National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
The Archibald Prize was the first major prize for portraiture in Australian art. It was first awarded in 1921 after the receipt of a bequest from J. F. Archibald, the editor of The Bulletin who died in 1919, it is now administered by the trustees of the Art Gallery of New South Wales and awarded for "the best portrait, preferentially of some man or woman distinguished in Art, Science or Politics, painted by an artist resident in Australia during the twelve months preceding the date fixed by the trustees for sending in the pictures." The Archibald Prize has been awarded annually since 1921 and since July 2015 the prize has been AU$100,000. List of Archibald Prize winners 1921 – £400 1941 – £443 / 13 / 4 1942 – £441 / 11 / 11 1951 – £500 1956 – £1,364 2006 – $35,000 2008 – $50,000 2012 – $75,000 2015 – $100,000 Since 1988 two other prizes have been added to the Archibald prize event; the People's Choice Award, in which votes from the public viewing the finalists are collected to find a winner was first awarded in 1988.
The award comes with a monetary prize of A$3,500. In 1992 the Packing Room Prize was established, in which the staff who receive the portraits and install them in the gallery vote for their choice of winner; the prize-winner is not always an Archibald finalist. Although the prize is said to be awarded by the staff, the gallery's head storeman – since 2011 Steve Peters – holds 51% of the vote; the Packing Room Prize is awarded annually and since June 2014, the prize has been A$1,500. To date there has never been an Archibald Prize winner, a Packing Room Prize winner.. For this reason winning the Packing Room Prize is known as "the kiss of death award". There has twice been a matching Packing Room Prize and People's Choice Award winner – although neither won the main prize – to Paul Newton's portrait of Roy Slaven and HG Nelson in 2001, to Jan Williamson's portrait of singer/songwriter Jenny Morris in 2002. Danelle Bergstrom has won the Packing Room Prize twice, first in 1995 with a portrait of singer/songwriter Jon English, again in 2007 with a portrait of actor Jack Thompson, with the work entitled Take Two.
Category:Archibald Prize finalists Lists of Archibald Prize finalists Since 1992, a selection of entrants not included amongst the finalists has been included in the Salon des Refusés. Since 1999, Sydney based law firm Holding Redlich have sponsored a Salon des Refusés People's Choice Award; the Archibald Prize is held at the same time as the Sir John Sulman Prize, the Wynne Prize, the Mortimore Prize for Realism, the Australian Photographic Portrait Prize, the Young Archie competition and the Dobell Prize. The Archibald is the next richest portrait prize in Australia after the Doug Moran National Portrait Prize. In 1978 Brett Whiteley won the Archibald and Sulman Prizes all in the same year, the only time this has happened, it was his second win for the other prizes as well. Some works which do not make the Archibald Prize finalists are shown at the S. H. Ervin Gallery in the Archibald Salon des Refusés exhibition which began in 1992; the satirical Bald Archy Prize judged by a cockatoo, was started in 1994 at the Coolac Festival of Fun as a parody of the Archibald Prize.
The prize has attracted a good deal of controversy and several court cases. Max Meldrum criticised the 1938 Archibald Prize winner, Nora Heysen, saying that women could not be expected to paint as well as men. Heysen was the first woman to win the Archibald Prize, with a portrait of Madame Elink Schuurman, the wife of the Consul General for the Netherlands. In 1953 several art students including John Olsen protested William Dargie's winning portrait, the seventh time he had been awarded the prize. One protester tied a sign around her dog which said "Winner Archibald Prize – William Doggie". Dargie went on to win the prize again in 1956. On becoming Prime Minister in 1972, Gough Whitlam commissioned his friend Clifton Pugh to paint the official portrait; the Australian Parliament Historical Memorial Committee would have commissioned a portrait. Pugh's portrait of Whitlam won the 1972 Archibald Prize. In 1975, John Bloomfield's portrait of Tim Burstall was disqualified on the grounds that it had been painted from a blown up photograph, rather than from life.
The prize was awarded to Kevin Connor. In 1983 John Bloomfield sued for the return of the 1975 prize, unsuccessful; the application form of the Archibald Prize was modified based on this to make clear that the subject must be painted from life. In 1985, administration of the trust was transferred to the Art Gallery of New South Wales, after a court case where the Perpetual Trustee Company took the Australian Journalists Association Benevolent Fund to court. In 1997 the painting of the Bananas in Pyjamas television characters by Evert Ploeg was deemed ineligible by the trustees because it was not a painting of a person. Another controversy involved the 2000 Archibald winner, when artist Adam Cullen lodged a complaint with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation who had used his painting, Portrait of David Wenham, in a television commercial. In 2002, head packer Steve Peters singled out a painting of himself by Dave Machin as a possible winner for the Packing Room Prize, it did not win. Following this, portraits of the head packer were no longer allowed.
