Tower of London
The Tower of London Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from the eastern edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill, it was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the entire castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078 and was a resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new ruling elite; the castle was used as a prison from 1100 until 1952, although, not its primary purpose. A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence; as a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion under Kings Richard I, Henry III, Edward I in the 12th and 13th centuries; the general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite activity on the site.
The Tower of London has played a prominent role in English history. It was besieged several times, controlling it has been important to controlling the country; the Tower has served variously as an armoury, a treasury, a menagerie, the home of the Royal Mint, a public record office, the home of the Crown Jewels of England. From the early 14th century until the reign of Charles II, a procession would be led from the Tower to Westminster Abbey on the coronation of a monarch. In the absence of the monarch, the Constable of the Tower is in charge of the castle; this was a trusted position in the medieval period. In the late 15th century, the castle was the prison of the Princes in the Tower. Under the Tudors, the Tower became used less as a royal residence, despite attempts to refortify and repair the castle, its defences lagged behind developments to deal with artillery; the peak period of the castle's use as a prison was the 16th and 17th centuries, when many figures who had fallen into disgrace, such as Elizabeth I before she became queen, Sir Walter Raleigh, Elizabeth Throckmorton, were held within its walls.
This use has led to the phrase "sent to the Tower". Despite its enduring reputation as a place of torture and death, popularised by 16th-century religious propagandists and 19th-century writers, only seven people were executed within the Tower before the World Wars of the 20th century. Executions were more held on the notorious Tower Hill to the north of the castle, with 112 occurring there over a 400-year period. In the latter half of the 19th century, institutions such as the Royal Mint moved out of the castle to other locations, leaving many buildings empty. Anthony Salvin and John Taylor took the opportunity to restore the Tower to what was felt to be its medieval appearance, clearing out many of the vacant post-medieval structures. In the First and Second World Wars, the Tower was again used as a prison and witnessed the executions of 12 men for espionage. After the Second World War, damage caused during the Blitz was repaired, the castle reopened to the public. Today, the Tower of London is one of the country's most popular tourist attractions.
Under the ceremonial charge of the Constable of the Tower, operated by the Resident Governor of the Tower of London and Keeper of the Jewel House, the property is cared for by the charity Historic Royal Palaces and is protected as a World Heritage Site. The Tower was orientated with its strongest and most impressive defences overlooking Saxon London, which archaeologist Alan Vince suggests was deliberate, it stood out to traffic on the River Thames. The castle enclosures; the innermost ward is the earliest phase of the castle. Encircling it to the north and west is the inner ward, built during the reign of Richard I. There is the outer ward which encompasses the castle and was built under Edward I. Although there were several phases of expansion after William the Conqueror founded the Tower of London, the general layout has remained the same since Edward I completed his rebuild in 1285; the castle encloses an area of 12 acres with a further 6 acres around the Tower of London constituting the Tower Liberties – land under the direct influence of the castle and cleared for military reasons.
The precursor of the Liberties was laid out in the 13th century when Henry III ordered that a strip of land adjacent to the castle be kept clear. Despite popular fiction, the Tower of London never had a permanent torture chamber, although the basement of the White Tower housed a rack in periods. Tower Wharf was built on the bank of the Thames under Edward I and was expanded to its current size during the reign of Richard II; the White Tower is a keep, the strongest structure in a medieval castle, contained lodgings suitable for the lord – in this case, the king or his representative. According to military historian Allen Brown, "The great tower was by virtue of its strength and lordly accommodation, the donjon par excellence"; as one of the largest keeps in the Christian world, the White Tower has been described as "the most complete eleventh-century palace in Europe". The White Tower, not including its projecting corner towers, measures 36 by 32 metres at the base, is 27 m high at the southern battlements.
