Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Brothers in Law (film)
Brothers in Law is a 1957 British comedy film directed by Roy Boulting and starring Richard Attenborough, Ian Carmichael, Terry-Thomas and Jill Adams. The film is one of the Boulting brothers successful series of institutional satires begun with Private's Progress in 1956, it is an adaptation of the novel Brothers in Law by Henry Cecil, a comedy set in the legal profession. Richard Attenborough as Henry Marshall Ian Carmichael as Roger Thursby Terry-Thomas as Alfred Green Jill Adams as Sally Smith Miles Malleson as Kendall Grimes Raymond Huntley as Tatlock Eric Barker as Alec Blair Nicholas Parsons as Charles Poole Kynaston Reeves as Judge Lawson John Le Mesurier as Judge Ryman Irene Handl as Mrs. Potter Olive Sloane as Mrs. Newen Edith Sharpe as Mrs. Thursby Leslie Phillips as Shopkeeper Brian Oulton as Client George Rose as Mark Frost Kenneth Griffith as Undertaker Basil Dignam as Judge Emery Henry B. Longhurst as Reverend Arthur Thursby Penny Morrell as Rosalie Biddle Bosley Crowther in The New York Times compared the film unfavourably to Private's Progress, commenting that it was "blessed with little spark".
This is still funny and relevant today." Harper, Sue & Porter, Vincent. British Cinema of the 1950s: The Decline of Deference. Oxford University Press, 2003. Brothers in Law on IMDb
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
David H. Keller
David Henry Keller was an American writer who worked for pulp magazines in the mid-twentieth century, in the science fiction and horror genres. He was the first psychiatrist to write for the genre, was most published as David H. Keller, MD, but known by the pseudonyms Monk Smith, Matthew Smith, Amy Worth, Henry Cecil, Cecilia Henry, Jacobus Hubelaire. John Clute has written, "It is clear enough that Keller's conceptual inventiveness, his cultural gloom, are worth more attention than they have received. Keller was born in Philadelphia and graduated from the School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in 1903, he served as a neuropsychiatrist in the U. S. Army Medical Corps during World Wars I and II, was the Assistant Superintendent of the Louisiana State Mental Hospital at Pineville until Huey Long's reforms removed him from his position in 1928; that same year, Keller would travel to New York City to meet with Hugo Gernsback, publisher of Amazing Stories, who had bought his first professionally published science fiction story, "The Revolt of the Pedestrians".
Gernsback was impressed by Keller's quality of writing, unique insight, ability to address sophisticated themes beyond the commonplace technological predictions or lurid alien encounters found in early pulp stories. He encouraged Keller's writing and would call these distinctive short stories "Keller yarns". In 1929, Gernsback founded the magazine Science Wonder Stories and not only published Keller's work in the first issue, but listed him as an Associate Science Editor, it was this issue of Science Wonder Stories. This began an intense writing period for Keller, but he was unable to support his family on a writer's income and set up a small private psychiatric practice out of his home in Mount Pocono, Pennsylvania. Keller became an early scholar of H. P. Lovecraft, publishing occasional works on Lovecraft from 1948 to 1965. Most notably he was the first to suggest, in 1948, the influential but erroneous idea that Lovecraft could have inherited syphilis from his parents. Lovecraft publisher Arkham House published many books in the fantasy and horror field including a small but steady number throughout the 1950s.
Robert Weinberg has written that: "However, intense competition from the SF small presses as well as slow sales of certain titles put August Derleth in a precarious bind. Only a generous loan from Dr David H. Keller prevented Arkham from going bankrupt during a period of cash flow problems." Robert Weinberg writes of Keller's book career: "Dr David H. Keller had been one of the most popular science fiction authors of the 1920s and 1930s, thus it was not surprising that several small presses, composed of fans who had begun reading science fiction during that time, chose a Keller book as their first publication. Dr Keller was no longer a name that could sell books and the Avalon Publishing Company, New Era Publishers and NFFF all ceased publications after producing one book by Dr Keller. Keller's work expressed strong right-wing views hostility to feminists and African-Americans. Keller's 1928 story "The Menace" revolves about a series of black plots to take over the United States. Keller has further been criticized for "his corrosive attitude toward both science and civilization," "anti-feminist, racist tendencies" and occasional "sexual sadism."John Clute writes that Keller was "deeply involved in the last capacity in World War One and its consequences, his work focusing on shell shock.
Most notable is his 1932 horror tale "The Thing In The Cellar". Keller created a series of fantasy stories called the Tales of Cornwall sequence, about the Hubelaire family. Keller wrote some fantasy work inspired by his interest in Freudian psychology, including "The Golden Bough" and The Eternal Conflict; the Conquerors, Science Wonder Stories Dec 29 and Jan 30, 1929. The Human Termites, Science Wonder Stories Sep, Nov, 1929 The Evening Star, Science Wonder Stories April, May 1930 The Time Projector Wonder Stories Aug, Sep, 1931 The Metal Doom, Amazing Stories May, July, 1932. Simon & Schuster. 1940. Cover art by Gregor Duncan. Reprint: Arno Press (Supernatural
Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock was an English film director and producer regarded as one of the most influential filmmakers in the history of cinema. Known as "the Master of Suspense", he directed over 50 feature films in a career spanning six decades, becoming as well known as any of his actors thanks to his many interviews, his cameo roles in most of his films, his hosting and producing of the television anthology Alfred Hitchcock Presents. Born in Leytonstone, Hitchcock entered the film industry in 1919 as a title card designer after training as a technical clerk and copy writer for a telegraph-cable company, he made his directorial debut with the silent film The Pleasure Garden. His first successful film, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog, helped to shape the thriller genre, while his 1929 film, was the first British "talkie". Two of his 1930s thrillers, The 39 Steps and The Lady Vanishes, are ranked among the greatest British films of the 20th century. By 1939 Hitchcock was a filmmaker of international importance, film producer David O. Selznick persuaded him to move to Hollywood.
A string of successful films followed, including Rebecca, Foreign Correspondent, Shadow of a Doubt, The Paradine Case. His 53 films have grossed over US$223.3 million worldwide and garnered a total of 46 Oscar nominations and six wins. The "Hitchcockian" style includes the use of camera movement to mimic a person's gaze, thereby turning viewers into voyeurs, framing shots to maximise anxiety and fear; the film critic Robin Wood wrote that the meaning of a Hitchcock film "is there in the method, in the progression from shot to shot. A Hitchcock film is an organism, with the whole implied in every detail and every detail related to the whole." By 1960 Hitchcock had directed four films ranked among the greatest of all time: Rear Window, North by Northwest, Psycho. In 2012 Vertigo replaced Orson Welles's Citizen Kane as the British Film Institute's greatest film made. By 2018 eight of his films had been selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry, including his personal favourite, Shadow of a Doubt.
He received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 1979 and was knighted in December that year, four months before he died. Hitchcock was born on 13 August 1899 in the flat above his parents' leased grocer's shop at 517 High Road, Leytonstone, on the outskirts of east London, the youngest of three children: William, Ellen Kathleen, Alfred Joseph, his parents, Emma Jane Hitchcock, née Whelan, William Hitchcock, were both Roman Catholics, with partial roots in Ireland. There was a large extended family, including Uncle John Hitchcock with his five-bedroom Victorian house on Campion Road, complete with maid, cook and gardener; every summer John rented a seaside house for the family in Kent. Hitchcock said that he first became class-conscious there, noticing the differences between tourists and locals. Describing himself as a well-behaved boy—his father called him his "little lamb without a spot"—Hitchcock said he could not remember having had a playmate. One of his favourite stories for interviewers was about his father sending him to the local police station with a note when he was five.
The experience left him, with a lifelong fear of policemen. When he was six, the family moved to Limehouse and leased two stores at 130 and 175 Salmon Lane, which they ran as a fish-and-chips shop and fishmongers' respectively, it seems that Hitchcock was seven when he attended his first school, the Howrah House Convent in Poplar, which he entered in 1907. According to Patrick McGilligan, he stayed at Howrah House for at most two years, he attended a convent school, the Wode Street School "for the daughters of gentlemen and little boys", run by the Faithful Companions of Jesus. The family moved again when he was 11, this time to Stepney, on 5 October 1910 Hitchcock was sent to St Ignatius College in Stamford Hill, Tottenham, a Jesuit grammar school with a reputation for discipline; the priests used a hard rubber cane on the boys, always at the end of the day, so the boys had to sit through classes anticipating the punishment once they knew they'd been written up for it. He said; the school register lists his year of birth as 1900 rather than 1899.
