Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'. Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour, awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Dorothy Hodgkin, Alan Turing and Francis Crick. More fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking, Tim Hunt, Elizabeth Blackburn, Tim Berners-Lee, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Atta-ur Rahman, Andre Geim, James Dyson, Ajay Kumar Sood, Subhash Khot, Elon Musk and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900; as of October 2018, there are 1689 living Fellows and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.
Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year. New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations which make up around 90% of the society; each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society; every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science.
As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS. See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville and Onora O'Neill. Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters FRS. Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include 4th Earl of Selborne. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain,Ramsay Macdonald and H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society.
The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales elected 1978 Anne, Princess Royal elected 1987 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent elected 1990 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge elected 2009 Prince Andrew, Duke of York elected 2013Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow; the election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection. Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal. Nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, criticised for establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.
The certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership; the Council of the Royal Society oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees, to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair.
Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias, each group covers different
Ribonucleic acid is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding and expression of genes. RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, along with lipids and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA it is more found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA to convey genetic information that directs synthesis of specific proteins. Many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome; some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. One of these active processes is protein synthesis, a universal function in which RNA molecules direct the assembly of proteins on ribosomes; this process uses transfer RNA molecules to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA links amino acids together to form proteins.
Like DNA, most biologically active RNAs, including mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, snRNAs, other non-coding RNAs, contain self-complementary sequences that allow parts of the RNA to fold and pair with itself to form double helices. Analysis of these RNAs has revealed that they are structured. Unlike DNA, their structures do not consist of long double helices, but rather collections of short helices packed together into structures akin to proteins. In this fashion, RNAs can achieve chemical catalysis. For instance, determination of the structure of the ribosome—an RNA-protein complex that catalyzes peptide bond formation—revealed that its active site is composed of RNA; each nucleotide in RNA contains a ribose sugar, with carbons numbered 1' through 5'. A base is attached to the 1' position, in general, cytosine, guanine, or uracil. Adenine and guanine are purines and uracil are pyrimidines. A phosphate group is attached to the 5' position of the next; the phosphate groups have a negative charge each. The bases form hydrogen bonds between cytosine and guanine, between adenine and uracil and between guanine and uracil.
However, other interactions are possible, such as a group of adenine bases binding to each other in a bulge, or the GNRA tetraloop that has a guanine–adenine base-pair. An important structural component of RNA that distinguishes it from DNA is the presence of a hydroxyl group at the 2' position of the ribose sugar; the presence of this functional group causes the helix to take the A-form geometry, although in single strand dinucleotide contexts, RNA can also adopt the B-form most observed in DNA. The A-form geometry results in a deep and narrow major groove and a shallow and wide minor groove. A second consequence of the presence of the 2'-hydroxyl group is that in conformationally flexible regions of an RNA molecule, it can chemically attack the adjacent phosphodiester bond to cleave the backbone. RNA is transcribed with only four bases, but these bases and attached sugars can be modified in numerous ways as the RNAs mature. Pseudouridine, in which the linkage between uracil and ribose is changed from a C–N bond to a C–C bond, ribothymidine are found in various places.
Another notable modified base is hypoxanthine, a deaminated adenine base whose nucleoside is called inosine. Inosine plays a key role in the wobble hypothesis of the genetic code. There are more than 100 other occurring modified nucleosides; the greatest structural diversity of modifications can be found in tRNA, while pseudouridine and nucleosides with 2'-O-methylribose present in rRNA are the most common. The specific roles of many of these modifications in RNA are not understood. However, it is notable that, in ribosomal RNA, many of the post-transcriptional modifications occur in functional regions, such as the peptidyl transferase center and the subunit interface, implying that they are important for normal function; the functional form of single-stranded RNA molecules, just like proteins requires a specific tertiary structure. The scaffold for this structure is provided by secondary structural elements that are hydrogen bonds within the molecule; this leads to several recognizable "domains" of secondary structure like hairpin loops and internal loops.
