Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Serranus Clinton Hastings
Serranus Clinton Hastings was a 19th-century politician, rancher and a prominent lawyer in the United States. He moved to the Iowa District in 1837 to open a law office. Iowa became a territory a year and he was elected a member of the House of Representatives of the Iowa Territorial General Assembly; when the territory became the state of Iowa in 1846, he won an election to represent the state in the United States House of Representatives. After his term ended, he became Chief Justice of the Iowa Supreme Court, he moved to California. He was appointed to the California Supreme Court as Chief Justice a few months later, he won an election to be Attorney General of California, assumed office shortly after his term as Chief Justice ended. He began practicing law again as Attorney General, he earned a small fortune with his law practice and used that fortune to finance his successful real estate venture. In 1878, he founded the Hastings College of the Law with a donation of US$100,000. Hastings was born in Watertown, Jefferson County, New York, on November 22, 1814 to Robert Collins Hastings and Patience Brayton.
Robert Collins Hastings was a good friend and supporter of DeWitt Clinton, whom Serranus gets his middle name from. When Robert died in 1824, the family moved to New York, he completed a six-year course at Gouverneur Academy, in 1834, he became taught and became the principal at Norwich Academy, located in Chenango County, New York. He introduced the Hamiltonian system of instruction and the Angletean system of mathematics to the academy. In 1835, he resigned from his position at the academy to study law. Hastings began to study law with Esq. of Norwich. After a few months of study, he decided to move to Indiana, he completed his legal studies there with Esq.. He did not enter the practice of law and instead became an editor of the Indiana Signal, where he supported Martin Van Buren in his presidential campaign, he moved to Terre Haute, Indiana, in December 1836 and underwent a legal examination by Judge Porters of the Circuit Court. In January 1837, Hastings moved to the Iowa District, part of the Wisconsin Territory.
He settled in Burlington for a short time and moved to Bloomington, which would become Muscatine, Iowa. He was examined by Judge Irwin, was admitted to the bar, opened a law office. Shortly after this, he was commissioned Justice of the Peace by Wisconsin Territorial Governor Henry Dodge, he had jurisdiction over the 90 miles between Burlington and Davenport, the western boundary was undefined. He only had one case to deal with: a man accused of stealing US$30 from a citizen and $3 from the court, he found the man guilty and sentenced him to be tied to an oak tree, receive 33 lashes across his back, be transported across the Mississippi River to Illinois, be banished from the territory forever. When Iowa Territory was organized in 1838, he won an election to represent Muscatine County, Louisa County, Slaughter County in the House of Representatives of the Iowa Territorial General Assembly, he served from November 12, 1838, to January 25, 1839. He was reelected to that position in 1839, this time representing Muscatine County and Johnson County from November 4, 1839, to January 14, 1840.
In 1840, a border conflict with Missouri called. He helped capture a sheriff. No battle took place, the two states compromised on the border issue. Hastings married Azalea Brodt on June 10, 1840, in Iowa, they had two children while living in Muscatine and Clara L. He was elected to the Legislative Council that year, representing Muscatine County and Johnson County again, served from November 3, 1840 to January 15, 1841, he was re-elected the following year, served from December 6, 1841 to February 18, 1842. He was not elected to the Sixth General Assemblies, he was elected President of the Legislative Council for the Seventh General Assembly, represented Muscatine County and Johnson County on the council. He served from May 5, 1845 to June 11, 1845, he was elected to the council for the Eight General Assembly, the final one since Iowa was to become a state on December 28, 1846. He represented the same counties he had and served from December 1, 1845 to January 19, 1846. During his time on the Legislative Council he helped compile the "Blue Book" of Iowa laws.
