Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars, he won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history, he was born in Corsica to a modest family of Italian origin from minor nobility. He was serving as an artillery officer in the French army when the French Revolution erupted in 1789.
He rose through the ranks of the military, seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution and becoming a general at age 24. The French Directory gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents. At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and the Italian monarchs aligned with the Habsburgs—winning every battle, conquering the Italian Peninsula in a year while establishing "sister republics" with local support, becoming a war hero in France. In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt, he became First Consul of the Republic. Napoleon's ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, he became the first Emperor of the French in 1804. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805. Napoleon shattered this coalition with decisive victories in the Ulm Campaign and a historic triumph over the Russian Empire and Austrian Empire at the Battle of Austerlitz which led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt marched his Grande Armée deep into Eastern Europe and annihilated the Russians in June 1807 at the Battle of Friedland. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high-water mark of the French Empire. In 1809, the Austrians and the British challenged the French again during the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon solidified his grip over Europe after triumphing at the Battle of Wagram in July. Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, declared his brother Joseph Bonaparte the King of Spain in 1808; the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, ended in victory for the Allies against Napoleon.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states Russia. The Russians were unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade and violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon into another war; the French launched a major invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The campaign did not yield the decisive victory Napoleon wanted, it resulted in the collapse of the Grande Armée and inspired a renewed push against Napoleon by his enemies. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in the War of the Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, but his tactical victory at the minor Battle of Hanau allowed retreat onto French soil; the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany, the Bourbon dynasty was restored to power.
Napoleon took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition which defeated him at the Battle of Waterloo in June; the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51. Napoleon's influence on the modern world brought liberal reforms to the numerous territories that he conquered and controlled, such as the Low Countries and large parts of modern Italy and Germany, he implemented fundamental liberal policies throughout Western Europe. His Napoleonic Code has influenced the legal systems of more than 70 nations around the world. British historian Andrew Roberts states: "The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, so on—were championed, consolidated and geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire".
The ancestors of Napoleon descended from minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin who had come to Corsica fr
Charles X of France
Charles X was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830. For most of his life he was known as the Count of Artois. An uncle of the uncrowned Louis XVII and younger brother to reigning kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile. After the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, Charles became the leader of the ultra-royalists, a radical monarchist faction within the French court that affirmed rule by divine right and opposed the concessions towards liberals and guarantees of civil liberties granted by the Charter of 1814. Charles gained influence within the French court after the assassination of his son Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, in 1820 and succeeded his brother in 1824, his reign of six years proved to be unpopular from the moment of his coronation in 1825, in which he tried to revive the practice of the royal touch. The governments appointed under his reign reimbursed former landowners for the abolition of feudalism at the expense of bondholders, increased the power of the Catholic Church, reimposed capital punishment for sacrilege, leading to conflict with the liberal-majority Chamber of Deputies.
Charles initiated the French conquest of Algeria as a way to distract his citizens from domestic problems. He appointed a conservative government under the premiership of Prince Jules de Polignac, defeated in the 1830 French legislative election, he responded with the July Ordinances disbanding the Chamber of Deputies, limiting franchise, reimposing press censorship. Within a week France faced urban riots which lead to the July Revolution of 1830, which resulted in his abdication and the election of Louis Philippe I as King of the French. Exiled once again, Charles died in 1836 in Gorizia part of the Austrian Empire, he was the last of the French rulers from the senior branch of the House of Bourbon. Charles Philippe of France was born in 1757, the youngest son of the Dauphin Louis and his wife, the Dauphine Marie Josèphe, at the Palace of Versailles. Charles was created Count of Artois at birth by his grandfather, the reigning King Louis XV; as the youngest male in the family, Charles seemed unlikely to become king.
His eldest brother, Duke of Burgundy, died unexpectedly in 1761, which moved Charles up one place in the line of succession. He was raised in early childhood by the Governess of the Children of France. At the death of his father in 1765, Charles's oldest surviving brother, Louis Auguste, became the new Dauphin, their mother Marie Josèphe, who never recovered from the loss of her husband, died in March 1767 from tuberculosis. This left Charles an orphan at the age of nine, along with his siblings Louis Auguste, Louis Stanislas, Count of Provence, Élisabeth. Louis XV fell ill on 27 April 1774 and died on 10 May of smallpox at the age of 64, his grandson Louis-Auguste succeeded him as King Louis XVI of France. In November 1773, Charles married Marie Thérèse of Savoy. In 1775, Marie Thérèse gave birth to a boy, Louis Antoine, created Duke of Angoulême by Louis XVI. Louis-Antoine was the first of the next generation of Bourbons, as the king and the Count of Provence had not fathered any children yet, causing the Parisian libellistes to lampoon Louis XVI's alleged impotence.
Three years in 1778, Charles' second son, Charles Ferdinand, was born and given the title of Duke of Berry. In the same year Queen Marie Antoinette gave birth to her first child, Marie Thérèse, quelling all rumours that she could not bear children. Charles was thought of as the most attractive member of his family, bearing a strong resemblance to his grandfather Louis XV, his wife was considered quite ugly by most contemporaries, he looked for company in numerous extramarital affairs. According to the Count of Hézecques, "few beauties were cruel to him." Among his lovers where notably Anne Victoire Dervieux. He embarked upon a lifelong love affair with the beautiful Louise de Polastron, the sister-in-law of Marie Antoinette's closest companion, the Duchess of Polignac. Charles struck up a firm friendship with Marie Antoinette herself, whom he had first met upon her arrival in France in April 1770 when he was twelve; the closeness of the relationship was such that he was falsely accused by Parisian rumour mongers of having seduced her.
As part of Marie Antoinette's social set, Charles appeared opposite her in the private theatre of her favourite royal retreat, the Petit Trianon. They were both said to be talented amateur actors. Marie Antoinette played milkmaids and country ladies, whereas Charles played lovers and farmers. A famous story concerning the two involves the construction of the Château de Bagatelle. In 1775, Charles purchased a small hunting lodge in the Bois de Boulogne, he soon had the existing house torn down with plans to rebuild. Marie Antoinette wagered her brother-in-law that the new château could not be completed within three months. Charles engaged the neoclassical architect François-Joseph Bélanger to design the building, he won his bet, with Bélanger completing the house in sixty-three days. It is estimated that the project, which came to include manicured gardens, cost over two million livres. Throughout the 1770s, Charles spent lavishly, he accumulated enormous debts. In the 1780s, King Louis XVI paid off the debts of both his brothers, the Counts of Provence and Artois.
In 1781, Charles acted as a proxy for Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II at the christening of his godson, the Dauphin Louis Joseph. Charles's p
Nitrous oxide known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, with taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen, it is soluble in water. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain reducing effects, its name "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system, it is used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide occurs in small amounts in the atmosphere, but has been found to be a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs, it is estimated that 30% of the N2O in the atmosphere is the result of human activity, chiefly agriculture.
Nitrous oxide may be used as an oxidiser in a rocket motor. This is advantageous over other oxidisers in that it is much less toxic, due to its stability at room temperature is easier to store and safe to carry on a flight; as a secondary benefit, it may be decomposed to form breathing air. Its high density and low storage pressure enable it to be competitive with stored high-pressure gas systems. In a 1914 patent, American rocket pioneer Robert Goddard suggested nitrous oxide and gasoline as possible propellants for a liquid-fuelled rocket. Nitrous oxide has been the oxidiser of choice in several hybrid rocket designs; the combination of nitrous oxide with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene fuel has been used by SpaceShipOne and others. It is notably used in amateur and high power rocketry with various plastics as the fuel. Nitrous oxide may be used in a monopropellant rocket. In the presence of a heated catalyst, N2O will decompose exothermically into nitrogen and oxygen, at a temperature of 1,070 °F.
Because of the large heat release, the catalytic action becomes secondary, as thermal autodecomposition becomes dominant. In a vacuum thruster, this may provide a monopropellant specific impulse of as much as 180 s. While noticeably less than the Isp available from hydrazine thrusters, the decreased toxicity makes nitrous oxide an option worth investigating. Nitrous oxide is said to deflagrate at 600 °C at a pressure of 309 psi. At 600 psi, for example, the required ignition energy is only 6 joules, whereas N2O at 130 psi a 2,500-joule ignition energy input is insufficient. In vehicle racing, nitrous oxide allows the engine to burn more fuel by providing more oxygen than air alone, resulting in a more powerful combustion; the gas is not flammable at a low pressure/temperature, but it delivers more oxygen than atmospheric air by breaking down at elevated temperatures. Therefore, it is mixed with another fuel, easier to deflagrate. Nitrous oxide is a strong oxidant equivalent to hydrogen peroxide, much stronger than oxygen gas.
Nitrous oxide is stored as a compressed liquid. Sometimes nitrous oxide is injected into the intake manifold, whereas other systems directly inject, right before the cylinder to increase power; the technique was used during World War II by Luftwaffe aircraft with the GM-1 system to boost the power output of aircraft engines. Meant to provide the Luftwaffe standard aircraft with superior high-altitude performance, technological considerations limited its use to high altitudes. Accordingly, it was only used by specialised planes such as high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft, high-speed bombers and high-altitude interceptor aircraft, it sometimes could be found on Luftwaffe aircraft fitted with another engine-boost system, MW 50, a form of water injection for aviation engines that used methanol for its boost capabilities. One of the major problems of using nitrous oxide in a reciprocating engine is that it can produce enough power to damage or destroy the engine. Large power increases are possible, if the mechanical structure of the engine is not properly reinforced, the engine may be damaged, or destroyed, during this kind of operation.
It is important with nitrous oxide augmentation of petrol engines to maintain proper operating temperatures and fuel levels to prevent "pre-ignition", or "detonation". Most problems that are associated with nitrous oxide do not come from mechanical failure due to the power increases. Since nitrous oxide allows a much denser charge into the cylinder, it increases cylinder pressures; the increased pressure and temperature can cause problems such as melting valves. It may crack or warp the piston or head and cause pre-ignition due to uneven heating. Automotive-grade liquid nitrous oxide differs from medical-grade nitrous oxide. A small amount of sulfur dioxide is added to prevent substance abuse. Multiple washes through a base can remove this, decreasing the corrosive properties observed when SO2 is further oxidised during combustion into sulfuric
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3. It is a colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid, produced on a large scale as a precursor to PTFE, it is a precursor to various refrigerants. It is one of a trihalomethane, it is a powerful anesthetic, euphoriant and sedative when inhaled or ingested. The molecule adopts a tetrahedral molecular geometry with C3v symmetry; the total global flux of chloroform through the environment is 660000 tonnes per year, about 90% of emissions are natural in origin. Many kinds of seaweed produce chloroform, fungi are believed to produce chloroform in soil. Abiotic process is believed to contribute to natural chloroform productions in soils although the mechanism is still unclear. Chloroform volatilizes from soil and surface water and undergoes degradation in air to produce phosgene, formyl chloride, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride, its half-life in air ranges from 55 to 620 days. Biodegradation in water and soil is slow.
Chloroform does not bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. Chloroform was synthesized independently by several investigators circa 1831: Moldenhawer, a German pharmacist from Frankfurt an der Oder, appears to have produced chloroform in 1830 by mixing chlorinated lime with ethanol. Samuel Guthrie, an American physician from Sackets Harbor, New York appears to have produced chloroform in 1831 by reacting chlorinated lime with ethanol, as well as noting its anaesthetic properties. Justus von Liebig carried out the alkaline cleavage of chloral. Eugène Soubeiran obtained the compound by the action of chlorine bleach on both acetone. In 1834, French chemist Jean-Baptiste Dumas named it. In 1835, Dumas prepared the substance by the alkaline cleavage of trichloroacetic acid. Regnault prepared chloroform by chlorination of chloromethane. In 1842, Robert Mortimer Glover in London discovered the anaesthetic qualities of chloroform on laboratory animals. In 1847, Scottish obstetrician James Y. Simpson was the first to demonstrate the anaesthetic properties of chloroform on humans and helped to popularise the drug for use in medicine.
By the 1850s, chloroform was being produced on a commercial basis by using the Liebig procedure, which retained its importance until the 1960s. Today, chloroform — along with dichloromethane — is prepared and on a massive scale by the chlorination of methane and chloromethane. In industry, chloroform is produced by heating a mixture of chlorine and either chloromethane or methane. At 400–500 °C, a free radical halogenation occurs, converting these precursors to progressively more chlorinated compounds: CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + HCl CH3Cl + Cl2 → CH2Cl2 + HCl CH2Cl2 + Cl2 → CHCl3 + HClChloroform undergoes further chlorination to yield carbon tetrachloride: CHCl3 + Cl2 → CCl4 + HClThe output of this process is a mixture of the four chloromethanes, which can be separated by distillation. Chloroform may be produced on a small scale via the haloform reaction between acetone and sodium hypochlorite: 3 NaClO + 2CO → CHCl3 + 2 NaOH + NaOCOCH3 Deuterated chloroform is an isotopologue of chloroform with a single deuterium atom.