Since RNA is charged, metal ions such as Mg2+ are needed to stabilise many secondary and tertiary structures. The occurring enantiomer of RNA is D-RNA composed of D-ribonucleotides. All chirality centers are located in the D-ribose. By the use of L-ribose or rather L-ribonucleotides, L-RNA can be synthesized. L-RNA is much more stable against degradation by RNase. Like other structured biopolymers such as proteins, one can define topology of a folded RNA molecule; this is done based on arrangement of intra-chain contacts within a folded RNA, termed as circuit topology. Synthesis of RNA is catalyzed by an enzyme—RNA polymerase—using DNA as a template, a process known as transcription. Initiation of transcription begins with the binding of the enzyme to a promoter sequence in the DNA; the DNA double helix is unwound by the helicase activity of the enzyme. The enzyme progresses along the template strand in the 3’ to 5’ direction, synthesizing a complementary RNA molecule with elongation occ
Human genetics is the study of inheritance as it occurs in human beings. Human genetics encompasses a variety of overlapping fields including: classical genetics, molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, population genetics, developmental genetics, clinical genetics, genetic counseling. Genes can be the common factor of the qualities of most human-inherited traits. Study of human genetics can be useful as it can answer questions about human nature, understand the diseases and development of effective disease treatment, understand genetics of human life; this article describes only basic features of human genetics. Inheritance of traits for humans are based upon Gregor Mendel's model of inheritance. Mendel deduced that inheritance depends upon discrete units of called factors or genes. Autosomal traits are associated with a single gene on an autosome —they are called "dominant" because a single copy—inherited from either parent—is enough to cause this trait to appear; this means that one of the parents must have the same trait, unless it has arisen due to an unlikely new mutation.
Examples of autosomal dominant traits and disorders are Huntington's achondroplasia. Autosomal recessive traits is one pattern of inheritance for a trait, disease, or disorder to be passed on through families. For a recessive trait or disease to be displayed two copies of the trait or disorder needs to be presented; the trait or gene will be located on a non-sex chromosome. Because it takes two copies of a trait to display a trait, many people can unknowingly be carriers of a disease. From an evolutionary perspective, a recessive disease or trait can remain hidden for several generations before displaying the phenotype. Examples of autosomal recessive disorders are cystic fibrosis. X-linked genes are found on the sex X chromosome. X-linked genes just like autosomal genes have both recessive types. Recessive X-linked disorders are seen in females and only affect males; this is because males inherit their X chromosome and all X-linked genes will be inherited from the maternal side. Fathers only pass on their Y chromosome to their sons, so no X-linked traits will be inherited from father to son.
Men cannot be carriers for recessive X linked traits, as they only have one X chromosome, so any X linked trait inherited from the mother will show up. Females express X-linked disorders when they are homozygous for the disorder and become carriers when they are heterozygous. X-linked dominant inheritance will show the same phenotype as a homozygote. Just like X-linked inheritance, there will be a lack of male-to-male inheritance, which makes it distinguishable from autosomal traits. One example of an X-linked trait is Coffin–Lowry syndrome, caused by a mutation in ribosomal protein gene; this mutation results in skeletal, craniofacial abnormalities, mental retardation, short stature. X chromosomes in females undergo a process known as X inactivation. X inactivation is when one of the two X chromosomes in females is completely inactivated, it is important that this process occurs otherwise a woman would produce twice the amount of normal X chromosome proteins. The mechanism for X inactivation will occur during the embryonic stage.
For people with disorders like trisomy X, where the genotype has three X chromosomes, X-inactivation will inactivate all X chromosomes until there is only one X chromosome active. Males with Klinefelter syndrome, who have an extra X chromosome, will undergo X inactivation to have only one active X chromosome. Y-linked inheritance occurs when trait, or disorder is transferred through the Y chromosome. Since Y chromosomes can only be found in males, Y linked traits are only passed on from father to son; the testis determining factor, located on the Y chromosome, determines the maleness of individuals. Besides the maleness inherited in the Y-chromosome there are no other found Y-linked characteristics. A pedigree is a diagram showing the ancestral relationships and transmission of genetic traits over several generations in a family. Square symbols are always used to represent males, whilst circles are used for females. Pedigrees are used to help detect many different genetic diseases. A pedigree can be used to help determine the chances for a parent to produce an offspring with a specific trait.
Four different traits can be identified by pedigree chart analysis: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, x-linked, or y-linked. Partial penetrance can be calculated from pedigrees. Penetrance is the percentage expressed frequency with which individuals of a given genotype manifest at least some degree of a specific mutant phenotype associated with a trait. Inbreeding, or mating between related organisms, can be seen on pedigree charts. Pedigree charts of royal families have a high degree of inbreeding, because it was customary and preferable for royalty to marry another member of royalty. Genetic counselors use pedigrees to help couples determine if the parents will be able to produce healthy children. A karyotype is a useful tool in cytogenetics. A karyotype is picture of all the chromosomes in the metaphase stage arranged according to length and centromere position. A karyotype can be useful in clinical genetics, due to its ability to diagnose genetic disorders. On a normal karyotype, aneuploidy can be detected by being able to observe any missing or extra chromosomes.
