The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Dead to the World (album)
Dead to the World is the eighth studio album by the American alternative metal band Helmet, released on October 28, 2016. It is the band's first studio album since Seeing Eye Dog, as well as their first release on earMUSIC and their first one with bassist Dave Case; the first song to be released from the album, "Bad News", premiered on October 5, 2016. All tracks written except where noted. Page Hamilton – vocals, lead guitar Dan Beeman – rhythm guitar Dave Case – bass Kyle Stevenson – drums
Band (rock and pop)
A rock band or pop band is a small musical ensemble which performs rock music, pop music or a related genre. The four-piece band is the most common configuration in pop music. Before the development of the electronic keyboard, the configuration was two guitarists, a bassist, a drummer. Another common formation is a vocalist who does not play an instrument, electric guitarist, bass guitarist, a drummer. Instrumentally, these bands can be considered as trios; the smallest ensemble, used in rock music is the trio format. Two-member rock and pop bands are rare, because of the difficulty in providing all of the musical elements which are part of the rock or pop sound. In a hard rock or blues-rock band, or heavy metal rock group, a "power trio" format is used, which consists of an electric guitar player, an electric bass guitar player and a drummer, one or more of these musicians sing; some well-known power trios with the guitarist on lead vocals are the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble, the Jam, ZZ Top, Green Day, while power trios with the bass guitarist on lead vocals include Cream, The Police and Motörhead.
Two-member rock and pop bands are rare, because of the difficulty in providing all of the musical elements which are part of the rock or pop sound. Two-member rock and pop bands omit one of these musical elements. In many cases, two-member bands will omit a drummer, since guitars, bass guitars, keyboards can all be used to provide a rhythmic pulse. Examples of two-member bands are The White Stripes, Pet Shop Boys, Flight of the Conchords, the Ting Tings, Hall & Oates, Twenty One Pilots and T. Rex; when electronic sequencers became available in the 1980s, this made it easier for two-member bands to add in musical elements that the two band members were not able to perform. Sequencers allowed bands to pre-program some elements of their performance, such as an electronic drum part and a synth bass line. Two-member pop music bands such as Soft Cell and Yazoo used pre-programmed sequencers. Other pop bands from the 1980s which were ostensibly fronted by two performers, such as Wham!, Eurythmics and Tears for Fears, were not two-piece ensembles, because other instrumental musicians were used "behind the scenes" to fill out the sound.
Modern bands that use this format include Ninja Sex Death Grips. Two-piece bands in rock music are quite rare. However, starting in the 2000s, blues-influenced rock bands such as the White Stripes and the Black Keys utilized a guitar-and-drums scheme. Death from Above 1979 featured a bass guitarist. Tenacious D is a two-guitar band. Ratatat are a two-guitar band. W. A. S. P. Guitarist Doug Blair is known for his work in the two-piece progressive rock band signal2noise, where he acts as the lead guitarist and bassist at the same time, thanks to a special custom instrument he invented. Heisenflei of Los Angeles duo the Pity Party plays drums and sings simultaneously. Royal Blood is a two-piece band that drums along with electronic effects; the smallest ensemble, used in rock music is the trio format. In a hard rock or blues-rock band, or heavy metal rock group, a "power trio" format is used, which consists of an electric guitar player, an electric bass guitar player and a drummer, one or more of these musicians sing.
Some well-known power trios with the guitarist on lead vocals are Campsite 85, Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble and Muse. A handful of others with the bassist on vocals include Thin Lizzy, Rush, Motörhead, the Police and Cream; some power trios feature two lead vocalists. For example, in the band Blink-182 vocals are split between bassist Mark Hoppus and guitarist Matt Skiba, or in the band Dinosaur Jr. guitarist J. Mascis is the primary songwriter and vocalist, but bassist Lou Barlow writes some songs and sings as well. An alternative to the power trio are organ trios formed with an electric guitarist, a drummer and a keyboardist. Although organ trios are most associated with 1950s and 1960s jazz organ trio groups such as those led by organist Jimmy Smith, there are organ trios in rock-oriented styles, such as jazz-rock fusion and Grateful Dead-influenced jam bands, for instance Medeski Martin & Wood. In organ trios, the keyboard player plays a Hammond organ or similar instrument, which permits the keyboard player to perform bass lines and lead lines.
A variant of the organ trio are trios formed with an electric bassist, a drummer and an electronic keyboardist such as the progressive rock band Emerson, Lake & Palmer. A power trio with the guitarist on lead vocals is a popular record company lineup, as the guitarist and singer will be the songwriter. Therefore, the label only has to present one "face" to the public; the backing band may or may not be featured in publici
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented. Anyone who composes, conducts, or performs music is referred to as a musician. A musician who plays a musical instrument is known as an instrumentalist. Musicians can specialize in any musical style, some musicians play in a variety of different styles depending on cultures and background. Examples of a musician's possible skills include performing, singing, producing, composing and the orchestration of music. In the Middle Ages, instrumental musicians performed with soft ensembles inside and loud instruments outdoors. Many European musicians of this time catered to the Roman Catholic Church, they provided arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure and Masses from church texts. Notable musicians Phillipe de Vitry Guillaume Dufay Guillaume de Machaut Hildegard of Bingen John Jenkins Beatritz de Dia Tyagaraja Purandara Dasa Bhimsen Joshi Bismillah Khan A. R. RAHMAN Renaissance musicians produced music that could be played during masses in churches and important chapels.
Vocal pieces were in Latin—the language of church texts of the time—and were Church-polyphonic or "made up of several simultaneous melodies." By the end of the 16th century, patronage split among many areas: the Catholic Church, Protestant churches, royal courts, wealthy amateurs, music printing—all provided income sources for composers. Notable musicians Giovanni Palestrina Giovanni Gabrieli Thomas Tallis Claudio Monteverdi Leonardo da Vinci The Baroque period introduced heavy use of counterpoint and basso continuo characteristics. Vocal and instrumental "color" became more important compared with the Renaissance style of music, emphasized much of the volume and pace of each piece. Notable musicians George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi Classical music was created by musicians who lived during a time of a rising middle class. Many middle-class inhabitants of France at the time lived under long-time absolute monarchies; because of this, much of the music was performed in environments that were more constrained compared with the flourishing times of the Renaissance and Baroque eras.
Notable musicians Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Joseph Haydn Ludwig Van Beethoven The foundation of Romantic period music coincides with what is called the age of revolutions, an age of upheavals in political, economic and military traditions. This age included the initial transformations of the Industrial Revolution. A revolutionary energy was at the core of Romanticism, which quite consciously set out to transform not only the theory and practice of poetry and art, but the common perception of the world; some major Romantic Period precepts survive, still affect modern culture. Notable musicians Ludwig van Beethoven Frédéric Chopin Franz Schubert Niccolò Paganini Franz Liszt Charles-Valentin Alkan Richard Wagner Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Johannes Brahms Johann Strauss II The world transitioned from 19th-century Romanticism to 20th century Modernism, bringing major musical changes. In 20th-century music and musicians rejected the emotion-dominated Romantic period, strove to represent the world the way they perceived it.
Musicians wrote to be"... objective. While past eras concentrated on spirituality, this new period placed emphasis on physicality and things that were concrete."The advent of audio recording and mass media in the 20th century caused a boom of all kinds of music—pop, dance, folk and all forms of classical music. Musicians can experience a number of health problems related to the practice and performance of music; these can include tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss, which occurs and over a long period of time, most musicians do not seek help until they start to experience secondary symptoms such as tinnitus, distortion of sounds and hyperacusis. In addition, musicians are at increased risk for both musculoskeletal and vocal health problems when producing high sound levels on musical instruments. Increased biomechanical demands, whether at the hands, embouchure, or vocal cords, elevates the risks for occupational health problems like tendonitis, carpal tunnel, rupture of facial muscles, vocal cord malfunction.
Singer Composer Tour manager Musicians' or'Hi-Fi' earplugs Media related to Musicians at Wikimedia Commons
Chris Traynor is an American guitarist and studio musician. He has played with Orange 9mm, Bush, Rival Schools, Gavin Rossdale, High Desert Fires. Traynor has performed live with the British rock band Blur, recorded bass and guitars on Katy Perry's "Use Your Love" with producer Junior Sanchez, recorded guitars for Peter Green of Fleetwood Mac, producer Dave Stewart, Pharrell of N*E*R*D. Traynor has done studio soundtrack work with Blue Man Group, with critically acclaimed indie rock band Rival Schools. Traynor has studied guitar with Mark Lonergan from Band of Susans, Richard Lloyd of the rock band Television, Robert Fripp's Guitar Craft, bluegrass phenomenon Michael Daves. Traynor is living in Los Angeles and is touring with Bush, he is in the process of releasing High Desert Fires' debut album Light is the Revelation. He continually writes for television music, he cut his teeth in the early 90's post-hardcore scene. As a founding member of the influential band Orange 9mm, Traynor developed a unique style of guitar and bass in the studio.
Alongside Chaka Malik, Traynor went on to record 3 albums with the band including Orange 9mm, Driver Not Included and Tragic. Before the touring for their third album began, Traynor departed to play with another popular band Helmet. Traynor moved on to become an official member of the seminal rock band Helmet on their fourth studio record, Aftertaste, he was recruited for the supporting tour of Aftertaste, recorded by their three remaining members prior to Traynor's arrival. He had worked on and off with the band for ten years throughout the band's breakup and reuniting before departing himself in 2006. While on tour with Helmet, Traynor was noticed by producer Dave Sardy, recommended as a potential new guitarist in 2002 for the multi-platinum selling rock band Bush. Bush's original guitarist, Nigel Pulsford, had retired to spend more time with his family. Traynor filled in for him on tour. Bush disbanded after the tour ended. In between Helmet's down time and the fall of Bush, Traynor joined up with Rival Schools.
Rival Schools longtime guitarist, Ian Love, had left the band in 2002 making way for Traynor. They never released an album. By September 2003 the band split and Traynor along with bandmate Cache Tolman headed off to do a new project with a familiar friend, Gavin Rossdale. After touring as a member of Bush and singer Gavin Rossdale began writing songs for a different project, which would become Institute, their first and only studio album titled Distort Yourself received only mild success on the airwaves. They toured throughout the United States as well as Europe before calling it quits in 2005; the culmination of the time Traynor spent with Rossdale resulted in the release of Rossdale's solo record WANDERlust, produced by Bob Rock and featuring the hit single "Love Remains The Same" that reached number 2 on the US Adult Pop Songs and remained there for 4 weeks. The song sold nearly 2 million copies worldwide. WANDERlust had nationwide success in the United States. Traynor toured in support of WANDERlust in 2008 and 2009.
In May 2010, it was announced. The Sea of Memories was released in 2011 featuring the single The Sound of Winter. "The Sound of Winter" achieved moderate commercial success on several North America charts. On 18 October 2011 it topped. Not only was it the band's fifth #1 hit single on the chart, but it became the first self-released single to reach #1 on the Alternative radio chart. On 19 November it topped the Rock Songs chart. In 2014 the band's 6th studio album, Man on the Run, was released featuring the single "The Only Way Out" which peaked at #11 on the Active Rock Charts. With Orange 9mm1994 Orange 9mm 1995 Driver Not Included 1996 TragicWith Helmet1997 Aftertaste 2004 Size Matters 2006 Monochrome 2010 Seeing Eye Dog 2010 Helmet:Live in San FranciscoWith Institute2005 Distort YourselfWith Gavin Rossdale2008 WANDERlustWith Bush2011 The Sea of Memories 2014 Man on the Run 2017 Black and White RainbowsWith High Desert Fires2015 Light is the RevelationWith Fleetwood Mac2002 The Best Of Peter Green's Fleetwood Mac Albatross Bush Fansite Institute Fansite
Francis Charles Joseph Bello is an Italian American musician who plays bass guitar for the thrash metal band Anthrax. Francis Charles Joseph Bello is the nephew of Anthrax drummer Charlie Benante. Bello had a younger brother Anthony, murdered in the Bronx, New York City, on March 25, 1996, his murder was never solved. Bello has a tattoo on his right upper arm, with a design of Anthony's face, with the words'In Memory of Anthony' below it. Bello was a roadie and guitar technician for Anthrax, but replaced Dan Lilker soon after the release of the band's 1984 debut album Fistful of Metal, has held this position since, excluding a brief departure in 2004 in order to join Helmet – another New York City-based metal band, his stint in the band was brief, as Bello reunited with Anthrax the following year, has remained in the band since. Bello uses his fingers while playing bass, though he has played with a pick including in at least two of Anthrax's music videos "Room for One More" and "Fueled". In the early days on Anthrax, Bello used an ESP Precision-styled bass a 400 series, that had EMG P-bass and J-bass pickups.
ESP released this bass as a signature model, available in the mid-to-late 1980s. Sometime during the late 1980s, he switched to an ESP Surveyor P-bass, which had nearly all the same specifications of his previous basses, but with a finished headstock, he began using Fender basses during the beginning of the 1990s, due to a falling out with ESP which, according to ESP Vice President Jeff Moore, was due to miscommunication. He began using Fender P-basses around the time of Persistence of Time until the release of his signature model. Bello had a signature model Fender Jazz bass; the model combines a Fender Aerodyne body with a Precision Bass-width neck, Alder body wood and a mix of Precision and Jazz bass pickups along with non-standard custom-chosen hardware. Pickups used on the bass are Seymour Duncan SPB-3 precision bass pickup in the neck position and a Samarium Cobalt Noiseless Jazz Bass pickup in the bridge position, although Bello's personal bass now is equipped with EMG HZ Passive pickups which Bello prefers "as the output is... a lot louder" and he gets "a lot more punch".
Bello had a signature Squier electric jazz bass. It features P/J style pick up a skull inlay/body graphic; the ESP Frank Bello and LTD FB-4 are both based on the ESP Vintage-4 model, customized to Belloʼs specifications with a Black Satin finish and black anodized aluminum pickguard, ebony fingerboard with black pearloid block inlays, EMG PJ-X active pickups and a Gotoh bridge. The basses feature bolt-on construction at 34" scale, an alder body, maple neck with 21 XJ frets. There is a writing of "R. I. P. Dimebag" on Bello's bass guitar for tribute to deceased Pantera and Damageplan guitarist Dimebag Darrell, which he inscribed into his bass the night of his death. After constant touring with Megadeth's bass player, David Ellefson, Frank switched to a Hartke LH1000 and HyDrive cabinets. On tour, he use a SansAmp Bass driver for a "grinding tone" for the "Got The Time" song, he used Ampeg SVT amplifiers and cabs during the early 1980s, 1990s, 2000s. During the late 1980s, he used a rack system that relied on a Yamaha PB1 Preamp and Crown Power Base-1 power amps.
While in Helmet, Bello used Fender 800-PRO amps with a Sansamp Bass Driver DI distortion pedal. Bello played Richard Hell in Greetings from Tim Buckley, a film on Tim and Jeff Buckley, which premiered at the 2012 Toronto International Film Festival, he played a small role as a stick-up man in Joe's Apartment, appeared in the intro scene in the Law & Order episode "The Brotherhood", credited as "Rocker". He played himself in an episode of Married... with Children. Bello has shown support for Little Kids Rock, a national nonprofit that works to restore and revitalize music education in disadvantaged U. S. public schools, by donating several bass guitars and amps to 15 New York City public schools. He visited a Little Kids Rock classroom to show encouragement to young musicians, answer their questions, jam with them on their favorite songs. Frank Bello Interview at Guitar Video Channel