The structure was three storeys high, comprising a basement floor, an entrance level, an upper floor. The entrance, as is usual in Norman keeps, was above ground
Frederick II of Denmark
Frederick II was King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death. Frederick II was the son of King Christian III of Denmark and Norway and Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, the daughter of Magnus I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, he was hailed as successor to the throne of Denmark in 1542, of Norway in 1548. Unlike his father, King Frederick II was affected by military ideals; as a young man, he made friendships with German war princes. In 1552, Steward of the Realm, Peder Oxe, had been raised to Councillor of State. During the spring of 1557, Oxe and the King had quarreled over a mutual property exchange. Failing to compromise matters with the King, Oxe had fled to Germany in 1558. However, financial difficulties arose during the stress of the Northern Seven Years' War. King Frederick II won his first victory with the conquest of Dithmarschen in Schleswig-Holstein under Johan Rantzau, during the summer of 1559. From his predecessor, he inherited the Livonian War. In 1560, he installed Magnus of Holstein, in the Bishopric of Ösel -- Wiek.
King Frederick II tried to avoid conflict in Livonia and consolidated amicable relations with Tsar Ivan IV of Russia in the 1562 Treaty of Mozhaysk. His brother Magnus was made titular King of Livonia, as a vassal of Tsar Ivan IV. King Frederick's competition with Sweden for supremacy in the Baltic broke out into open warfare in 1563, the start of the Northern Seven Years' War, the dominating conflict of his rule, he tried in vain to conquer Sweden, ruled by his cousin, King Eric XIV. It developed into an expensive war of attrition in which the areas of Scania were ravaged by the Swedes, Norway was lost. During this war, King Frederick II led his army on the battlefield, but without much result; the conflict damaged his relationship with his noble councillors. After state finances collapsed during the years 1566 to 1567, King Frederik II called Peder Oxe home to address the kingdom's economy; the taking over of Danish administration and finances by the able councillor, provided a marked improvement for the national treasury.
Councillors of experience, including Niels Kaas, Arild Huitfeldt, Christoffer Valkendorff, took care of the domestic administration. Subsequently, government finances were put in order and Denmark's economy improved. One of the chief expedients of the improved state of affairs was the raising of the Sound Dues. Oxe, as lord treasurer, reduced the national debt and redeemed portions of crown lands. After King John III of Sweden, King Eric's successor, refused to accept a peace favoring Denmark in the Treaties of Roskilde, the ongoing war dragged on until it was ended by a status quo peace in the Treaty of Stettin, that let Denmark save face but show limits of Danish military power. After the war, King Frederick II kept the peace without giving up his attempt of trying to expand his prestige as a naval ruler, his foreign politics were marked by a moral support of the Protestant powers – but at the same time by a strict neutrality. A period of affluence and growth followed in Danish history. In 1567, King Frederick II founded Fredrikstad in Norway.
Frederik II Upper Secondary School in Fredrikstad, one of the largest schools of its kind in Norway, is named after Frederick. He rebuilt Kronborg in Elsinore from a medieval fortress into a magnificent Renaissance castle, between 1574 and 1585. In 1585, he visited Norway as king, he was a major close personal friend of the famous astronomer, Tycho Brahe. King Frederick II stands as a typical renaissance ruler of Denmark, he was a lover of hunting, wine and feasts. As a person, he was described as hot-headed, vain and ambitious; as a young man, Frederick II had desired to marry his mistress, Anne of Hardenberg, who had served as a lady-in-waiting to his mother, the Dowager Queen Dorothea of Denmark. He had wooed Queen Elizabeth I of England, an initiative which made him Knight of the Garter. On 20 July 1572, he was married to Sophia of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, a descendant of King John of Denmark, his own first half-cousin, through their grandfather, Frederick I, King of Denmark and Norway. Sophia was Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow and Elizabeth of Denmark.