While biographer Gene Adair reports that Hitchcock was "an average, or above-average, pupil", Hitchcock said he was "usually among the four or five at the top of the class". His favourite subject was geography, he became interested in maps, railway and bus timetables, he told Peter Bogdanovich: "The Jesuits taught me organization, control and, to some
Laurence Harvey was a Lithuanian-born British Jewish actor. In a career that spanned a quarter of a century, Harvey appeared in stage and television productions in the United Kingdom and the United States, his performance in Room at the Top resulted in an Academy Award nomination. That success was followed by the role of William Barret Travis in The Alamo, as the brainwashed Raymond Shaw in The Manchurian Candidate. Harvey's civil birth name was Laruschka Mischa Skikne, his Hebrew name was Zvi Mosheh. He was born in Joniškis, the youngest of three sons of Ella and Ber Skikne, Lithuanian Jewish parents; when he was five years old, his family travelled with the family of Riva Segal and her two sons and Charles Segal on the ship, the SS Adolph Woermann to South Africa, where he was known as Harry Skikne. Harvey grew up in Johannesburg, was in his teens when he served with the entertainment unit of the South African Army during the Second World War; as the Mystery Guest on USA TV show What's My Line screened May 1, 1960, he states he arrived in South Africa in 1934 and moved to the UK in 1946.
After moving to London, he enrolled in the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, but left RADA after three months, began to perform on stage and film. Harvey made his cinema debut in the British film House of Darkness, but its distributor British Lion thought someone named Larry Skikne was not commercially viable. Accounts vary as to. One version has it that it was the idea of talent agent Gordon Harbord who decided Laurence would be an appropriate first name. In choosing a British-sounding last name, Harbord thought of two British retail institutions, Harvey Nichols and Harrods. Another is that Skikne was travelling on a London bus with Sid James who exclaimed during their journey: "It's either Laurence Nichols or Laurence Harvey." Harvey's own account differed over time. Associated British Picture Corporation offered him a two-year contract, which Harvey accepted, he appeared in supporting roles in several of their lower-budget films such as Man on the Run and The Dancing Years. For International Motion Pictures he was in The Man from Yesterday.
He had a small role in the Hollywood financed The Black Rose, starring Tyrone Power and Orson Welles Associated British gave him his first lead, appearing alongside Eric Portman in the Egypt-set police film, Cairo Road. Harvey starred in leading roles for two movies with Lewis Gilbert, Scarlet Thread and There Is Another Sun. For Ealing he made I Believe in You he starred in a low budget thriller, A Killer Walks. Harvey's career gained a boost. James Woolf in particular was a big admirer of Harvey, he had an uncredited role in the comedy Innocents in Paris, in a Hollywood film, Knights of the Round Table. Romulus have him a good part in a thriller directed by The Good Die Young, he was given the romantic male lead in another Hollywood spectacular, King Richard and the Crusaders, supporting Rex Harrison and George Sanders. It was a box office disappointment; that year he played Romeo in Renato Castellani's adaptation of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, narrated by John Gielgud. He was now established as an emerging British star.
According to a contemporary interview, he turned down an offer to appear in Helen of Troy to act at Stratford-upon-Avon. Romulus came to the rescue again when Harvey was cast as the writer Christopher Isherwood in I Am A Camera, with Julie Harris as Sally Bowles, he appeared on American television and on Broadway, making his Broadway debut in 1955 in the play Island of Goats, a flop that closed after one week, though his performance won him a 1956 Theatre World Award. Harvey appeared twice more on Broadway, in 1957 with Julie Harris, Pamela Brown and Colleen Dewhurst in William Wycherley's The Country Wife, as Shakespeare's Henry V in 1959, as part of the Old Vic company, which featured a young Judi Dench as Katherine, the daughter of the King of France. Zoltan Korda used him as one of the soldiers in Storm Over the Nile, a remake of The Four Feathers, playing the part taken by Ralph Richardson in the 1939 version, it was popular in Britain. After the Ball was a biopic of Vesta Tilley, in which Harvey played Walter de Frece.
The Truth About Women was a comedy. Harvey's breakthrough to international stardom came after he was cast by director Jack Clayton as the social climber Joe Lampton in Room at the Top, produced by British film producer brothers John and James Woolf of Romulus Films. For his performance, Harvey received a BAFTA Award nomination and a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Simone Signoret and Heather Sears co-starred as Lampton's married lover and eventual wife respectively, it was the third most popular movie at the British box office in 1959 and a hit in the USA. Harvey followed it with a musical, Expresso Bongo, a film best remembered for introducing Cliff Richard. Room at the Top led to Hollywood offers starting with John Wayne's epic The Alamo. Harvey was John Wayne's personal choice to play Alamo commandant William Barret Travis, he had been impressed by Harvey's talent and ability to project the aristocratic demeanor Wayne believed Travis possessed. Harvey and Wayne would express their mutual admiration and satisfaction at having worked together.
The Alamo was