Charles III, Duke of Lorraine
Charles III, known as the Great, was Duke of Lorraine from 1545 until his death. He is the direct male ancestor of all rulers of the Habsburg-Lorraine dinasty, including all Emperors of Austria, he was the eldest surviving son of Duke of Lorraine and Christina of Denmark. In 1545, his father died, his mother served as the regent during his minority. During his childhood, his aged great-grandmother, Philippa of Gelderland, died in 1547, leaving her inheritance to the young Charles, his dynasty claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem and used the title of Duke of Calabria as symbol of their claims to the Kingdom of Naples. Additionally, they had a claim to the Duchy of Gelderland, inherited from Charles of Egmont, Duke of Gelderland. In 1552, Lorraine was invaded by France, his mother's regency was terminated and Charles was removed from Lorraine to France, to be raised at the French royal court in accordance to the needs of French interests. In 1559, he was married to Claude of France, allowed to depart to Lorraine and take control of his domain.
The reign of Charles III is regarded as a great age of prosperity for Lorraine. He pursued a policy of strict neutrality between France and The Holy German Empire, as well as during the French Wars of Religion, he founded the University of Pount-a-Mousson. He expanded his realm by the incorporation of Pfalzburg from George John I, Count Palatine of Veldenz in 1590, tried to conquer Lützelstein, though George John I's widow, Anna of Sweden, managed to negotiate a truce. In 1589, he broke his policy of neutrality and allied himself with the French Catholic League because he, as a Catholic, could not accept Henry of Navarre as king of France. In his peace with Henry in 1594, he married his son to Henry's sister Catherine de Bourbon, he married princess of France, daughter of king Henry II and Catherine de' Medici. They had the following children: Henry II, Duke of Lorraine married Catherine de Bourbon and Margerita Gonzaga Christine, married Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine and Bishop of Metz, Bishop of Strasbourg Antoinette, married John William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg.
Anne Francis II, Duke of Lorraine married Christina of Salm Catherine, Abess de Remiremont Elisabeth Renata, married Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria Claude, 1575-1576. Dukes of Lorraine family tree von Friedeburg, Robert. Monarchy Transformed: Princes and their Elites in Early Modern Western Europe. Cambridge University Press. Bogdan, Henry. La Lorraine des ducs. Perrin
Institut national de la recherche agronomique
The Institut national de la recherche agronomique is a French public research institute dedicated to agricultural science. It was founded in 1946 and is a Public Scientific and Technical Research Establishment under the joint authority of the Ministries of Research and Agriculture. INRA leads projects of targeted research for a sustainable agriculture, a safeguarded environment and a healthy and high quality food. Based on the number of publications in agricultural sciences/crops and animal sciences, INRA is the first institute for agricultural research in Europe, the second in the world, it belongs to the top 1% most cited research institutes. INRA main tasks are: to disseminate knowledge. INRA is a research institute with 1,840 researchers, 1,756 research engineers and 4,694 lab workers/field workers/administrative staff. In addition, 510 PhD students are trained, 2,552 interns are employed every year. INRA is composed of 13 scientific departments: Environment and Agronomy Biology and crop breeding Plant health and environment Ecology of forests and aquatic environments Animal genetics Animal physiology and animal production systems Animal health Characterization and processing of agricultural products Microbiology and food processing Human nutrition Sciences for action and development Social sciences and food, territories and environment Applied mathematics and computer sciencesMoreover, INRA provides tools and support to the scientific community: databases, environmental research observatories, genetic resources centers, experimental platforms, etc.
In 2014, INRA has 17 regional centres in France, including in the French overseas territories. Most laboratories and facilities located in Paris region are to be moved to the Paris-Saclay research-intensive cluster. INRA develops partnerships with: universities and French top schools in agricultural/veterinary sciences French research institutes of fundamental and targeted research. Notably, CNRS and INSERM are INRA first two partners. French research institutes of agricultural applied research the main agricultural research institutes in the world, it has scientific collaborations and exchanges with many countries in Europe and Asia. Nearly half of the publications are co-authored by foreign scientists. INRA maintains a collection of vines at Domaine de Vassal, in Marseillan near Sète, a site where phylloxera cannot survive. Gouais blanc can be found there. Researches on vine cultivation are conducted in Gruissan. INRA owns the Château Couhins wine-producing estate near Bordeaux. Many wine grapes have been created at INRA stations including Ederena.