Frederick and Sophia had eight children: Elizabeth of Denmark, married in 1590 to Henry Julius, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Anne of Denmark, married on 23 November 1589 to King James VI of Scotland. Christian IV, King of Denmark and Norway Ulrik of Denmark, last Bishop of the old Schleswig see, as Ulrich II, Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Schwerin, he married Lady Catherine Hahn-Hinrichshagen. John August of Denmark, died in infancy. Augusta of Denmark, married on 30 August 1596 to Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. Hedwig of Denmark, married on 12 September 1602 to Christian II, Elector of Saxony John of Denmark, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein The Royal Lineage at the website of the Danish Monarchy Frederik II at the website of the Royal Danish Collection Bain, Robert Nisbet. "Frederick II. of Denmark and Norway". Encyclopædia Britannica (11t
Anstruther is a small coastal resort town in Fife, situated on the north-shore of the Firth of Forth and 9 mi south-southeast of St Andrews. The town comprises two settlements, Anstruther Easter and Anstruther Wester, which are divided by a stream, the Dreel Burn. With a population of 3,500, it is the largest community on the Firth of Forth's north-shore coastline known as the East Neuk. To the east, it merges with the village of Cellardyke. Founded as a fishing village, Anstruther is home to the Scottish Fisheries Museum, its main industry is now tourism, although other small-scale manufacturing and service industries continue. Recreational vessels are now moored in the harbour, a golf course is situated near the town. Anstruther Pleasure Cruises operate sightseeing/wildlife cruises from the harbour to the Isle of May, the UK's primary puffin location, on board the vessel the May Princess from April to October. An abundance of other wildlife, including seal colonies inhabit the island; the Waid Academy, the local state comprehensive school, is a focus of the community and through its secondary role as a community centre.
Anstruther has a parish church at its centre, on a small hill. This structure incorporates a tower/spire feature common to the area. Anstruther War Memorial is located in the cemetery, somewhat further inland, it is of an unusual war memorial form, being flat to the ground, in the centre of a landscaped roundel, broadly adopting the shape of a celtic cross. The town has several chip shops; the Anstruther Fish Bar, which won Fish and Chip shop of the year in 2001–2002, was awarded the same prize once again by the Sea Fish Organisation in 2009. Anstruther is home to Scotland's only true-scale model Solar System; the model, which shows the Sun and planets and the distances between them all at the same scale of 1 to ten thousand million, is located in the town centre. It stretches 600 m from the Sun to Pluto. Anstruther is close to the Caves of Caiplie situated on the coastal path to Crail. Following the end of the Cold War, one of Anstruther's best-kept secrets has become a major tourist attraction.
A secret nuclear bunker, built in 1951 and operational until 1993, is located on the B940 near the village. During its operational life, it looked like an ordinary domestic dwelling, but has been renovated and is now open to the public as a museum; the bunker was a subsidiary Regional Seat of Government in time of possible nuclear emergency and would have been occupied by the UK Armed Forces, UKWMO, Royal Observer Corps, other Civil Service personnel. Somewhat out from the town centre, in Anstruther Wester, stands the Dreel Tavern, taking its name from the adjacent burn; this building dates from the 17th century. Nearby is Buckie House, built in the late 17th century and restored in 1968 by W Murray Jack; the east gable was decorated with scallop shells and whelks or'buckies' by the slater Andrew Batchelor in the mid 19th century. Its exterior was restored in 2010; the name of Anstruther derives from Scottish Gaelic. The second element is sruthair, but the first element less certain: it is Gaelic án or aon, thus meaning either'driving current or burn' or' one burn'.
The name of Anstruther Easter derives from Scots easter, since the village lies to the east of Anstruther, Anstruther Wester correspondingly from Scots wester. Anstruther-Easter and -Wester are separated by a small stream called Dreel Burn, their parishes and that of nearby Kilrenny are immensely historic. Local tradition states that early in the 12th century, Alexander I of Scotland granted the lands of Anstruther to a William de Candela. However, no records survive of this original grant, the earliest recorded lord of Anstruther was mentioned in a charter of 1225. There have been several theories as to the origin of the mythical, but recent research has suggested he may have been a Norman from Italy. There is evidence that William the Conqueror sought assistance from Count of Candela, he sent his son. It may be this. William de Candela's son, another William, was said to be a benefactor to the monks of Balmerino Abbey. Balmerino was founded in 1229, long after the lifetime of this William. Land in Anstruther Easter, on which a chapel was built and now occupied by the Scottish Fisheries Museum, was gifted to Balmerino by another William, sometime in the 1280s.
