Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Arizona. Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area, known as the Valley of the Sun, the metropolitan area is the 12th largest by population in the United States, with approximately 4.3 million people as of 2010. Settled in 1867 as a community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers. Located in the reaches of the Sonoran Desert, Phoenix has a subtropical desert climate. Despite this, its canal system led to a farming community, many of the original crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, citrus. The city averaged a four percent annual growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s. This growth rate slowed during the Great Recession of 2007–09, and has rebounded slowly, Phoenix is the cultural center of the Valley of the Sun, as well as the entire state. For more than 2,000 years, the Hohokam people occupied the land that would become Phoenix, the Hohokam created roughly 135 miles of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable.
Paths of these canals would used for the modern Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal. The Hohokam carried out trade with the nearby Anasazi and Sinagua. It is believed that between 1300 and 1450, periods of drought and severe floods led to the Hohokam civilizations abandonment of the area. After the departure of the Hohokam, groups of Akimel Oodham, Tohono Oodham and Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. The Oodham were offshoots of the Sobaipuri tribe, who in turn were thought to be the descendants of the formerly urbanized Hohokam and their crops included corn and squash for food, while cotton and tobacco were cultivated. Mostly a peaceful group, they did together with the Maricopa for their mutual protection against incursions by both the Yuma and Apache tribes. The Tohono Oodham lived in the region as well, but their concentration was to the south. Living in small settlements, the Oodham were seasonal farmers who took advantage of the rains and they hunted local game such as deer and javalina for meat.
When the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern zone to the United States, the Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory. In 1863 the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in what is now Maricopa County, at the time Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated, the land was within Yavapai County, which included the major town of Prescott to the north of Wickenburg
Cornell University is an American private Ivy League and land-grant doctoral university located in Ithaca, New York. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornells motto, the university administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City, Qatar. Cornell is one of three private land grant universities in the nation and the one in New York. Of its seven colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York system, including its agricultural. Of Cornells graduate schools, only the college is state-supported. As a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension program in every county of New York. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens are considered. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race, the student body consists of more than 14,000 undergraduate and 7,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and more than 120 countries.
Cornell University was founded on April 27,1865, the New York State Senate authorized the university as the land grant institution. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site, fellow senator and experienced educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty, the university was inaugurated on October 7,1868, and 412 men were enrolled the next day. Cornell developed as an innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus as well as to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a dynamo to light the grounds. Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes and it was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses, since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs.
In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar and it has partnerships with institutions in India and the Peoples Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its international profile. On March 9,2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new Bridging the Rift Center to be built, Cornells main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking the town and Cayuga Lake
Arizona Historical Society
It does this through 4 regional divisions. Each division has a representative museum, the statewide divisions are as follows, Southern Arizona Division in Tucson, the Central Arizona Division in Tempe, the Northern Arizona Division in Flagstaff, and the Rio Colorado Division in Yuma. The group was founded as the Society of Arizona Pioneers on January 31,1884 by physician John C, his father-in-law William Fisher Scott, and 58 other Tucson pioneers. With a new railroad being built and change on its way to Tucson, pioneers worried that their stories of battles with the desert heat, the society was founded to preserve these stories and provide charitable service work to the local community as a mutual aid society. Original Historical Society members were prominent members of the community. Over time, the Society evolved to provide storage for official state papers, the society has faced several periods of financial difficulty, and difficulty storing their collections safely. Collections expanded beyond the capacity of several times, until a large, block-long basement was created to store records.
As of 2015, the Society maintained several museums in the state with the support of over 3000 members. Arizona Historical Society Pioneer Museum - located in the historic Coconino County Hospital for the Indigent, Exhibits include local history, logging and pioneer life. Riordan Mansion State Historic Park - the Society manages the early 20th-century Arts and Crafts style mansion for the state, Arizona History Museum - The largest AHS museum in the state, the Arizona History Museum frequently rotates its exhibits on Arizona history. Permanent displays include southern Arizona history from Spanish colonial through territorial eras, downtown Tucson Museum - Exhibits featuring early downtown Tucson, including artifacts from a barbershop and drugstore. Leisure activities are explored with exhibits that discuss music, dance halls, Fort Lowell Museum - The Fort Lowell park actually is the site of what used to be Fort Lowell. Part of the wing of the fort still stands, as well as the trees planted to mark the road to the fort.
