as to who should bear and use the titles and enjoy the revenues of the Principality.
Both Mary, Queen of Scots, George II of Great Britain used the titles and styles, but on the accession of George VI there was a difference between the opinion of the Lord Lyon and the advice given by the Scottish Lords of Appeal to the Garter King of Arms. The matter remains unresolved, but is unlikely to be of practical significance for some time
Duchess of Cornwall
Duchess of Cornwall is a courtesy title held by the wife of the Duke of Cornwall. The Dukedom of Cornwall is a non-hereditary peerage title held by the British monarch's eldest son and heir; the current Duchess of Cornwall is Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, since her 9 April 2005 marriage to Charles, Prince of Wales. Prior to their marriage, the title was used only in Cornwall, since customarily the monarch's eldest son and heir is created Prince of Wales and his wife is styled as Princess of Wales, those titles are used to refer to them. In Scotland, the titles of Duke and Duchess of Rothesay are used instead. Since the title of Duke of Cornwall can be held only by an heir apparent, the eldest son of the monarch, no woman can be Duchess of Cornwall in her own right. However, this may change now; the first Duchess of Cornwall was Joan of Kent, who, in October 1361, married Edward, the Black Prince. Catherine of Aragon was Duchess of Cornwall through her marriage to Arthur, Prince of Wales, the Duke of Cornwall.
Prior to the current holder of the title, the most recent Duchess of Cornwall was Diana, Princess of Wales. During her marriage, she was styled as Princess of Wales, as have been most Duchesses of Cornwall. Before the present Duchess, the only Duchesses of Cornwall to be styled as such were Caroline of Ansbach, wife of the future King George II, styled as "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cornwall and Cambridge" from 1 August to 27 September 1714, Mary of Teck, wife of the future King George V, styled as "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cornwall and York" from 22 January to 9 November 1901. In both cases, they were known by the title for only a few months between their respective father-in-law's accession to the throne and their respective husband's creation as Prince of Wales. Prior to the marriage of Camilla Parker Bowles with the Prince of Wales, it was stated that she would be styled as Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cornwall, she does not use the title of Princess of Wales, because it is still popularly associated with Diana, Princess of Wales, the former wife of the Prince of Wales.
Upon her husband's accession to the throne, it is intended that Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, will be styled as Her Royal Highness The Princess Consort, although she would be entitled to the title of Queen. Shakespeare's King Lear includes the character "Lear's second daughter. Marion Zimmer Bradley's The Mists of Avalon included the fictional character Morgaine as the Duchess of Cornwall through inheritance. Igraine, mother of King Arthur, was Duchess of Cornwall when she caught the eye of King Uther Pendragon in many retellings of Arthurian legend. Duke of Cornwall Duchy of Cornwall The Duchess of Cornwall's Official Website BBC News report
Baron of Renfrew (title)
Baron of Renfrew is a dignity held by the heir apparent to the British throne Prince Charles. It was held by the Scottish heir apparent beginning in 1404, it is associated with the title Duke of Rothesay. An act of the Scottish Parliament passed in 1469 confirmed the pattern of succession. Renfrew, a town near Glasgow, is sometimes called the "cradle of the royal Stewarts." In Scotland, barons hold feudal titles, not peerages: a Scottish lord of Parliament equates to an English or British baron. Some, claim that the Act of 1469 elevated the Barony of Renfrew to the dignity of a peerage. Others suggest that the barony became a peerage upon the Union of the Crowns in 1603; some scholars argue that the uncertainty surrounding the text of the 1469 Act leaves the barony as only a feudal dignity, not a peerage dignity. The title of Lord Renfrew was used by the traveling Prince of Wales King Edward VII and Prince Edward, Duke of Rothesay King Edward VIII and Duke of Windsor, when he traveled in a private capacity or when he wished to pay visits'incognito'.
Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn, known as "Lord Renfrew", a life peer whose title derives from his surname not from the barony of Renfrew
Hôtel Ritz Paris
The Ritz Paris is a hotel in central Paris, in the 1st arrondissement. It overlooks the octagonal border of the Place Vendôme at number 15; the hotel is ranked among the most luxurious hotels in the world and is a member of "The Leading Hotels of the World". The Ritz Paris reopened on 6 June 2016 after a major multimillion-euro renovation; the hotel, which today has 159 rooms and suites ranging from USD $1,330 to USD $20,000 per night, was founded in 1898 by the Swiss hotelier, César Ritz, in collaboration with the French chef Auguste Escoffier. The new hotel was constructed behind the façade of an 18th-century town house, overlooking one of Paris's central squares, it was among the first hotels in Europe to provide a bathroom en suite, a telephone and electricity for each room. It established a reputation for luxury, with clients including royalty, writers, film stars and singers. Several of its suites are named in honour of famous guests of the hotel, including Coco Chanel and Ernest Hemingway.
One of the bars of the hotel, Bar Hemingway, is devoted to Hemingway. L'Espadon is a world-renowned restaurant, attracting aspiring chefs from all over the world who come to learn at the adjacent Ritz-Escoffier School; the grandest suite of the hotel, called the Suite Impériale, has been listed by the French government as a national monument in its own right. During the Second World War, the hotel was taken over by the occupying Germans as the local headquarters of the Luftwaffe. After the death in 1976 of Ritz's son, the last members of the Ritz family to own the hotel sold it to the Egyptian businessman Mohamed Al-Fayed in 1979. On 31 August 1997, Princess of Wales dined in the hotel's Imperial Suite, shortly before her death in a fatal car crash; the hotel has been renovated in order to help it attain the'Palace' distinction, a title bestowed by the French ministry of economy and employment. It was closed from 1 August 2012 and reopened in June 2016; because of its status as a symbol of high society and luxury, the hotel has featured in many notable works of fiction including novels, a play, films.
The area of Place Vendôme was abandoned due to a lack of funds. It was restarted in 1699. A hotel particulier to match Antoine Crozat's modesty was built in 1702, it would be known as the "house of Crozat" where there are immense riches. At Crozat's death, June 7, 1738, the building was sold and went from hand to hand until it was sold along with a contiguous hotel to Cesar Ritz; the site was purchased in 1705 by Antoine-François Bitaut de Vaillé, a private residence was constructed, occupied by several noble families and became the Hôtel de Gramont. The façade was designed by the royal architect Jules Hardouin Mansart. In 1854 it was acquired by the Péreire brothers, who made it the head office of their Crédit Mobilier financial institution. In 1888, the Swiss hotelier César Ritz and the French chef Auguste Escoffier opened a restaurant in Baden-Baden, the two were invited to London by Richard D'Oyly Carte to become the first manager and chef of the Savoy Hotel, positions they held from 1889 until 1897.
The Savoy under Ritz was an immediate success, attracting a distinguished and moneyed clientele, headed by the Prince of Wales. In 1897, Ritz and Escoffier were both dismissed from the Savoy, when Ritz was implicated in the disappearance of over £3400 worth of wine and spirits. Before their dismissal, customers at the Savoy had urged them to open a hotel in Paris. Aided by Alexandre Marnier-Lapostolle, Ritz purchased the palace and transformed the former Hôtel de Lazun building into a 210-room hotel, he stated that his purpose for the hotel was to provide his rich clientele with "all the refinement that a prince could desire in his own home." He engaged the architect Charles Mewès to update the original 1705 structure. Ritz's innovative standards of hygiene demanded a bathroom for every suite, the maximum possible amount of sunlight, the minimum of curtains and other hangings. At the same time he furnished the hotel with all the old-fashioned appeal of an English or French gentleman's house, in order to make clients feel at home.
The hotel opened on 1 June 1898 to a "glittering reception". Together with the culinary talents of his junior partner Escoffier, Ritz made the hotel synonymous with opulence and fine dining, as embodied in the term "ritzy." It became fashionable with Parisian socialites, hosting many prestigious personalities over the years, such as Marcel Proust, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, King Edward VII, the couturier Coco Chanel, who made the Ritz her home for more than thirty years. Many of the suites in the hotel are named after their famous patrons. Hemingway once said, "When in Paris the only reason not to stay at the Ritz is if you can't afford it". In 1904 and 1908, the Ritz garden café was painted by Pierre-Georges Jeanniot. Proust wrote parts of Remembrance of Things Past here from around 1909; the building was extended in 1910, César Ritz died in 1918, succeeded by his son, Charles Ritz. Queen Marie of Romania stayed at the Ritz Hotel with her two eldest daughters and Maria in 1919 while campaigning for Greater Romania at the Paris Peace Conference.
Many other prominent royal figures and heads of state slept and dined at the hotel over the ye