Both this suggestion, the Italian origin theory are inaccurate. The de Candela family came from Dorset, coming to England from Normandy in or around 1066; the de Candela name was dropped by a generation, in a charter confirming a grant of land to Dryburgh Abbey in 1225, Henry is described as'Henricus de Aynstrother dominus ejusdem'. His son called Henry, was a companion of Louis IX in his crusades to the Holy Land and swore fealty to Edward I in 1292 and again in 1296. In 1225, it took the intervention of Pope Honorius III to settle a teinds dispute between the monks of Dryburgh Abbey and the fishermen of Anstruther, suggesting that then, the fishing was sufficiently good to warrant arguing over. In December 1583, James VI of Scotland gave the town the status of a Royal Burgh and trading rights, recognizing the importance of the port, called the draucht of Anstruther; the bounds of the new Burgh were the "Silver Dyke" on the east, the low water line on the south, the Anstruther burn to the west, the Kylrynnie march road.
James Melville's diary provides a graphic account of the arrival of a ship from the Spanish Armada to Ans
David Murray (poet)
Sir David Murray of Gorthy was an officer in the household of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in England from 1603 to 1612, poet. A member of the Scottish Murray family, David's father, Robert Murray, was the Laird of Abercairney, near Crieff. David had an older brother and younger brothers, Mungo of Craigie, John Minister of Dunfermline and Leith, Andrew and James, his two sisters were Nicola, who married Robert Douglas of Spott Lord Belhaven, Prince Henry's Stable Master, Anne, who married William Moncrieff of Moncrieff. William Murray, David's elder brother, was brought up at Stirling Castle with the young James VI of Scotland. Annabel Murray, Countess of Mar, who shared responsibility for the King at Stirling, was the aunt of their father; the London "Water Poet" John Taylor made a point of visiting his great friend William during his Pennyles Pilgimage to Scotland in 1618. David left no heirs. David was educated at St Salvator's College at St Andrews University, but did not graduate as Master of Arts.
Before James VI of Scotland became King of England, David Murray was a servant of Prince Henry at Stirling Castle. Murray went to the Netherlands in September 1600 carrying a letter of recommendation from his six-year-old master, his yearly fee 600 marks Scots as a Gentleman of the Prince's Bedchamber was fixed 30 June 1602, by the order of the Privy Council of Scotland. His portrait is now displayed in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. After the Union of the Crowns, Prince Henry and his household arrived in London at the end of June 1603. David Murray received a "free gift" of £200 from the exchequer. In England, Murray was the keeper of the Prince's privy purse, managing a yearly allowance of 1,000 marks, he made payments to artists and craftsmen who worked for Prince Henry including the painter Robert Peake, the ship-designer Phineas Pett, the architect Inigo Jones, the Edinburgh jeweller George Heriot. He became Gentleman of the Robes and Master of the Wardrobe, he was knighted as Sir David Murray of Gorthy at Greenwich Palace on 18 May 1605.
John Hawkins wrote that Murray was "the only man in whom he had put choise trust." When Arbella Stuart wrote to Prince Henry on 18 October 1605, she mentioned that David Murray and Adam Newton would be her intercessors in her suit to the Prince for aid.. Murray installed a model of a ship made by Phineas Pett for the Prince in a private room in the long gallery at Richmond Palace in November 1607. In 1609, Murray laid out £1,986 for pearls bought in London for the Prince's costume during the Christmas festivities and the Barriers tournament. In March 1610, Murray organised for Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, to show some pictures to the Prince, with the assistance of the Earl of Arundel; the historian Roy Strong see this incidents as part of the inception of the Prince's interest in European fine-art, Murray's responsibilities came to include the Prince's cabinet of curiosities of medals and coins. In Scotland, David's younger brother, Minister of Leith, was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle in 1608 for a Presbyterian sermon, banished to Nithsdale.
In 1612, William Cecil, Lord Roos, wrote to David Murray that as a Puritan himself he had objected to the proposal for the Prince to marry the Catholic infanta Maria, daughter of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy. Roos pointed out. A marriage with the Medici was proposed; as part of these marriage negotiations Cosimo II de' Medici had sent to Prince Henry a gift of statuettes by Giambologna. Murray accompanied the Prince in the Long Gallery at Richmond when he received these gifts on 26 June 1612. While Prince Henry was in his final illness and delirious, according to the account of Charles Cornwallis, on 5 November 1612, the anniversary of the Gunpowder plot, it was noted that he called out, "David, David." When Murray came to Prince's bedside he only said, "I would say somewhat, but I cannot utter it." Henry asked Murray to burn some letters kept in a cabinet in his closet. At the Prince's funeral, Murray rode in the chariot that served as a hearse, at the Prince's feet as Master of his Wardrobe.