Giemsa banding, g-banding, of the karyotype can be used to detect deletions, duplications and translocations. G-banding will stain the chromosomes with light and dark bands unique to each chro
A chromosome is a deoxyribonucleic acid molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins which, aided by chaperone proteins, bind to and condense the DNA molecule to prevent it from becoming an unmanageable tangle. Chromosomes are visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division. Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once, the copy is joined to the original by a centromere, resulting either in an X-shaped structure if the centromere is located in the middle of the chromosome or a two-arm structure if the centromere is located near one of the ends; the original chromosome and the copy are now called sister chromatids. During metaphase the X-shape structure is called a metaphase chromosome. In this condensed form chromosomes are easiest to distinguish and study. In animal cells, chromosomes reach their highest compaction level in anaphase during chromosome segregation.
Chromosomal recombination during meiosis and subsequent sexual reproduction play a significant role in genetic diversity. If these structures are manipulated incorrectly, through processes known as chromosomal instability and translocation, the cell may undergo mitotic catastrophe; this will make the cell initiate apoptosis leading to its own death, but sometimes mutations in the cell hamper this process and thus cause progression of cancer. Some use the term chromosome in a wider sense, to refer to the individualized portions of chromatin in cells, either visible or not under light microscopy. Others use the concept in a narrower sense, to refer to the individualized portions of chromatin during cell division, visible under light microscopy due to high condensation; the word chromosome comes from the Greek χρῶμα and σῶμα, describing their strong staining by particular dyes. The term was coined by von Waldeyer-Hartz, referring to the term chromatin, introduced by Walther Flemming; some of the early karyological terms have become outdated.
For example and Chromosom, both ascribe color to a non-colored state. The German scientists Schleiden, Virchow and Bütschli were among the first scientists who recognized the structures now familiar as chromosomes. In a series of experiments beginning in the mid-1880s, Theodor Boveri gave the definitive demonstration that chromosomes are the vectors of heredity, it is the second of these principles, so original. Wilhelm Roux suggested. Boveri was able to confirm this hypothesis. Aided by the rediscovery at the start of the 1900s of Gregor Mendel's earlier work, Boveri was able to point out the connection between the rules of inheritance and the behaviour of the chromosomes. Boveri influenced two generations of American cytologists: Edmund Beecher Wilson, Nettie Stevens, Walter Sutton and Theophilus Painter were all influenced by Boveri. In his famous textbook The Cell in Development and Heredity, Wilson linked together the independent work of Boveri and Sutton by naming the chromosome theory of inheritance the Boveri–Sutton chromosome theory.
Ernst Mayr remarks that the theory was hotly contested by some famous geneticists: William Bateson, Wilhelm Johannsen, Richard Goldschmidt and T. H. Morgan, all of a rather dogmatic turn of mind. Complete proof came from chromosome maps in Morgan's own lab; the number of human chromosomes was published in 1923 by Theophilus Painter. By inspection through the microscope, he counted 24 pairs, his error was copied by others and it was not until 1956 that the true number, 46, was determined by Indonesia-born cytogeneticist Joe Hin Tjio. The prokaryotes – bacteria and archaea – have a single circular chromosome, but many variations exist; the chromosomes of most bacteria, which some authors prefer to call genophores, can range in size from only 130,000 base pairs in the endosymbiotic bacteria Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola and Candidatus Tremblaya princeps, to more than 14,000,000 base pairs in the soil-dwelling bacterium Sorangium cellulosum. Spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia are a notable exception to this arrangement, with bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, containing a single linear chromosome.
Prokaryotic chromosomes have less sequence-based structure than eukaryotes. Bacteria have a one-point from which replication starts, whereas some archaea contain multiple replication origins; the genes in prokaryotes are organized in operons, do not contain introns, unlike eukaryotes. Prokaryotes do not possess nuclei. Instead, their DNA is organized into a structure called the nucleoid; the nucleoid occupies a defined region of the bacterial cell. This structure is, dynamic and is maintained and remodeled by the actions of a range of histone-like proteins, which associate with the bacterial chromosome. In archaea, the DNA in chromosomes is more organized, with the DNA packaged within structures similar to eukaryotic nucleosomes. Certain bacteria contain plasmids or other extrachromosomal DNA; these are circular structures in the cytoplasm that contain cellular DNA and play a role in horizontal gene transfer. In prokaryotes and viruses, the DNA is densely packed and organized.
Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey, was an Australian pharmacologist and pathologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Sir Ernst Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the development of penicillin. Although Fleming received most of the credit for the discovery of penicillin, it was Florey who carried out the first clinical trials in 1941 of penicillin at the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford on the first patient, a constable from Oxford; the patient started to recover but subsequently died because Florey was unable, at that time, to make enough penicillin. It was Florey and Chain who made a useful and effective drug out of penicillin, after the task had been abandoned as too difficult. Florey's discoveries, along with the discoveries of Alexander Fleming and Ernst Chain, are estimated to have saved over 200 million lives, he is regarded by the Australian scientific and medical community as one of its greatest figures. Sir Robert Menzies, Australia's longest-serving Prime Minister, said, "In terms of world well-being, Florey was the most important man born in Australia".
Howard Florey was born in Malvern, a southern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia, the youngest of three children and the only son. His father, Joseph Florey, was an English immigrant, his mother Bertha Mary Florey was a second-generation Australian. Florey was educated at Kyre College Preparatory School and St Peter's College, where academically, he excelled in chemistry and physics, but not mathematics, he played various sports for the school: cricket, football and tennis. He studied medicine at the University of Adelaide from 1917 to 1921, paid by a state scholarship he won. Florey continued his studies at Magdalen College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar under the tutelage of Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, receiving the degrees of BA in 1924 and MA in 1935. In 1925, he left Oxford to attend the University of Cambridge, during which time he won a fellowship from the Rockefeller Foundation and studied in the United States for ten months, he returned to England in 1926 and was elected to a fellowship at Gonville and Caius College, a year he received the degree of PhD.
After Cambridge, Florey was appointed to the Joseph Hunter Chair of Pathology at the University of Sheffield in 1932. In 1935 he returned to Oxford, as Professor of Pathology and Fellow of Lincoln College, leading a team of researchers. Working with Ernst Boris Chain, Norman Heatley and Edward Abraham, he read Alexander Fleming's paper discussing the antibacterial effects of Penicillium notatum mould. In 1941, he and Chain treated their first patient, Albert Alexander, who had had a small sore at that corner of his mouth, which spread leading to a severe facial infection involving Streptococci and Staphylococci, his whole face and scalp were swollen to the extent that he had had an eye removed to relieve some of the pain. Within a day of being given penicillin, he started recovering. However, the researchers did not have enough penicillin to help him to a full recovery, he relapsed and died; because of this experience and of the difficulty in producing penicillin, the researchers changed their focus to children, who could be treated with smaller quantities.
Florey's research team investigated the large-scale production of the mould and efficient extraction of the active ingredient, succeeding to the point where, by 1945, penicillin production was an industrial process for the Allies in World War II. However, Florey said that the project was driven by scientific interests, that the medicinal discovery was a bonus: People sometimes think that I and the others worked on penicillin because we were interested in suffering humanity. I don't think it crossed our minds about suffering humanity; this was an interesting scientific exercise, because it was of some use in medicine is gratifying, but this was not the reason that we started working on it. Developing penicillin was a team effort. Florey shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Ernst Boris Chain and Alexander Fleming. Fleming first observed the antibiotic properties of the mould that makes penicillin, but it was Chain and Florey who developed it into a useful treatment. In 1958 Florey opened the John Curtin School of Medical Research at ANU in Canberra.
In 1965 the Queen made him Lord Florey and he was offered, accepted, the role of Chancellor of the Australian National University. On 18 July 1944 Florey was appointed a Knight Bachelor. In 1947 he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Society of Medicine, he was awarded the Lister Medal in 1945 for his contributions to surgical science. The corresponding Lister Oration, given at the Royal College of Surgeons of England that year, was titled "Use of Micro-organisms for Therapeutic Purposes". In 1946, the University of Sao Paulo awarded him an honorary doctorate. Florey was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1941 and became president in 1958. In 1962, Florey became Provost of Oxford. During his term as Provost, the college built a new residential block, named the Florey Building in his honour; the building was designed by the British architect Sir James Stirling. On 4 February 1965, Sir Howard was created a life peer and became Baron Florey, of Adelaide in the State of South Australia and Commonwealth of Australia and of Marston in the County of Oxford.
This was a higher honour than the knighthood awarded to penicillin's discoverer, Sir Alexander Fleming, it recognised the monumental work Florey did in making penicillin available in sufficient quantities to save millions of lives in the war, despite Fleming's doubts that this was
Sydney Boys High School
Sydney Boys High School, abbreviated as SBHS and colloquially called "Sydney Boys" or "High", is an academically selective public high school for boys located at Moore Park, New South Wales, a suburb within the City of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Established in 1883 and operated by the New South Wales Department of Education, as a school within the Port Jackson Education Area of the Sydney Region, the school has 1,200 students from Years 7 to 12 — a number greater than most, if not all, other selective state schools — and is situated adjacent to its "sister school", Sydney Girls High School. The school is a member of the Athletic Association of the Great Public Schools of New South Wales; the school ranks among schools in New South Wales in terms of academic achievement, ranking 5th in the state in the 2017 Higher School Certificate, has produced numerous notable alumni, or "Old Boys". Although Fort Street High School was established in 1849, Sydney Boys High School is the first state high school in New South Wales created under Premier Henry Parkes' public education system in the early 1880s, following the Public Instruction Act 1880.
Whereas Fort Street Model School as it was founded took primary and secondary students neither Sydney Boys nor Sydney Girls High School has had a primary education division and are thus the first NSW state high schools founded for the express purpose of secondary education. Alternatively known as The Sydney High School, due to its being the first state high school, Sydney High School was established as two single-sex schools sharing a single building, with boys and girls on separate floors; the first day of instruction, for 46 boys, was October 1, 1883 and was at a building located in Castlereagh Street in the Sydney central business district, designed by Francis Greenway and constructed by convicts. From 1883 to 1892, Sydney Boys occupied the lower floor and entered from the Castlereagh Street side of the building, whereas Sydney Girls occupied the upper floor and entered from the Elizabeth Street side. In 1924, this building would be demolished and both schools would, in 1921, have relocated to Moore Park.
Presently, this site is home to the Elizabeth Street store of David Jones. In 1892, the boys' school was relocated to Mary Ann Street in Ultimo. In 1906, Sydney Boys High School became a member of the Athletic Association of the Great Public Schools of New South Wales, it is the sporting association's only state-operated member. In 1928, the school moved to its current location on the fringe of inner-city Sydney; this site was designed by George McRae, who designed the Queen Victoria Building. This site was the Moore Park Zoo, relocated to Mosman as Taronga Zoo; the Sydney Boys High School Year 7 intake is of around 180 students, but prospective students in higher years may matriculate to the school if vacancies exist. Offers of admission and matriculation into the school in Year 7 are made on the basis of academic merit, as assessed by the Selective High School Placement Test. In Years 7 to 8, the cohorts consist of 180 students in each year; the size of these cohorts are described by the 2001 SBHS Enrolment Policy.
Once admitted and matriculated, students are further grouped according to their strengths and/or weaknesses, or to their abilities, such as a weakness in English relative to mathematics or "general ability", as estimated by the Selective High School Placement Test, or a proven proficiency in music, as demonstrated by a formal qualification in music. Sydney Boys High School, like other academically selective schools and given the nature of its selective admissions criteria, has been known and is known for its academic achievement in the Higher School Certificate; the following table shows High's rankings relative to other schools in the state. The rankings are based on the percentage of exams sat that resulted in a placing on the Distinguished Achievers List as shown by the Board of Studies; the curriculum, endorsed by the New South Wales Board of Studies, is taught by the following 12 departments: The current Moore Park site hosts the Great Hall, other school buildings, tennis courts, a gymnasium, the Junior Quadrangle, the Flat, a common low-lying area of land between Sydney Boys and Sydney Girls High Schools.
The school buildings include 60 classrooms, two change rooms, the Junior Library, the Senior Library. Nearby to the school are a number of sports facilities, such as the tennis courts opposite to the Sydney Boys and Girls High Schools, located on Cleveland Street, the facilities at Centennial Park. Sydney Boys High School is affiliated with other facilities such as the Outterside Centre and the ANZAC Rifle Range. In addition to this, the school owns a number of vehicles, which it utilises to travel to sporting events, such as the annual The Armidale School versus the High School sporting exchange Armidale and the Head of the River at the Sydney International Regatta Centre. In addition, SBHS has its own cadet unit, which won the 23 Battalion AFX Trophy in 2012 and 2013, it has achieved notability in debating, having won the Hume Barbour and Karl Cramp trophies more times than any other school. SBHS competes in the Lawrence Campbell Oratory Competition and the GPS debating competition; the SBHS First Grade debating team have won the GPS Debating premiership 19 times, most from 2015-2018.
Sydney Boys High School has a long t