INRA was a member of the consortium for the genome sequencing of Vitis vinifera in 2007. Animal Agronomy Agroecology Biotechnology CIRADVeterinary Research Official website
Pont-à-Mousson is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France. Population: 14,592, it is an industrial town, situated on the Moselle River. Pont-à-Mousson has several historical monuments, including the 18th century Premonstratensian abbey. In 1572 Cardinal Charles of Lorraine established a Jesuit university at Pont-à-Mousson. With the Protestant revolution building in the German-speaking lands, still part of the Holy Roman Empire, directly to the east, the Duchy of Lorraine vulnerable to pressure from an assertive French state directly to the west, the Duchy participated in the wars of religion on the side of the Counter-Reformation; the Tridentine strategy promulgated by the Holy See involved the creation of a "Roman Catholic backbone". During the seventeenth century the university grew until there were about 2,000 students. There were four faculties covering theology, the arts and medicine. Students were drawn from across central Europe. Over time a rivalry grew up between students in the St Martin district, located on the right-bank of the river and dominated by Jesuits, the left-bank students based in the St Laurent quarter and considered the rowdier of the two student tribes.
Rivalry peaked with the violent "printers' battles" when the rival factions were known as the "Ponti Mussoni" and the "Mussiponti". The "Mussiponti" won, in the region the inhabitants of the town became known thereafter as "Mussipontains/Mussipontines"; the region became French following the death in 1766 of Duke Stanisław Leszczyński of Lorraine, in 1769 Louis XV had the Jesuit Academy transferred to Nancy. The only notable educational establishment remaining at Pont-à-Mousson was a military training school; the town continued to flourish as a centre of the visual arts, rivalling Épinal to the south in this respect. A papier mâché factory contributed to the cultural development of Pont-à-Mousson, it was the regional capital between 1790 and 1795, but underwent extensive destruction in the ensuing wars, was subject to foreign occupation in 1814 and 1815. During the Franco-Prussian War it experienced severe street fighting; the Pont-à-Mousson company was created in 1856 by a group of Lorraine businessmen to operate the Marbache iron mine and to use the ore to manufacture cast iron.
Xavier Rogé was the manager. In 1862 the enterprise was liquidated due to lack of sufficient capital to cover the high investment expenses. Rogé managed to raise capital in the Saarland and restart the business, selling most of its production to forges in the Ardennes and Champagne. In 1866 Rogé visited England and became aware of the new and promising market for cast-iron water pipes, he focused the company on pipe production, found a ready market when cities began to make large investment in water supply after 1871. He adopted the English method of casting pipes in vertical rather than horizontal moulds, he was succeeded by Camille Cavallier, who transformed the moderately sized cast iron pipe manufacturer into a giant, always concentrating on making pipes. Annual cast iron production rose from 80,000 to 183,000 tons between 1900 and 1913; the company known as Saint-Gobain PAM is still producing ductile cast iron pipes and fittings for drinking water and sewage applications. The plant of Pont-à-Mousson, having its 160th anniversary in 2016, is the largest employer in the city, with an average 1000 employees spread among two plants, a research center and the headquarters of the company.
Strategically positioned at an important river crossing, Pont-à-Mousson and the surrounding region saw terrible fighting during the twentieth century wars between France and Germany. In the First World War Bois-Le-Prêtre, Croix des Carmes and Grand-Couronné are names that recall savage fighting between French and German soldiers; the town suffered further destruction in 1944, before being liberated by the U. S. Third Army under the command of Lieutenant General George S. Patton, supported by an active local resistance movement. In 1921 the President presented the town with the Croix de guerre, shortly after this Désiré Ferry, the local deputy, was awarded the Légion d'honneur. After the Second World War Pont-à-Mousson was again honoured, this time with the Croix de guerre. Pont-à-Mousson was the birthplace of: Guarinus of Sitten and bishop of Sion Margaret of Anjou married to Henry VI of England John Barclay, Scottish satirist and Latin poet Geraud Duroc, French general Louis Camille Maillard, French physician and chemist Émile Amann, French historian of religion Pierre Lallement, inventor of the modern bicycle Georges Navel, French writer, first winner of the Prix Sainte-Beuve in 1946 Communes of the Meurthe-et-Moselle department Town's website
Aix-Marseille University is a public research university located in the region of Provence, southern France. It was founded in 1409 when Louis II of Anjou, Count of Provence, petitioned the Pisan Antipope Alexander V to establish the University of Provence; the university as it is today was formed by the merger of the University of Provence, the University of the Mediterranean and Paul Cézanne University. The merger became effective on 1 January 2012, resulting in the creation of the largest university in the French-speaking world, with about 74,000 students. AMU has the largest budget of any academic institution in the Francophone world, standing at €750 million; the university is organized around five main campuses situated in Marseille. Apart from its major campuses, AMU owns and operates facilities in Arles, Avignon, Digne-les-Bains, Gap, La Ciotat and Salon-de-Provence; the university is headquartered at the Marseille. AMU has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, business, science and arts.
To date, there have been four Nobel Prize laureates amongst its alumni and faculty, as well as a two-time recipient of the Pulitzer Prize, four César Award winners, multiple heads of state or government, parliamentary speakers, government ministers and members of the constituent academies of the Institut de France. AMU has hundreds of research and teaching partnerships, including close collaboration with the French National Centre for Scientific Research and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission. AMU is a member of numerous academic organisations including the European University Association and the Mediterranean Universities Union; the institution developed out of the original University of Provence, founded on 9 December 1409 as a Studium generale by Louis II of Anjou, Count of Provence, recognized by papal bull issued by the Pisan Antipope Alexander V. However, there is evidence that teaching in Aix existed in some form from the beginning of the 12th century, since there were a doctor of theology in 1100, a doctor of law in 1200 and a professor of law in 1320 on the books.
The decision to establish the university was, in part, a response to the already-thriving University of Paris. As a result, in order to be sure of the viability of the new institution, Louis II compelled his Provençal students to study in Aix only. Thus, the letters patent for the university were granted, the government of the university was created; the Archbishop of Aix-en-Provence, Thomas de Puppio, was appointed as the first chancellor of the university for the rest of his life. After his death in 1420, a new chancellor was elected by the rector and licentiates – an uncommon arrangement not repeated at any other French university; the rector had to be an “ordinary student”, who had unrestricted civil and criminal jurisdiction in all cases where one party was a doctor or scholar of the university. Those displeased with the rector's decisions could appeal to a doctor legens. Eleven consiliarii provided assistance to the rector; these individuals represented all were elected from among the students.
The constitution was of a student-university, the instructors did not have great authority except in granting degrees. Mention should be made that a resident doctor or student who married was required to pay charivari to the university, the amount varying with the degree or status of the man, being increased if the bride was a widow. Refusal to submit to this statutable extortion was punished by the assemblage of students at the summons of the rector with frying-pans and horns at the house of the newly married couple. Continued recusancy was followed by the piling up of dirt in front of their door upon every Feast-day; these injunctions were justified on the ground that the money extorted was devoted to divine service. In 1486 Provence passed to the French crown; the university's continued existence was approved by Louis XII of France, Aix-en-Provence continued to be a significant provincial centre. It was, for instance, the seat of the Parliament of Aix-en-Provence from 1501 to 1789, no doubt aided by the presence of the law school.
In 1603 Henry IV of France established the Collège Royal de Bourbon in Aix-en-Provence for the study of belles-lettres and philosophy, supplementing the traditional faculties of the university, but not formally a part of it. This college de plain exercice became a significant seat of learning, under the control of the Jesuit order. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, the college served as a preparatory, but unaffiliated, school for the university. Only the university was entitled to award degrees in the theology and medicine. Universities accepted candidates who had studied in colleges formally affiliated with them, which in reality required both college and university to be situated in the same city. In 1762 the Jesuits were forced to leave France, in 1763 the Collège Royal de Bourbon was affiliated with the university as a faculty of arts; the addition of the Collège Royal de Bourbon widened the scope of courses provided at the University of Provence. Formal instruction in French was provided at the college, with texts and a structured course of study.
Subsequently, physics became a part of the curriculum at the college as a part of the philosophy course in the 18th century. Equipment for carrying out experiments was obtained and the first course in experimental physics was provided at Aix-e
Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine
Charles de Lorraine, Duke of Chevreuse, was a French Cardinal, a member of the powerful House of Guise. He was known at first as the Cardinal of Guise, as the second Cardinal of Lorraine, after the death of his uncle, Cardinal of Lorraine, he founded Reims University. He is sometimes known as the Cardinal de Lorraine. Born in Joinville, Haute-Marne, Charles of Guise was the son of Claude, Duke of Guise and his wife Antoinette de Bourbon, his older brother was Duke of Guise. His sister Mary of Guise was wife of mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, he was made Archbishop of Reims in 1538, Coadjutor Bishop of Metz on 16 November 1547. His uncle died on 10 May 1550, he resigned the see of Metz on 22 April 1551, was succeeded as Administrator by Cardinal Robert de Lenoncourt. The efforts of this cardinal to enforce his family's pretensions to the Countship of Provence, his temporary assumption, with this object, of the title of Cardinal of Anjou were without success, he failed when he attempted, in 1551, to dissuade Henry II from uniting the Duchy of Lorraine to France.
He succeeded, however, in creating for his family interests certain political alliances that seemed in conflict with each other. He coquetted for instance on the one hand with the Lutheran princes of Germany, on the other his interview with the Cardinal de Granvelle initiated friendly relations between the Guises and the royal house of Spain, thus the man who, as the Archbishop of Reims, crowned successively Henry II, Francis II and Charles IX had a personal policy, at variance with that of the court. This policy rendered him at times an enigma to his contemporaries; the chronicler Pierre de L'Estoile accused him of great duplicity. He is often held to be responsible for the outbreak of the Huguenot wars, seems now and to have attempted to establish the Inquisition in France. Many libelous pamphlets aroused against him strong political passions. From 1560 at least twenty-two fell into his hands. One of them, "La Guerre Cardinale", accuses him of seeking to restore to the Holy Roman Empire the three former prince-bishoprics of Metz and Verdun, in Lorraine, conquered by Henry II.
A discourse attributed to Théodore de Bèze denounced the pluralism of the cardinal in the matter of benefices. Under Charles IX, the Cardinal of Guise alternated between disgrace and favour. In 1562, he attended the Council of Trent. Louis de Saint-Gélais, Sieur de Lansac, Arnaud du Ferrier, president of the Parlement of Paris, Guy de Faur de Pibrac, royal counsellor, who represented Charles IX at the Council from 26 May 1562, towards the end of the year were joined by the Cardinal Lorraine, he was instructed to arrive at an understanding with the Germans, who proposed to reform the church in head and members and to authorize at once Communion under Both Kinds, prayers in the vernacular and the marriage of the clergy. In the reform articles which he presented, he was silent on the last point, but petitioned for the other two. Pius IV was indignant, the cardinal denounced Rome as the source of all abuses. In the questions of precedence which arose between him and the Spanish ambassador, Count de Luna, Pius IV decided for the latter.
However, in September 1563, on a visit to Rome, the cardinal, intent on securing the pope's assistance for the political ambitions of the Guises, professed opinions less decided Gallican. Moreover, when he learned that the French ambassadors, who had left the council, were dissatisfied because the legates had obtained from the council approval of a project for the "reformation of the princes", which the latter deemed contrary to the liberties of the Gallican church, he endeavoured, though without success, to bring about the return of the ambassadors, prevailed on the legates to withdraw the objectionable articles and strove to secure the immediate publication in France of the decrees of the council; when in 1566 François de Montmorency, royal governor of Paris and his personal enemy, attempted to prevent the cardinal from entering the capital with an armed escort, the ensuing conflict and the precipitate flight of the cardinal gave rise to an outcry of derision which obliged him to retire to his diocese for two years.
In 1570 he aroused the anger of Charles IX by inducing Duke Henri, the eldest of his nephews, to solicit the hand of Margaret of Valois, the king's sister, in 1574 he vexed the king still more when, through spite, he prevented the marriage of this princess with the king of Portugal. His share in the negotiations for the marriage between Charles IX and Elizabeth of Austria, for that of Margaret of Valois with the prince of Navarre, seems to have won him some favor only for Catherine de' Medici knew only too well what a constant menace the personal policy of the Guises constituted for that of the king. Shortly after the death of Charles IX, the cardinal appeared before his successor, Henry III, but died soon afterwards, at Avignon. Carroll, Stuart. Martyrs and Murderers: The Guise Family and the Making of Europe. Oxford University Press. Konnert, Mark W.. Local Politics in the French Wars of Religion: The T
Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France. Its inhabitants are called Vandopériens. With 30,569 inhabitants, Vandœuvre is the second-largest commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department, after the capital Nancy, of which it is a suburb; these two cities belong to the same municipal area: Grand Nancy. The municipal market of Vandœuvre hosts 120–150 merchants and 6000–8000 visitors on Sunday mornings. Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy is twinned with Grottaferrata, Italy Lemgo, Germany Gedling, England Ponte de Lima, Portugal Poa, Burkina Faso École Nationale Supérieure d'Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires École Supérieure des Sciences et Technologies de l'Ingénieur de Nancy INIST Communes of the Meurthe-et-Moselle department Official website
Nancy-Université federated the three principal institutes of higher education of Nancy, in Lorraine, France before their merger into the University of Lorraine: Henri Poincaré University: natural sciences, wrapping several faculties and engineering schools École Supérieure des Sciences et Technologies de l'Ingénieur de Nancy: general engineering École Supérieure d'Informatique et Applications de Lorraine: Computer Science engineering Nancy 2 University: social sciences Institut national polytechnique de Lorraine: engineering schools, notably: ENSEM: electrical and mechanical engineering Mines de Nancy: general engineering ENSIC: chemistry ENSAIA: agricultural engineeringWith over 50 000 students, Nancy has the fifth largest student population in France. Nancy-Université has several academic libraries; the academic library of Nancy 2 University, opened by French president Albert Lebrun, contains around 500 000 documents, among which at least 250 000 are books, in 35 locations. The original University of Nancy was founded in 1572 in the nearby city of Pont-à-Mousson by Charles III, duke of Lorraine, Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, transferred to Nancy in 1768.
It was closed by the revolutionaries in 1793, reopened in 1864. François Gény, French professor and jurist who introduced notion of "free scientific research" in positive law. List of early modern universities in Europe List of public universities in France by academy Nancy-Université official website University of Nancy 1 University of Nancy 2 INPL