In the summer of 1615, David Murray received part payment of the sum of £10,022 fourteen shillings threepence halfpenny owed to him for his expenses as keeper of the Prince's wardrobe and privy purse. John Smethwick published Murray's volume of poetry, the Tragicall Death of Sophonisba, by David Murray, Scoto-Brittaine, together with twenty-six sonnets to fair Coelia or Caelia; the work was prefaced by two sonnets comparing Prince Henry to an eagle, three sonnets addressed to Murray himself by his cousin John Murray, Michael Drayton and Simon Grahame. The sonnets for "my fair Caelia" were dedicated to Lord Dingwall. Murray's sonnets, like those of William Alexander of Menstrie are anglicised in vocabulary and grammar, but some employ an interlinked form used by the Castalian poets who worked for King James in Scotland the 1580s. Smethick's volume included the Complaint of the Shepherd Harpalus, a sonnet eulogy for Cecily Wemyss, Lady of Tullibardine, epitaphs for his cousins David and Adam Murray.
Verses from the Complaint of Harpalus were printed as a broadsheet song by H. G. in 1625, the heirs of
Calvinism is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, theories of worship, the use of God's law for believers, among other things; as declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, the core doctrines are predestination and election. The term Calvinism can be misleading, because the religious tradition which it denotes has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. In the context of the Reformation, Huldrych Zwingli began the Reformed tradition in 1519 in the city of Zürich, his followers were labeled Zwinglians, consistent with the Catholic practice of naming heresy after its founder. Soon, Zwingli was joined by Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, William Farel, Johannes Oecolampadius and other early Reformed thinkers.
The namesake of the movement, French reformer John Calvin, converted to the Reformed tradition from Roman Catholicism only in the late 1520s or early 1530s as it was being developed. The movement was first called referring to John Calvin, by Lutherans who opposed it. Many within the tradition find it either an indescriptive or an inappropriate term and would prefer the word Reformed to be used instead; some Calvinists prefer the term Augustinian-Calvinism since Calvin credited his theology to Augustine of Hippo. The most important Reformed theologians include John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til, Gordon Clark, R. C. Sproul were influential. Contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, John MacArthur, Timothy J. Keller, David Wells, Michael Horton. Reformed churches may exercise several forms of ecclesiastical polity.
Calvinism is represented by Continental Reformed and Congregationalist traditions. The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 100 million members in 211 member denominations around the world. There are more conservative Reformed federations such as the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed Churches, as well as independent churches. Calvinism is named after John Calvin, it was first used by a Lutheran theologian in 1552. It was a common practice of the Catholic Church to name; the term first came out of Lutheran circles. Calvin denounced the designation himself: They could attach us no greater insult than this word, Calvinism, it is not hard to guess. Despite its negative connotation, this designation became popular in order to distinguish Calvinists from Lutherans and from newer Protestant branches that emerged later; the vast majority of churches that trace their history back to Calvin do not use it themselves, since the designation "Reformed" is more accepted and preferred in the English-speaking world.
Moreover, these churches claim to be—in accordance with John Calvin's own words—"renewed accordingly with the true order of gospel". Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed tradition—as a branch of Protestantism distinguished from Lutheranism—divided into two separate groups: Arminians and Calvinists. However, it is now rare to call Arminians a part of the Reformed tradition. While the Reformed theological tradition addresses all of the traditional topics of Christian theology, the word Calvinism is sometimes used to refer to particular Calvinist views on soteriology and predestination, which are summarized in part by the Five Points of Calvinism; some have argued that Calvinism as a whole stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things including salvation. First-generation Reformed theologians include Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, John Oecolampadius, Guillaume Farel; these reformers came from diverse academic backgrounds, but distinctions within Reformed theology can be detected in their thought the priority of scripture as a source of authority.