In 2004 Craig
Milne Bay is a large bay in Milne Bay Province, south-eastern Papua New Guinea. More than 35 kilometres long and over 15 kilometres wide, Milne Bay is a sheltered deep-water harbor accessible via Ward Hunt Strait, it is surrounded by the wooded Stirling Range to the north and south, on the northern shore, a narrow coastal strip, soggy with sago and mangrove swamps. The bay is named after Sir Alexander Milne. Surveyed by Luis Vaez de Torres in July 1606. Surveyed by Captain Owen Stanley, R. N. F. R. S. in 1850. During World War II, the area was the site of the Battle of Milne Bay in 1942 and by late 1943 it became the major support base for the New Guinea campaign through the development of Finschhafen as an advanced base after that area was secured in the Huon Peninsula campaign. By January 1944 about 140 vessels were in harbor due to congestion at the facilities. Congestion was relieved by opening of extensive improvements at Milne Bay. Malaria was a major problem in New Guinea and Milne Bay was hard hit with incidents of the disease hitting at a rate of 4,000 cases per 1,000 troops per year and estimated 12,000 man-days a month lost time.
There were three planes ditched off the island in 1943, a P-38H Lightning, a P-38F Lightning, a B-24D Liberator "The Leila Belle". The HMPNGS Seeadler fired upon a Vietnamese fishing vessel on December 23, 2016, her captain died, the poacher sank. Battle of Buna–Gona Milne Force Operation Lilliput Condon-Rall, Mary Ellen; the Technical Services—The Medical Department: Medical Service In The War Against Japan. United States Army In World War II. Washington, DC: Center Of Military History, United States Army. LCCN 97022644. Leighton, Richard M; the War Department — Global Logistics And Strategy 1943–1945. United States Army In World War II. 2. Washington, DC: Center Of Military History, United States Army. LCCN 55060001
Sir John Campbell Longstaff was an Australian painter, war artist and a five-time winner of the Archibald Prize. He was a cousin of Will Longstaff a painter, as well as a war artist. Longstaff was born at Clunes, second son of Ralph Longstaff and Janet Campbell. John was educated at a boarding school in Clunes State School, he studied at the Melbourne National Gallery School, after his father disapproved of his artistic ambitions. Longstaff's talent was recognised by George Folingsby, he married Rosa Louisa Crocker on 20 July 1887. He won the National Gallery of Victoria's first travelling scholarship for his 1887 narrative painting Breaking the News, John and his wife sailed from Melbourne for London in September 1887. In January 1888 they travelled to Paris, he moved to London, where he painted many portraits. He was given several commissions, he occupied a studio at Grosvenor Chambers in Melbourne from 1897 to 1900. The National Gallery of Victoria assumed ownership of The Sirens under terms of the scholarship and bought his large landscape Gippsland, Sunday night, 20 February 1898.
He travelled to London again in 1901. Longstaff was appointed an official war artist with the Australian Infantry Force in the First World War, he made several portraits of officers in the military. On his return to Australia he won several awards and was given distinguished positions, such as his appointment to President of the Victorian Artists Society in 1924 and Trustee of the National Gallery of Victoria in 1927, he was knighted in the first Australian artist to have had this honour. His 1929 portrait of the artist Ellis Rowan was the first national portrait of an Australian woman; the Art Gallery of South Australia holds his portraits of The Artist's Wife. His biography Portrait in Youth, written by Nina Murdoch was published in 1948, his 1920 portrait of Nina Murdoch hangs in Reading Room of the National Canberra. His Archibald Prize winning pieces: 1925 - Portrait of Maurice Moscovitch 1928 - Portrait of Dr Alexander Leeper 1929 - W A Holman, KC 1931 - Sir John Sulman 1935 - A B Paterson Leigh Astbury,'Longstaff, Sir John Campbell', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 10, MUP, 1986, pp 141–142.
John Longstaff at Artcyclopedia LONGSTAFF, Sir John at the Australian War Memorial
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo