John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu
John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu was a major magnate of fifteenth-century England. He was a younger son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, the younger brother of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, the'Kingmaker'. From an early age he was involved in fighting for his House in the feud that sprang up in the 1450s with the Neville family's major regional rivals, the Percy family. John Neville was responsible for much of the violence until, with his brothers, they defeated and imprisoned their enemies; this was taking place against the backdrop of a crisis in central government. The king, Henry VI known to be a weak ruler, suffered a mental collapse which led to a protectorate headed by John's uncle, Duke of York. Within two years an armed conflict had broken out, with York in rebellion against the king, his Neville cousins supporting him. John fought with his father and Warwick against the king at the first Battle of St Albans, at which they had the victory. Following a few years of uneasy peace, the Yorkists' rebellion erupted once again, John Neville fought alongside with his father and elder brother Thomas at the Battle of Blore Heath in September 1459.
Although the Earl of Salisbury fought off the Lancastrians, both his sons were captured, John, with Thomas, spent the next year imprisoned. Following his release in 1460, he took part in the Yorkist government, his father and brother died in battle just after Christmas 1460, in February the next year, John – now promoted to the peerage as Lord Montagu – and Warwick fought the Lancastrians again at St Albans. John was once again captured and not released until his cousin Edward, York's son, won a decisive victory at Towton in March 1461, became King Edward IV. John Neville soon emerged, with Warwick, as representatives of the king's power in the north, still politically turbulent, as there were still a large number of Lancastrians on the loose attempting to raise rebellion against the new regime; as his brother Warwick became more involved in national politics and central government, it devolved to John to defeat the last remnants of Lancastrians in 1464. Following these victories, Montagu, in what has been described as a high point for his House, was created Earl of Northumberland.
At around the same time, his brother Warwick became dissatisfied with his relationship with the king, began instigating rebellions against Edward IV in the north capturing him in July 1469. At first, Montagu helped suppress this discontent, encouraged Warwick to release Edward. However, his brother went into French exile with the king's brother George, Duke of Clarence, in March 1470. During Warwick's exile, King Edward stripped Montagu of the Earldom of Northumberland, making him Marquis of Montagu instead. John Neville appears to have seen this as a reduction in rank, accepted it with poor grace, he seems to have complained about the lack of landed estate that his new marquisate brought with it, calling it a'pie's nest'. When the Earl of Warwick and Clarence returned, they distracted Edward with a rebellion in the north, which the king ordered Montagu to raise troops to repress in the king's name. Montagu, having raised a small army, turned against Edward capturing him at Olney, Buckinghamshire.
While in exile, Warwick had allied with the old king, Henry VI and his Queen, Margaret of Anjou, Henry was restored to the throne, Warwick now ruled the kingdom, This return to Lancastrianism did not, last long. Landing only a few miles from Montagu in Yorkshire – who did nothing to stop them – the Yorkists marched south, raising an army. Montagu followed them, meeting up with his brother at Coventry, they confronted Edward over a battlefield at Barnet. John Neville was cut down in the fighting, Warwick died soon after, within a month Edward had reclaimed his throne and Henry VI and his line was extinguished. Montagu was the third son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury, a younger brother of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, "the Kingmaker."John Neville's upbringing and career was entwined with that of the north of England and the marcher areas, the eastern and western borders between Scotland and England, controlled from Berwick and Carlisle respectively.
His Early activity there consisted of diplomatic meetings with the Scots, at which he acted as a witness, between 1449 and 1451. He was one of three men who were instructed, in a letter of 3 February 1449, to not attend the forthcoming parliament and remain in the north guarding the border, he was knighted by King Henry VI at Greenwich on 5 January 1453, alongside Edmund and Jasper Tudor, his brother Thomas Neville, William Herbert, Roger Lewknor, William Catesby. Sir John Neville was from the branch of the Neville family based at Middleham Castle in Yorkshire, rather than that of Westmorland, it has been claimed that he, as a'landless younger son' was to blame for his family's long-running feud with the Lancastrian Percy family of Northumberland. The first outburst of violence that took place was a result of the 1 May 1453 royal licence for John Neville's brother, Thomas Neville to marry Maud Stanhope being issued. News of this must have reached the north within the fortnight, for by the twelfth, one of the Earl of Northumberland's younger sons, Thomas Percy, Lord Egremont, began recruiting men.
In August 1453, John Neville raided the Percy castle of Topcliffe with the intention of seizing Egremont. Failing to find h
Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent
Alice Holland, Countess of Kent, LG Lady Alice Fitzalan, was an English noblewoman, a daughter of the 10th Earl of Arundel, the wife of the 2nd Earl of Kent, the half-brother of King Richard II. As the maternal grandmother of Anne de Mortimer, she was an ancestor of King Edward IV and King Richard III, as well as King Henry VII and the Tudor dynasty through her daughter Margaret Holland, she was the maternal grandmother of Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots. She was appointed a Lady of the Garter in 1388. Lady Alice Fitzalan was born circa 1350 at Arundel Castle in Sussex, the second daughter of the 10th Earl of Arundel, Lady Eleanor of Lancaster, she had six siblings who included Richard Fitzalan 11th Earl of Arundel, Lady Joan Fitzalan Countess of Hereford and Northampton. She had three half-siblings from her parents' previous marriages, her paternal grandparents were the 9th Earl of Arundel and Alice de Warenne, her maternal grandparents were the 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth. In 1354, at the age of four, Lady Alice was betrothed to her father's ward Edmund Mortimer who would in 1360 become the 3rd Earl of March.
The marriage however did not take place. Alice married instead on 10 April 1364, 2nd Earl of Kent, one of the half-brothers of the future King Richard II by his mother Joan of Kent's first marriage to Thomas Lord Holland, she received from her father a marriage portion of 4000 marks. Upon her marriage, she was styled Lady Holland, she did not, become Countess of Kent until 1381, when her husband succeeded his father as Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent. Lord Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine in 1366, in 1375, he was made a Knight of the Garter. Two years in 1377, his half-brother Richard succeeded to the throne of England, as King Richard II. Alice's husband would become one of the young King's chief counsellors and exert a strong influence over his brother which led to the enrichment of Thomas and Alice. Alice was appointed a Lady of the Garter, an order of chivalry, in 1388. Together Thomas and Alice had ten children: Alianore Holland, married firstly Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, by whom she had issue, including Anne Mortimer and Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March.
Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey, married Joan Stafford. John Holland Richard Holland Elizabeth Holland, married Sir John Neville, Lord Neville by whom she had issue. Joan Holland, married firstly as his second wife, Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York. All her marriages were childless. Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent, married Lucia Visconti, he fathered an illegitimate daughter Eleanor de Holland, by his mistress Constance of York. Margaret Holland, married firstly John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, by whom she had issue including John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset and Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland. Eleanor Holland, married Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury, by whom she had one daughter, Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury. Bridget Holland, a nun at Barking Abbey. Alice's husband died on 25 April 1397. In 1399, King Richard was deposed, the throne was usurped by Henry IV, the son-in-law of her elder sister, Joan. In January 1400, Alice's eldest son Thomas, who had succeeded his father as the 3rd Earl of Kent, was captured at Cirencester and beheaded without a trial by a mob of angry citizens as a consequence of having been one of the chief conspirators in the Epiphany Rising.
The rebels had hoped to seize and murder King Henry, restore King Richard to the throne. Less than three years earlier, her brother Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel and a Lord Appellant had been executed for his opposition to King Richard. Alice herself died on 17 March 1416 at the age of sixty-six years. Alice had many illustrious descendants which included English kings Edward IV, Richard III, Henry VII. Alice was an ancestress of Scottish king James II of Scotland and his successors which included Mary, Queen of Scots and James I of England, her other notable descendants include the last queen consort of Catherine Parr. Living descendants of Alice Fitzalan include the current British Royal Family. Inquisition Post Mortem #608-631
Margaret of Anjou
Margaret of Anjou was the Queen of England by marriage to King Henry VI from 1445 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. Born in the Duchy of Lorraine into the House of Valois-Anjou, Margaret was the second eldest daughter of René, King of Naples, Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine, she was one of the principal figures in the series of dynastic civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses and at times led the Lancastrian faction. Owing to her husband's frequent bouts of insanity, Margaret ruled the kingdom in his place, it was she who called for a Great Council in May 1455 that excluded the Yorkist faction headed by Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, this provided the spark that ignited a civil conflict that lasted for more than 30 years, decimated the old nobility of England, caused the deaths of thousands of men, including her only son Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, at the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471. Margaret was taken prisoner by the victorious Yorkists after the Lancastrian defeat at Tewkesbury.
In 1475, she was ransomed by King Louis XI of France. She went to live in France as a poor relation of the French king, she died there at the age of 52. Margaret was born on 23 March 1430 at Pont-à-Mousson in Lorraine, a fief of the Holy Roman Empire east of France ruled by a cadet branch of the French kings, the House of Valois-Anjou. Margaret was King of Naples and of Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine, she had five brothers and four sisters, as well as three half-siblings from her father's relationships with mistresses. Her father, popularly known as "Good King René", was duke of Anjou and titular king of Naples and Jerusalem. Margaret was baptised at Toul in Lorraine and, in the care of her father's old nurse Theophanie la Magine, she spent her early years at the castle at Tarascon on the River Rhône in Provence and in the old royal palace at Capua, near Naples in the Kingdom of Sicily, her mother took care of her education and may have arranged for her to have lessons with the scholar Antoine de la Sale, who taught her brothers.
In childhood Margaret was known as la petite créature. On 23 April 1445, Margaret married King Henry VI of England, eight years her senior, at Titchfield Abbey in Hampshire; the king and queen of France were the uncle and aunt of the groom and the bride respectively: Henry's late mother, had been the sister of King Charles VII, whose wife Marie of Anjou was a sister of Margaret's father René. Further, Henry claimed for himself the Kingdom of France, controlled various parts of northern France. Due to all this, the French king agreed to the marriage of Margaret to his rival on the condition that he would not have to provide the customary dowry and instead would receive the lands of Maine and Anjou from the English; the English government, fearing a negative reaction, kept this provision secret from the English public. Margaret was crowned Queen Consort of England on 30 May 1445 at Westminster Abbey by John Stafford, Archbishop of Canterbury at the age of fifteen, she was described as beautiful, furthermore "already a woman: passionate and proud and strong-willed".
Those that anticipated the future return of English claims to French territory believed that she understood her duty to protect the interests of the Crown fervently. She seems to have inherited this indomitability from her mother, who fought to establish her husband's claim to the Kingdom of Naples, from her paternal grandmother Yolande of Aragon, who governed Anjou "with a man's hand", putting the province in order and keeping out the English, thus by family example and her own forceful personality, she was capable of becoming the "champion of the Crown". Henry, more interested in religion and learning than in military matters, was not a successful king, he had reigned since he was only a few months old and his actions had been controlled by protectors, magnates who were regents. When he married Margaret, his mental condition was unstable and by the time of the birth of their only son, Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, he had suffered a complete breakdown. Rumours were rife that he was incapable of begetting a child and that the new Prince of Wales was the result of an adulterous liaison.
Many have speculated that either Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, or James Butler, 5th Earl of Ormond, both staunch allies of Margaret, was the young prince's actual father. Although Margaret was aggressively partisan and had a volatile temperament, she shared her husband's love of learning by dint of her cultured upbringing and gave her patronage to the founding of Queens' College, Cambridge. Elizabeth Woodville Queen of England as future wife of her husband's rival, King Edward IV, purportedly served Margaret of Anjou as a maid of honour. However, the evidence is too scanty to permit historians to establish this with absolute certainty: several women at Margaret's court bore the name Elizabeth or Isabella Grey. After retiring from London to live in lavish state at Greenwich, Margaret was occupied with the care of her young son and did not display any signs of political will until she believed her husband was threatened with deposition by the ambitious Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, who, to her consternation, had been appointed Lord Protector while Henry was mentally incapacitated from 1453 to 1454.
The duke was a credible claimant to the English throne and by the end of his protectorship there were many powerful nobles and relatives prepared to back his claim. The Duke of York was powerful.
Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick
Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, KG was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War. In 1348 he became the third Knight of the Order of the Garter. Thomas de Beauchamp was born at Warwick Castle, England to Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick and Alice de Toeni, he served in Scotland during the 1330s, being captain of the army against the Scots in 1337. He was hereditary High Sheriff of Worcestershire from 1333 until his death. In 1344 he was made High Sheriff of Warwickshire and Leicestershire for life. Warwick was Marshall of England from 1343/4 until 1369, was one of the commanders at the great English victories at Crécy and Poitiers. Thomas de Beauchamp fought in all the French wars of King Edward III, he was trusted to be guardian of the sixteen-year-old Black Prince. Beauchamp fought at Poitiers at the Siege of Calais, he began the rebuilding of the Collegiate Church of Saint Mary in Warwick using money received from the ransom of a French Archbishop.
He was entombed in the Beauchamp Chapel. The chapel contains the finest example of the use of brisures for cadency in medieval heraldry—seven different Beauchamp coats of arms, he married daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. They had five sons and ten daughters: Guy de Beauchamp, his daughters were, by entail, excluded from their grandfather's inheritance. Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, married Margaret Ferrers, daughter of William Ferrers, 3rd Lord of Groby, Margaret de Ufford, by whom he had issue, including Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick. Reinbrun de Beauchamp William de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny. On 23 July 1392, married Lady Joan FitzAlan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel and Lady Elizabeth de Bohun, by whom he had a son, Richard de Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, a daughter, Joan de Beauchamp, Countess of Ormond. Queen consort Anne Boleyn was a notable descendant of the latter. Roger de Beauchamp Maud de Beauchamp. Philippa de Beauchamp.
Alice Beauchamp. She died childless. Joan de Beauchamp, she died childless. Isabella de Beauchamp. Upon the latter's death, she became a nun, she died childless. Margaret de Beauchamp, she died childless. Elizabeth de Beauchamp. Anne de Beauchamp. Juliana de Beauchamp Katherine de Beauchamp. Catherine Grandison, Countess of Salisbury was not his daughter, although she is presented as such in William Painter's Palace of Pleasure and in the Elizabethan play Edward III, which may be by William Shakespeare. Beauchamp's wife Katherine died on 4 August 1369. Beauchamp died three months on 13 November 1369, of the Black Death and was buried alongside his wife at St. Mary's Church, Warwickshire. Tuck, Anthony. "Beauchamp, Thomas de, eleventh earl of Warwick". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Peerage.com on Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick rootsweb.com
Bamburgh Castle is a castle on the northeast coast of England, by the village of Bamburgh in Northumberland. It is a Grade I listed building; the site was the location of a Celtic Brittonic fort known as Din Guarie and may have been the capital of the kingdom of Bernicia from its foundation in c. 420 to 547. After passing between the Britons and the Anglo-Saxons three times, the fort came under Anglo-Saxon control in 590; the fort was destroyed by Vikings in 993, the Normans built a new castle on the site, which forms the core of the present one. After a revolt in 1095 supported by the castle's owner, it became the property of the English monarch. In the 17th century, financial difficulties led to the castle deteriorating, but it was restored by various owners during the 18th and 19th centuries, it was bought by the Victorian era industrialist William Armstrong, who completed its restoration. The castle still is open to the public. Built on a dolerite outcrop, the location was home to a fort of the indigenous Celtic Britons known as Din Guarie and may have been the capital of the kingdom of Bernicia, the realm of the Gododdin people, from the realm's foundation in c. 420 until 547, the year of the first written reference to the castle.
In that year the citadel was captured by the Anglo-Saxon ruler Ida of Bernicia and became Ida's seat. The castle was retaken by the Britons from his son Hussa during the war of 590 before being relieved the same year. In c. 600, Hussa's successor Æthelfrith passed it on to his wife Bebba, from whom the early name Bebbanburh was derived. The Vikings destroyed the original fortification in 993; the Normans built a new castle on the site. William II unsuccessfully besieged it in 1095 during a revolt supported by its owner, Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumbria. After Robert was captured, his wife continued the defence until coerced to surrender by the king's threat to blind her husband. Bamburgh became the property of the reigning English monarch. Henry II built the keep as it was complete by 1164. Following the Siege of Acre in 1191, as a reward for his service, King Richard I appointed Sir John Forster the first Governor of Bamburgh Castle. Following the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346, King David II was held prisoner at Bamburgh Castle.
During the civil wars at the end of King John's reign, the castle was under the control of Philip of Oldcoates. In 1464 during the Wars of the Roses, it became the first castle in England to be defeated by artillery, at the end of a nine-month siege by Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the "Kingmaker", on behalf of the Yorkists; the Forster family of Northumberland continued to provide the Crown with successive governors of the castle until the Crown granted ownership of the castle to another Sir John Forster in around 1600. The family retained ownership until Sir William Forster was posthumously declared bankrupt, his estates, including the castle, were sold to Lord Crew, Bishop of Durham under an Act of Parliament to settle the debts in 1704. Crewe placed the castle in the hands of a board of trustees chaired by Thomas Sharp, the Archdeacon of Northumberland. Following the death of Thomas Sharp, leadership of the board of trustees passed to John Sharp who refurbished the castle keep and court rooms and established a hospital on the site.
In 1894, the castle was bought by the Victorian industrialist William Armstrong, who completed the restoration. During the Second World War, pillboxes were established in the sand dunes to protect the castle and surrounding area from German invasion and, in 1944, a Royal Navy corvette was named HMS Bamborough Castle after the castle; the castle still remains in the ownership of the Armstrong family. About 9 miles to the south on a point of coastal land is the ancient fortress of Dunstanburgh Castle and about 5 miles to the north is Lindisfarne Castle on Holy Island. Inland about 16 miles to the south is Alnwick Castle, the home of the Duke of Northumberland. Air quality levels at Bamburgh Castle are excellent due to the absence of industrial sources in the region. Sound levels near the north-south road passing by Bamburgh Castle are in the range of 59 to 63 dBA in the daytime. Nearby are breeding colonies of Arctic and common terns on the inner Farne Islands, of Atlantic puffin and razorbill on Staple Island.
Archaeological excavations were started in the 1960s by Brian Hope-Taylor, who discovered the gold plaque known as the Bamburgh Beast as well as the Bamburgh Sword. Since 1996, the Bamburgh Research Project has been investigating the archaeology and history of the Castle and Bamburgh area; the project has concentrated on the fortress site and the early medieval burial ground at the Bowl Hole, to the south of the castle. The castle's laundry rooms feature the Armstrong and Aviation Artefacts Museum, with exhibits about Victorian industrialist William Armstrong and Armstrong Whitworth, the manufacturing company he founded. Displays include engines and weaponry, aviation artefacts from two world wars; the castle features in the ballad The Laidly Worm of Spindleston Heugh written in circa 1270. Late medieval British author Thomas Malory identified Bamburgh Castle with Joyous Gard, the mythical castle home of Sir Launcelot in Arthurian legend. In literature, under its Saxon name Bebbanburg, is the home of Uhtred, the main character in Bernard Cornwell's The Saxon Stories.
It features either as a significant location or as the inspiration for the protagonist in all books in the series, starting with The Last K
Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York
Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York named Richard Plantagenet, was a leading English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father, a great-great-great-grandson of the same king through his mother. He inherited vast estates and served in various offices of state in Ireland and England, a country he governed as Lord Protector during the madness of King Henry VI, his conflicts with Henry's wife, Margaret of Anjou, other members of Henry's court, as well as his competing claim on the throne, were a leading factor in the political upheaval of mid-fifteenth-century England, a major cause of the Wars of the Roses. Richard attempted to take the throne, but was dissuaded, although it was agreed that he would become king on Henry's death, but within a few weeks of securing this agreement, he died in battle. Two of his sons, Edward IV and Richard III ascended the throne. Richard of York was born on 21 September 1411, the son of Richard, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, by his wife Anne de Mortimer, the daughter of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March.
Anne Mortimer was the great-granddaughter of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, the second surviving son of King Edward III. After the death in 1425 of Anne's childless brother Edmund, the 5th Earl of March, this ancestry supplied her son Richard, of the House of York, with a claim to the English throne that was, under English law, arguably superior to that of the reigning House of Lancaster, descended from John of Gaunt, the third son of King Edward III. On his father's side, Richard had a claim to the throne in a direct male line of descent from his grandfather Edmund, 1st Duke of York, fourth surviving son of King Edward III and founder of the House of York; this made Richard a prince of blood and member of the ruling dynasty of England, which might have improved his position as contender or possible successor to the throne though his mother's descent gave him a better claim anyway. His adoption of the surname "Plantagenet" in 1448 would serve to emphasize this point, namely his status as an agnate of the English royal family.
Richard's mother, Anne Mortimer, is said to have died giving birth to him, his father, the Earl of Cambridge, was beheaded in 1415 for his part in the Southampton Plot against the Lancastrian King Henry V. Although the Earl's title was forfeited, he was not attainted, the four-year-old orphan Richard became his father's heir. Richard had an only sister, Isabel of Cambridge, who became Countess of Essex upon her second marriage in 1426. Within a few months of his father's death, Richard's childless uncle, Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York, was slain at the Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415. After some hesitation, King Henry V allowed Richard to inherit his uncle's title and the lands of the Duchy of York; the lesser title but greater estates of the Earldom of March descended to him on the death of his maternal uncle Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, on 18 January 1425. The reason for Henry V's hesitation was that Edmund Mortimer had been proclaimed several times, by factions rebelling against him, to have a stronger claim to the throne than Henry's father, King Henry IV.
Edmund had been a disputed heir of Richard II until his deposition by Henry IV in 1399. However, during his lifetime, Mortimer remained a faithful supporter of the House of Lancaster. Richard would claim to the throne upon his death. Richard of York held the Mortimer and Cambridge claims to the English throne; the Valor Ecclesiasticus shows that York's net income from Mortimer lands alone was £3,430 in the year 1443–44. As he was an orphan, Richard's income became the property of, was managed by, the crown. Though many of the lands of his uncle of York had been granted for life only, or to him and his male heirs, the remaining lands, concentrated in Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire, Yorkshire and Gloucestershire were considerable; the wardship of such an orphan was therefore a valuable gift of the crown, in October 1417 this was granted to Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, with the young Richard under the guardianship of Robert Waterton. Ralph Neville had many daughters needing husbands.
As was his right, in 1424 he betrothed the 13-year-old Richard to his daughter Cecily Neville aged 9. In October 1425, when Ralph Neville died, he bequeathed the wardship of York to his widow, Joan Beaufort. By now the wardship was more valuable, as Richard had inherited the Mortimer estates on the death of the Earl of March; these manors were concentrated in Wales, in the Welsh Borders around Ludlow. They included the Earldom of Ulster, located in Ireland. In a document dated 8 August 1435, he is described as duke of York, earl of March and Ulster, lord of Wigmore, Clare and Connaught. Little is recorded of Richard's early life. On 19 May 1426 he was knighted at Leicester by John, Duke of Bedford, the younger brother of King Henry V. In October 1429 his marriage to Cecily Neville took place. On 20 January 1430, he acted as Constable of England for a duel. On 6 November he was present at th
Eleanor of Lancaster
Eleanor of Lancaster, Countess of Arundel was the fifth daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth. Eleanor married first on 6 November 1330 John de Beaumont, 2nd Baron Beaumont, son of Henry Beaumont, 4th Earl of Buchan, 1st Baron Beaumont by his wife Alice Comyn, he died in a tournament on 14 April 1342. They had one son, born to Eleanor in Ghent whilst serving as lady-in-waiting to Queen Philippa of Hainault: Henry Beaumont, 3rd Baron Beaumont, the first husband of Lady Margaret de Vere, the daughter of John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford by his wife Maud de Badlesmere. Henry and Margaret had one son, John Beaumont, 4th Baron Beaumont KG. On 5 February 1344 at Ditton Church, Stoke Poges, she married Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, his previous marriage, to Isabel le Despenser, had taken place. It was annulled by Papal mandate as she, since her father's attainder and execution, had ceased to be of any importance to him. Pope Clement VI obligingly annulled the marriage, bastardized the issue, provided a dispensation for his second marriage to the woman with whom he had been living in adultery.
The children of Eleanor's second marriage were: Richard, who succeeded as Earl of Arundel John Fitzalan Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury Lady Joan FitzAlan, married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford Lady Alice FitzAlan, married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent Lady Mary FitzAlan, married John Le Strange, 4th Lord Strange of Blackmere, by whom she had issue Lady Eleanor FitzAlan Eleanor died at Arundel and was buried at Lewes Priory in Lewes, England. Her husband survived her by four years, was buried beside her; the memorial effigies attributed to Eleanor and her husband Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel in Chichester Cathedral are the subject of the celebrated Philip Larkin poem "An Arundel Tomb." Fowler, Kenneth. The King's 1969 Nicolas, Nicholas Harris. Testamenta Vetusta, 1826. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700, Lines: 17-30, 21-30, 28-33, 97-33, 114-31