Scripture was viewed as a unified whole, which led to a covenantal theology of the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper as visible signs of the covenant of grace. Another Reformed distinctive present in these theologians was their denial of the bodily presence of Christ in the Lord's supper; each of these theologians understood salvation to be by grace alone, affirmed a doctrine of particular election. Martin Luther and his successor Philipp Melanchthon were undoubtedly significant influences on these theologians, to a larger extent Reformed theologians; the doctrine of justification by faith alone was a direct inheritance from Luther. John Calvin, Heinrich Bullinger, Wolfgang Musculus, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Andreas Hyperius belong to the second generation of Reformed theologians. Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion was one of the most influential theologies of the era. Toward the middle of the 16th
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952; the monarch and their immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister; the monarch is commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces. Though the ultimate executive authority over the government is still formally by and through the monarch's royal prerogative, these powers may only be used according to laws enacted in Parliament and, in practice, within the constraints of convention and precedent; the British monarchy traces its origins from the petty kingdoms of early medieval Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England, which consolidated into the kingdoms of England and Scotland by the 10th century.
England was conquered by the Normans in 1066, after which Wales too came under control of Anglo-Normans. The process was completed in the 13th century when the Principality of Wales became a client state of the English kingdom. Meanwhile, Magna Carta began a process of reducing the English monarch's political powers. From 1603, the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, which followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms; the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married them, from succession to the English throne. In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, in 1801, the Kingdom of Ireland joined to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the British monarch was the nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the world's surface at its greatest extent in 1921. In the early 1920s the Balfour Declaration recognised the evolution of the Dominions of the Empire into separate, self-governing countries within a Commonwealth of Nations.
After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent bringing the Empire to an end. George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states; the United Kingdom and fifteen other independent sovereign states that share the same person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. Although the monarch is shared, each country is sovereign and independent of the others, the monarch has a different and official national title and style for each realm. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the monarch is the head of state; the Queen's image is used to signify British sovereignty and government authority—her profile, for instance, appearing on currency, her portrait in government buildings. The sovereign is further both mentioned in and the subject of songs, loyal toasts, salutes. "God Save the Queen" is the British national anthem. Oaths of allegiance are made to her lawful successors.
The monarch takes little direct part in government. The decisions to exercise sovereign powers are delegated from the monarch, either by statute or by convention, to ministers or officers of the Crown, or other public bodies, exclusive of the monarch personally, thus the acts of state done in the name of the Crown, such as Crown Appointments if performed by the monarch, such as the Queen's Speech and the State Opening of Parliament, depend upon decisions made elsewhere: Legislative power is exercised by the Queen-in-Parliament, by and with the advice and consent of Parliament, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Executive power is exercised by Her Majesty's Government, which comprises ministers the prime minister and the Cabinet, technically a committee of the Privy Council, they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services. Judicial power is vested in the various judiciaries of the United Kingdom, who by constitution and statute have judicial independence of the Government.
The Church of England, of which the monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are granted to other public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council, Royal Commission or otherwise; the sovereign's role as a constitutional monarch is limited to non-partisan functions, such as granting honours. This role has been recognised since the 19th century; the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the "dignified part" rather than the "efficient part" of government. Whenever necessary, the monarch is responsible for appointing a new prime minister. In accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the sovereign must appoint an individual who commands the support of the House of Commons the leader of the party or coalition that has a majority in that House; the prime minister takes office by attending the monarch in private audience, after "kissing hands" that appointment is effective without any other f
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany, styled as Lord Darnley until 1565, was king consort of Scotland from 1565 until his murder at Kirk o' Field in 1567. Many contemporary narratives describing his life and death refer to him as Lord Darnley, his title as heir apparent to the Earldom of Lennox, it is by this appellation that he is now known, he was the second but eldest surviving son of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, his wife, Lady Margaret Douglas. Darnley's maternal grandparents were Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, Margaret, daughter of Henry VII of England and widow of James IV of Scotland, he was a first cousin and the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, was the father of her son James VI of Scotland, who succeeded Elizabeth I of England as James I. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, was born, at Temple Newsam, Leeds, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, in 1545; however this date is uncertain as his parents were not together in early 1545 and a letter of March 1566, from Mary Queen of Scots, indicates Darnley was nineteen years old.