It became known as the "Old Blue Book" and was the first legal code for the Iowa, Nebraska and Montana Territories. In 1846, Hastings was nominated to represent Iowa at large in the United States House of Representatives as a Democrat. On December 29, 1846, he was elected over the Whig candidate G. C. R. Mitchell, he was the second youngest member serving in Congress at that time. He served during the second session of the 29th United States Congress, which ended on March 3, 1847. Close to a year after his term ended as a member of the House of Representatives, Governor Ansel Briggs appointed him as the third Chief Justice of the Iowa Supreme Court, he started his term on January 26, 1848, resigned on January 14, 1849 to move to California, his family deciding to stay in Iowa. Hastings settled in California. In September 1849, he served as Prosecuting Attorney for the newly established court in Alameda County. A few months California legislature selected him to be the first Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court.
He started his term on December 20, 1849, but the court did not assemble until March 4, 1850. In 1851, his family moved from Iowa to live with him in California. During his term as Chief Justice he
West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana
West Feliciana Parish is a parish located in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,625; the parish seat is St. Francisville; the parish was established in 1824. In 1824 Feliciana Parish was divided into East and West, in recognition of the increases in population throughout the parish. West Feliciana Parish is part of the Baton Rouge, Metropolitan Statistical Area; the River Bend Nuclear Generating Station, operated by Entergy Nuclear, is located in West Feliciana Parish below St. Francisville, it produces 10 percent of the total electric power demand in Louisiana. The Louisiana State Penitentiary is located in the parish, in Angola, it occupies 18,000 acres at a site in a river bend, surrounded on three sides by water. Following the founding of the Bayou Sara settlement by French Franciscan/Capuchin monks in the late 17th century, the area was explored further by France and Great Britain; the original settlement was flooded and lost to the waters of the Mississippi River.
After 1763, when France was defeated by Britain in the Seven Years' War, it ceded its territories of La Louisiane east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain, which included it in its West Florida province. Spain gained control of the area in about 1780 – during the American Revolutionary War – and maintained its authority in the area for the next three decades. In 1810, the colonists, many of whom were of British descent, rebelled against the Spanish colonial regime and established the short-lived independent Republic of West Florida. Within a few months, the United States declared the area to be part of the territory included in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.. Feliciana Parish was established in 1810, in the Territory of Orleans, admitted to the Union two years as the state of Louisiana. With continued growth of population, in 1824 Feliciana Parish was divided into the East Feliciana and West Feliciana parishes. During the American Civil War, West Feliciana Parish provided financial assistance to the families of soldiers fighting for the Confederate States of America.
Wives and children of soldiers were to receive depending on family size. Since before the Civil War, white conservative voters in West Feliciana supported the Democratic Party. After Louisiana disenfranchised most black voters under provisions of its 1898 constitution, the state joined others in the South as being a one-party state; the white-dominated legislature passed stringent Jim Crow and segregation legislation. But after passage of Federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s, including protection of constitutional voting rights, many white conservatives in the South began to shift to the Republican Party, at least in terms of supporting Presidential candidates. In 1972, the year of Richard Nixon's re-election as President, after widespread anti-war protests and other cultural changes, West Feliciana was the only Louisiana parish to support the Democratic ticket of George McGovern and Sargent Shriver. During the same period, most African Americans in the South began to support the national Democratic Party, which had helped their drive for civil rights.
Since 2000, white voters in the parish have supported the Republican Party candidates in Presidential elections. That year Bush-Cheney polled 2,512 votes, compared to 2,187 for Democrats Al Joe Lieberman. West Feliciana voters helped to re-elect George W. Bush and Dick Cheney in 2004, with 2,932 to 2,214 over Democratic candidates John Kerry and John Edwards. Republicans John McCain and Sarah Palin won the parish in 2008, but they lost the Presidential/Vice-Presidential contest to Democrats Barack Obama and Joe Biden. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 426 square miles, of which 403 square miles is land and 23 square miles is water; the parish is located on the Mississippi River, is bordered by Pointe Coupee Parish to the west and East Feliciana Parish to the east. The parish is about 60 miles south of Natchez, Mississippi; the area—including references to the loess soil and Louisiana State Penitentiary—was used by author Walker Percy as the setting for his last novel, The Thanatos Syndrome.
U. S. Highway 61 Louisiana Highway 10 Louisiana Highway 66 Wilkinson County, Mississippi East Feliciana Parish East Baton Rouge Parish West Baton Rouge Parish Pointe Coupee Parish Avoyelles Parish Concordia Parish Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 15,625 people residing in the parish. 52.0% were White, 46.5% Black of African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Native American, 0.6% of some other race and 0.6% of two or more races. 1.6% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 15,111 people, 3,645 households, 2,704 families residing in the parish; the population density was 37 people per square mile. There were 4,485 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the parish was 50.51% Black or African American, 48.63% White, 0.20% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.03% from other races, 0.44% from two or more races. 1.04% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,645 households out of which 38.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.10% were married couples living together, 15.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.80% were non-families.
23.10% of all households were
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is a bicameral legislature consisting of a lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members. Both houses of the Legislature convene at the California State Capitol in Sacramento; the California State Legislature is one of just ten full-time state legislatures in the United States. The Democratic Party holds supermajorities in both houses of the California State Legislature; the Assembly consists of 61 Democrats and 19 Republicans, while the Senate is composed of 28 Democrats and 10 Republicans, with two vacancies. Except for a brief period from 1995 to 1996, the Assembly has been in Democratic hands since the 1970 election; the Senate, has been under continuous Democratic control since 1970. New legislators convene each new two-year session, to organize, in the Assembly and Senate Chambers at noon on the first Monday in December following the election. After the organizational meeting, both houses are in recess until the first Monday in January, except when the first Monday is January 1 or January 1 is a Sunday, in which case they meet the following Wednesday.
Aside from the recess, the legislature is in session year-round. Since California was given official statehood by the U. S. in September 9, 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850, the state capital was variously San Jose and Benicia, until Sacramento was selected in 1854. The first Californian State House was a hotel in San Jose owned by businessman Pierre "Don Pedro" Sainsevain and his associates; the State Legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. Members of the Assembly serve two-year terms. All 80 Assembly seats are subject to election every two years. Members of the Senate serve four-year terms; every two years, one half of the Senate is subject to election, with odd-numbered districts up for election during presidential elections, even-numbered districts up for election during midterm elections. Term limits were established in 1990 following the passage of Proposition 140. In June 2012, voters approved Proposition 28, which limits legislators to a maximum of 12 years, without regard to whether they serve those years in the State Assembly or the State Senate.
Legislators first elected on or before June 5, 2012 are restricted by the previous term limits, approved in 1990, which limited legislators to three terms in the State Assembly and two terms in the State Senate. The proceedings of the California State Legislature are summarized in published journals, which show votes and who proposed or withdrew what. Reports produced by California executive agencies, as well as the Legislature, were published in the Appendices to the Journals from 1849 to 1970. Since the 1990s, the legislature has provided a live video feed for its sessions, has been broadcast statewide on the California Channel and local Public-access television cable TV. Due to the expense and the obvious political downside, California did not keep verbatim records of actual speeches made by members of the Assembly and Senate until the video feed began; as a result, reconstructing legislative intent outside of an act's preamble is difficult in California for legislation passed before the 1990s.
Since 1993, the Legislature has hosted a web/ftp site in another. The current Website contains the text of all statutes, all bills, the text of all versions of the bills, all the committee analyses of bills, all the votes on bills in committee or on the floor, veto messages from the Governor. Before committees published reports for significant bills, but most bills were not important enough to justify the expense of printing and distributing a report to archives and law libraries across the state. For bills lacking such a formal committee report, the only way to discover legislative intent is to access the state archives in Sacramento and manually review the files of relevant legislators, legislative committees, the Governor's Office from the relevant time period, in the hope of finding a statement of intent and evidence that the statement reflected the views of several of the legislators who voted for the bill; the most sought-after legislative committee appointments are to banking and insurance.
These are sometimes called "juice" committees, because membership in these committees aids the campaign fundraising efforts of the committee members, because powerful lobbying groups want to donate to members of these committees. A bill is a proposal to repeal, or add to existing state law. An Assembly Bill is one introduced in the Assembly. Bills are designated in the order of introduction in each house. For example, AB 16 refers to the 16th bill introduced in the Assembly; the numbering starts afresh each session. There may be one or more "extraordinary" sessions; the bill numbering starts again for each of these. For example, the third bill introduced in the Assembly for the second extraordinary session is ABX2 3; the name of the author, the legislator who introduced the bill, becomes part of the title of the bill. The legislative procedure, is divided into distinct stages: Drafting; the procedure begins when a Assembly Member decides to author a bill. A legislator sends the idea for the bill to the California Office of the Legislative Counsel, which drafts it into bill form and returns the draft to the legislator for introduction.
Introduction or First Reading. A legislator introduces a bill for the first time by reading or having read: the bill number, name of
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Sonora is the county seat of Tuolumne County, California. The city population was 4,804 during the 2010 Census, an increase of 100 from the 4,804 counted during the 2000 Census. Sonora is the only incorporated community in Tuolumne County. Sonora is located at 37°59′04″N 120°22′54″W, around the intersection of California State Highways 49 and 108 The altitude is 1,825 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.1 square miles, 99.55% of it land and 0.45% of it water. Sonora has cool, wet winters and hot dry summers. Average January temperatures are a maximum of 54.5 °F and a minimum of 33.5 °F. Average July temperatures are a maximum of 101.6 °F and a minimum of 58.8 °F. There are an average of 95.5 days annually with highs of 90 °F or higher and an average of 52.2 days annually with lows of 32 °F or lower. The record high temperature was 113 °F on June 22, 1961, July 15, 1972; the record low temperature was 8 °F on December 9, 1972. Average annual rainfall is 32.07 inches all from November through April, although there are occasionally afternoon and evening thunderstorms in the summer months, which drift down from the Sierra Nevada.
There are an average of 60 days annually with measurable precipitation. The wettest “rain year” has been from July 1994 to June 1995 with 56.40 inches and the driest from July 1975 to June 1976 with 15.26 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 21.69 inches in December 1955, including 7.10 inches on December 27, the record 24-hour rainfall. Average annual snowfall is only 4.7 inches. The most snowfall in one month was 30.5 inches in January 1933. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Csa; the 2010 United States Census reported that Sonora had a population of 4,903. The population density was 1,593.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Sonora was 4,402 White, 24 African American, 95 Native American, 79 Asian, 12 Pacific Islander, 84 from other races, 207 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 542 persons; the census reported that 4,613 people lived in households, 85 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 205 were institutionalized. There were 2,199 households, out of which 562 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 689 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 308 had a female householder with no husband present, 116 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 192 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 12 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 881 households were made up of individuals and 312 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10. There were 1,113 families; the population was spread out with 975 people under the age of 18, 526 people aged 18 to 24, 1,266 people aged 25 to 44, 1,324 people aged 45 to 64, 812 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males. There were 2,463 housing units at an average density of 800.2 per square mile, of which 898 were owner-occupied, 1,301 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4.6%. 1,960 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,653 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there are 4,423 people, 2,051 households, 1,046 families residing in the city; the population density is 1,456.2 people per square mile.
There are 2,197 housing units at an average density of 723.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city is 91.4% White, 0.7% African American, 1.5% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.0% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race comprise 8.4% of the population. There are 2,051 households out of which 24.0% have children under the age of 18, 33.2% are married couples living together, 14.0% have a female householder with no husband present, 49.0% are non-families. 40.3% of all households are made up of individuals and 15% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.06 and the average family size is 2.75. In the city, the population is spread out with 20.4% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 20.4% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 41 years. For every 100 females, there are 82.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 77.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $28,858, the median income for a family is $39,722. Males have a median income of $40,958 versus $26,111 for females; the per capita income for the city is $19,248. 16.9% of the population and 10.9% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 22.8% of those under the age of 18 and 7.2% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. The area economy was based on the mining and timber industries, but now relies on tourism. One of two active lumber mills in Tuolumne County was shut down in 2009, but reopened in July 2011; as the closest city to Yosemite National Park, Sonora provides services to some of Yosemite's visitors. The city benefits from its proximity to Railtown 1897 State Historic Park. T