A small museum is located at the park and it contains exhibits related to the history and military history in Tucson in general. Uniforms and photographs of military life show viewers what life used to be like at Fort Lowell, the collections are divided among 4 locations in Arizona, with each location specializing in certain aspects of history. AHS libraries are staffed by knowledgeable librarians who can aid in research or answer general research questions at the research help desk. The Historical Society publishes the quarterly Journal of Arizona History, the journal is distributed to members and contains articles about Arizona history. Photo essays and reviews are included along with standard articles, the Historical Society additionally publishes books, a list of which can be found on their website
National Endowment for the Humanities
The NEH is housed at 400 7th St SW, Washington, D. C. From 1979 to 2014, NEH was located at 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D. C. in the Nancy Hanks Center at the Old Post Office. NEH was based upon recommendation of the National Commission on the Humanities, the tenth Chair of the NEH is William Bro Adams, formerly president of Colby College in Maine. President Obama nominated Adams on April 4,2014, Adams was confirmed by the Senate in a vote on July 9,2014. Adams appointed Margaret Plympton as the Deputy NEH Chair in January 2015, prior to Adamss appointment, the NEH was headed by Acting Chair Carole M. Watson. The ninth NEH Chair was Jim Leach, President Obama nominated the former Iowa congressman, a Republican, to chair the NEH on June 3,2009, the Senate confirmed his appointment in August 2009. Leach began his term as the NEH Chair on August 12,2009, according to Leach, Little is more important. than establishing an ethos of thoughtfulness and decency of expression in the public square.
Words reflect emotion as well as meaning and they clarify—or cloud—thought and energize action, sometimes bringing out the better angels in our nature, sometimes lesser instincts. The Endowment is directed by the NEH Chair, advising the Chair is the National Council on the Humanities, a board of 26 distinguished private citizens who are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The National Council members serve staggered six-year terms, the Endowment is directed by a presidentially appointed Chair, who approves all recommendations and awards grants. All of the Chairs recommendations are informed by the National Council on the Humanities, the Division of Public Programs supports projects that bring the humanities to large audiences through libraries and museums and radio, historic sites, and digital media. The Division of Research makes awards to support original scholarship in all areas of the humanities, funding individuals as well as teams of researchers, the Division of Education works to support and strengthen teaching of the humanities.
The Office of Federal/State Partnership collaborates with 56 state and territory humanities councils to strengthen local programs, the Office of Challenge Grants administers grants intended to support centers and endowments through fundraising by humanities institutions to further long-term stability. The Office of Digital Humanities advises on use of technology in the humanities and coordinates and these are special priorities of the Endowment that indicate critical areas of the humanities as identified by the NEH Chair. They differ from the divisions of the Endowment in that they do not sponsor or coordinate specific grant programs, bridging Cultures is an NEH initiative that explores ways in which the humanities promote understanding and mutual respect for people with diverse histories and perspectives. Projects supported through this initiative focus on cultures globally as well as within the United States, international projects might seek to enlarge Americans understanding of other places and times, as well as other perspectives and intellectual traditions.
American projects might explore the variety of cultural influences on. These projects might investigate how Americans have approached and attempted to surmount seemingly unbridgeable cultural divides, or examine the ideals of civility and civic discourse
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator and citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean and those voyages and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the European colonization of the New World. Western imperialism and economic competition were emerging among European kingdoms through the establishment of routes and colonies. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New World instead of arriving at Japan as he had intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas archipelago that he named San Salvador. Over the course of three voyages, he visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America. These voyages had, therefore, an impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives.
Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion, Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios, the name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and, in Spanish and he was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed. His father was Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo were his brothers, Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. He had a sister named Bianchinetta, Columbus never wrote in his native language, which is presumed to have been a Genoese variety of Ligurian.
In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of 10, in 1470, the Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern. In the same year, Christopher was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples. Some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but and these competing hypotheses have generally been discounted by mainstream scholars. In 1473, Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro, later, he allegedly made a trip to Chios, an Aegean island ruled by Genoa. In May 1476, he took part in a convoy sent by Genoa to carry valuable cargo to northern Europe
The Hualapai is a federally recognized Indian tribe in Arizona with over 2300 enrolled members. Approximately 1353 enrolled members reside on the Hualapai Indian reservation, which spans three counties in Northern Arizona. The name, meaning people of the trees, is derived from hwa, l. Their traditional territory is a 108-mile stretch along the southern side of the Grand Canyon. The Hualapai tribe is a nation and governed by an executive and judicial branch. The tribe provides a variety of social, educational, the Hualapai language is a Pai branch of the Yuman–Cochimí languages, spoken by the closely related Havasupai, and more distantly to Yavapai people. It is still spoken by most people over 30 on the Reservation as well as young people. The Peach Springs School District runs a bilingual program for all local students. The Hualapai Indian Reservation, covering 1,142 square miles, was created by the Presidential Executive order of Chester A. Arthur on January 4,1883, major traditional ceremonies of the Hualapai include the Maturity ceremony and the Mourning ceremony.