Therefore the date 1546 would seem probable. A descendant of both James II of Scotland and Henry VII of England, Darnley had potential claims to both the Scottish and English thrones. In 1545, his father, Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, was found guilty of treason in Scotland for siding with the English in the War of the Rough Wooing, in opposing Mary of Guise and Regent Arran; the family's Scottish estates were forfeited and his father went into exile in England for 22 years, returning to Scotland in 1564. The Countess of Lennox Margaret Douglas, his mother, had left Scotland in 1528; the young Henry was conscious of his inheritance. Well-versed in Latin and familiar with Gaelic and French, he received an education befitting his royal lineage, he excelled in singing, lute playing, dancing; the Scottish scholar John Elder was among his tutors. Elder advocated Anglo-Scottish union through the marriage of Queen of Scots and Prince Edward, his advice to Henry VIII in 1543, was termed the Advice of a Redshank.
Another schoolmaster to the young heir was Arthur Lallart, who would be interrogated in London for having gone to Scotland in 1562. Henry was said to be strong, skilled in horsemanship and weaponry, passionate about hunting and hawking, his youthful character is captured somewhat in a letter of March 1554 to Mary I of England from Temple Newsam, where he writes about making a map, the Utopia Nova, his wish that "every haire in my heade for to be a wourthy souldiour". The Lennox Crisis was a political dilemma in England that arose from the dynastic ambition of the Lennoxes: Matthew Stewart, the 4th Earl of Lennox, was third in line to the Scottish throne, his wife Margaret Douglas, the Countess of Lennox, was a niece of Henry VIII and granddaughter of Henry VII, making her second in line to the English throne after Mary Queen of Scots, her son Darnley after her, should Elizabeth not have been able to accede to or hold the throne for some reason; the Lennox family represented an alternative line of succession to the English throne through Margaret Tudor, should Henry's heirs not have been able to hold it for the time they did.
As Roman Catholics, they posed a threat to Protestant England in 1558, as the 25-year-old Queen Elizabeth took the throne. Although Elizabeth was bright and well-educated for her position, as a female she had to prove herself. Many Roman Catholics would have liked to have seen the next in line, the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots, take the throne, as they regarded Elizabeth as illegitimate, her parents' marriage not having been recognized by the Catholic Church, and many would have preferred Darnley, as a male, to have the throne as well. All of these interrelationships made for complex intrigues, spying and maneuvering for power at the various courts; when Henry II of France died in July 1559, Lennox's brother John, 5th Sieur d'Aubigny, was elevated in the French court as kinsman of the new French queen, Mary Queen of Scots. Aubigny arranged for Darnley to be dispatched to the French court to congratulate Mary and Francis II of France on their accession and seek restoration for Lennox. Mary did not restore Lennox to his Scottish earldom, but she did give 1,000 crowns to Darnley and invited him to her coronation.
Lennox's plan was to appeal directly to the Queen of Scots via her ambassador, over the heads of Elizabeth and the Guise. The mission of Lennox's agent, one Nesbit, appears to have been a desperate one. Aubigny was later accused of supporting Mary's title to the throne of England and hinting that his nephew had a stronger claim than Elizabeth. Lennox set Nesbit to watch Mary and Darnley's tutor, John Elder. In 1559 Nicholas Throckmorton, the English ambassador in Paris, warned Elizabeth that Elder was "as dangerous for the matters of England as any he knew."Lord Darnley was the next claimant to the English throne, after the Queen of Scots, his aging mother, as a male, English-born Catholic, he was preferred by Elizabeth's enemies. Paget in March 1560 wrote of'well founded' fear that Catholics would raise Darnley to the throne on Elizabeth's death. By the summer of that year, Elizabeth's position was strengthened. Francis Yaxley was one notable spy. A Catholic, Yaxley had been a clerk of the Signet and had been employed by William Cecil since 1549, travelling in France for him.