Nowadays the modern Sobriety Festival is celebrated in June, the souls of the dead are believed to go northwestward to a beautiful land where plentiful harvest grow. This land is believed to be only by Hualapai spirits. Traditional Hualapai dress consists of full suits of deerskin and rabbit skin robes, conical houses formed from cedar boughs using the single slope form called a Wikiup. The Hualapai Reservation was created by order in 1883 on lands that just four regional bands considered as part of their home range. The other Hualapai regional bands lived far away from the current reservation land, the war broke out in May 1865, when the Hualapai leader Anasa was killed by a man named Hundertinark in the area of Camp Willow Grove and in March 1866. In response, a man named Clower was killed by the Hualapai, the most important and principal Hualapai leaders at that time were, Wauba Yuba, Hitchi Hitchi and Susquatama. It was not until William Hardy and the Hualapai leaders negotiated an agreement at Beale Springs that the raids.
However, the agreement lasted only nine months when it was broken with the murder of Chief Wauba Yuba near present-day Kingman during a dispute with the Walker party over the treaty, after the chiefs murder, raids by the Hualapai began in full force on mining camps and settlers. The cavalry from Fort Mojave responded, with the assistance of the Mohave, by attacking Hualapai rancherias, the pivotal engagement took place in January 1868, when Captain S. B. M
University of Arizona
The University of Arizona is a public research university in Tucson, United States. Founded in 1885, the UA was the first university in the Arizona Territory, the university operates two medical schools and is affiliated with the regions only academic medical centers. The university is home to the James E. Rogers College of Law and numerous other nationally ranked graduate. During the 2015-2016 academic year, there was an enrollment of 43,088 students. The University of Arizona is governed by the Arizona Board of Regents, the University of Arizona is one of the elected members of the Association of American Universities and is the only representative from the state of Arizona to this group. Known as the Arizona Wildcats, the teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. UA athletes have won titles in several sports, most notably mens basketball, baseball. The official colors of the university and its teams are UA Red. After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew, the University of Arizona was approved by the Arizona Territorys Thieving Thirteenth Legislature in 1885, which selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university.
Tucson had hoped to receive the appropriation for the mental hospital. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27,1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation. The University of Arizona offers 334 fields of study leading to bachelors, doctoral, academic departments and programs are organized into colleges and schools. Currently, grades are given on a strict 4-point scale with A worth 4, B worth 3, C worth 2, D worth 1 and E worth zero points. In 2004, there were discussions with students and faculty that may lead the UA towards eventual usage of the grading system in future years. As of December 2015, the university uses the 4-points scale. The Center for World University Rankings in 2015 ranked Arizona 68th in the world, the 2015–16 Times Higher Education World University Rankings rated University of Arizona 163rd in the world and the 2016/17 QS World University Rankings ranked it 233rd
Casa Grande, Arizona
Casa Grande is a city in Pinal County, approximately halfway between Phoenix and Tucson in the U. S. state of Arizona. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 48,571 and it is named after the Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, which is actually located in Coolidge. Casa Grande is Spanish for big house, Casa Grande was founded in 1879 during the Arizona mining boom, specifically due to the presence of the Southern Pacific Railroad. In January 1880, the community of Terminus, meaning end-of-the-line, was established consisting of just five residents. In September 1880, railroad executives renamed the settlement Casa Grande, Casa Grande grew slowly, and suffered several setbacks both in 1886 and 1893, when fires ravaged the town, destroying all wooden housing structures within it. When the mining boom slowed in the 1890s, the town was abandoned, but with the advent of agriculture, the town remained alive and well. One of the fathers of Casa Grande was Thompson Rodney Peart.
Peart Road, Peart Park, and the Peart Center, all of which are notable fixtures of Casa Grande, are named after him, Casa Grande was home to a collective farm society which was part of the New Deal. According to historian David Leighton, during World War II, from 1942 to 1945, two notable people that were interned there were future actor Pat Morita and baseball player Kenichi Zenimura, who constructed a baseball field and set up a league in the relocation camp. Casa Grande is home to Francisco Grande Hotel & Golf Resort, Horace Stoneham, began developing the property in 1959. The first exhibition game was played in Casa Grande in 1961, the San Francisco Giants no longer play at Francisco Grande, but the pool remains in a baseball bat and ball shape in memory of the past ballgames. During the Cold War, Casa Grande was the location of the Corona Satellite Calibration Targets and these targets consisted of concrete arrows located in and to the south of the city, which calibrated satellites of the Corona spy program.
Casa Grande has played a prominent role in semi-pro and collegiate baseball and they are now members of the Pacific Southwest Baseball League. According to the United States Census Bureau, Casa Grande has an area of 48.2 square miles. Casa Grande is in a desert climate. In January, the high temperature is 64 with a normal low of 39. In July, the high temperature is 101 with a normal low of 77. Annual rainfall is around 10 inches, as of the census of 2010, there were 48,571 people,22,400 households, and 6,547 families residing in the city
University of Oklahoma
The University of Oklahoma is a coeducational public research university located in Norman, Oklahoma. Founded in 1890, it had existed in Oklahoma Territory near Indian Territory for 17 years before the two became the state of Oklahoma, in Fall 2016 the university had 31,250 students enrolled, most located at its main campus in Norman. Employing nearly 3,000 faculty members, the school offers 152 baccalaureate programs,160 masters programs,75 doctorate programs, David Lyle Boren, a former U. S. Senator and Oklahoma Governor, has served as the president since 1994. The school is ranked first among universities in enrollment of National Merit Scholars. Located on its Norman campus are two prominent museums, the Fred Jones Jr, Museum of Art, specializing in French Impressionism and Native American artwork, and the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, specializing in the natural history of Oklahoma. The school, well known for its programs, has won 7 NCAA Division I National Football Championships.
Its baseball team has won 2 NCAA national championships and the softball team won the national championship in 2000,2013. Oklahomas admission into the union in 1907 led to the renaming of the Norman Territorial University as the University of Oklahoma, Norman residents donated 407 acres of land for the university 0.5 miles south of the Norman railroad depot. The universitys first president ordered the planting of trees before the construction of the first campus building because he could not visualize a treeless university seat. Landscaping remains important to the university, the universitys first president, David Ross Boyd, arrived in Norman in August 1892, and the first students enrolled that year. The university established a School of Pharmacy in 1893 because of demand for pharmacists in the territory. Three years later, the university awarded its first degree to a pharmaceutical chemist, the Rock Building in downtown Norman held the initial classes until the universitys first building opened on September 6,1893.
On January 6,1903, the only building burned down. Construction began immediately on a new building, as other towns hoped to capitalize by convincing the university to move. President Boyd and the faculty were not dismayed by the loss, mathematics professor Frederick Elder said, What do you need to keep classes going. Two yards of blackboard and a box of chalk, as a response to the fire, English professor Vernon Louis Parrington created a plan for the future development of the campus. Most of the plan was never implemented, but Parringtons suggestion for the core formed the basis for the North Oval
National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. Its medical counterpart is the National Institutes of Health, with an annual budget of about US$7.0 billion, the NSF funds approximately 24% of all federally supported basic research conducted by the United States colleges and universities. In some fields, such as mathematics, computer science and the social sciences, the current NSF director, confirmed in March 2014, is astronomer France A. Córdova, former president of Purdue University. The NSF seeks to fulfill its mission chiefly by issuing competitive, the NSF makes some contracts. Some proposals are solicited, and some are not, the NSF funds both kinds, the NSF does not operate its own laboratories, unlike other federal research agencies, notable examples being the NASA and the National Institutes of Health. The NSF receives over 50,000 such proposals each year and those funded are typically projects that are ranked highest in a merit review process, the current version of which was introduced in 1997.
For example, reviewers cannot work at the NSF itself, nor for the institution that employs the proposing researchers, all proposal evaluations are confidential, the proposing researchers may see them, but they do not see the names of the reviewers. However, both already had been mandated for all NSF merit review procedures in the 2010 re-authorization of the America COMPETES Act. The Act includes an emphasis on promoting potentially transformative research, most NSF grants go to individuals or small groups of investigators, who carry out research at their home campuses. Other grants provide funding for research centers, instruments. Still, others fund national-scale facilities that are shared by the community as a whole. In addition to researchers and research facilities, NSF grants support science, Undergraduates can receive funding through Research Experiences for Undergraduates summer programs. K-12 and some community college instructors are eligible to participate in compensated Research Experiences for Teachers programs, the NSFs workforce numbers about 1,700, nearly all working at its Arlington headquarters.
In June 2013 it was announced that the NSF would relocate its headquarters to Alexandria, Virginia in 2017. S, examples include initiatives in, Nanotechnology The science of learning Digital libraries The ecology of infectious diseases The NSF was established by the National Science Foundation Act of 1950. Its stated mission is To promote the progress of science, to advance the health and welfare. Some historians of science have argued that the result was a compromise between too many clashing visions of the purpose and scope of the federal government. The NSF was certainly not the government agency for the funding of basic science. By 1950, support for areas of research had already become dominated by specialized agencies such as the National Institutes of Health