CDCl3 is a common solvent used in NMR spectroscopy. Deuterochloroform is produced by the haloform reaction, the reaction of acetone with sodium hypochlorite or calcium hypochlorite; the haloform process is now obsolete for the production of ordinary chloroform. Deuterochloroform can be prepared by the reaction of sodium deuteroxide with chloral hydrate; the haloform reaction can occur inadvertently in domestic settings. Bleaching with hypochlorite generates halogenated compounds in side reactions. Sodium hypochlorite solution mixed with common household liquids such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, ethanol, or isopropyl alcohol can produce some chloroform, in addition to other compounds such as chloroacetone or dichloroacetone. In terms of scale, the most important reaction of chloroform is with hydrogen fluoride to give monochlorodifluoromethane, a precursor in the production of polytetrafluoroethylene: CHCl3 + 2 HF → CHClF2 + 2 HClThe reaction is conducted in the presence of a catalytic amount of mixed antimony halides.
Chlorodifluoromethane is converted into tetrafluoroethylene, the main precursor to Teflon. Before the Montreal Protocol, chlorodifluoromethane was a popular refrigerant; the hydrogen attached to carbon in chloroform participates in hydrogen bonding. Worldwide, chloroform is used in pesticide formulations, as a solvent for fats, rubber, waxes, gutta-percha, resins, as a cleansing agent, grain fumigant, in fire extinguishers, in the rubber industry. CDCl3 is a common solvent used in NMR spectroscopy; as a reagent, chloroform serves as a source of the dichlorocarbene CCl2 group. It reacts with aqueous sodium hydroxide in the presence of a phase transfer catalyst to produce dichlorocarbene, CCl2; this reagent effects ortho-formylation of activated aromatic rings such as phenols, producing aryl aldehydes in a reaction known as the Reimer–Tiemann reaction. Alternatively, the carbene can be trapped by an alkene to form a cyclopropane derivative. In the Kharasch addition, chloroform forms the CHCl2 free radical in addition to alkenes.
The anaesthetic qualities of chloroform were first described in 1842 in a thesis by Robert Mortimer Glover, which won t
Ludlow is a market town in Shropshire, England, 28 miles south of Shrewsbury and 23 miles north of Hereford via the main A49 road, which bypasses the town. With a population of 11,000, Ludlow is the largest town in South Shropshire; the town is significant in the history of the Welsh Marches and neighbouring Wales. The town is near the confluence of the rivers Teme; the oldest part is the medieval walled town, founded in the late 11th century after the Norman conquest of England. It is centred on a small hill. Situated on this hill are Ludlow Castle and the parish church, St Laurence's, the largest in the county. From there the streets slope downward to the River Teme, northward toward the River Corve; the town is in a sheltered spot beneath Mortimer Forest and the Clee Hills, which are visible from the town. Ludlow has nearly 500 listed buildings, including examples of medieval and Tudor-style half-timbered buildings; the town was described by Sir John Betjeman as "probably the loveliest town in England".
The placename "Lodelowe" was in use for this site before 1138 and comes from the Old English "hlud-hlǣw". At the time this section of the River Teme contained rapids, so the hlud of Ludlow came from "the loud waters", while hlǣw meant "hill" or tumulus, thus the name Ludlow describes a place on a hill by the loud waters. Some time around the 12th century weirs were added along the river; the hill is that which the town stands on, a pre-historic burial mound which existed at the summit of the hill could explain the tumulus variation of the hlǣw element. Ludford, a neighbouring and older settlement, situated on the southern bank of the Teme, shares the hlud element. Ludlow has a name in Llwydlo. Though the town became known as Ludlow, Fouke le Fitz Waryn states that it was called Dinham "for a long time"; the western part of the town south of the castle retains this name, many historians assume this settlement is Anglian or Saxon in origin, with its etymology meaning a settlement by the fort. The castle was called Dinham Castle, before it took on the name of Ludlow.
A possible alternative is that Dinham takes its name from Josce de Dinan, a major landowner in the area in the 12th century, though this is regarded as erroneous on the balance of evidence with the similarity being a coincidence. The town is situated close to Wales, lies near the midpoint of the 257 km long England-Wales border; this strategic location invested it with national importance in medieval times, thereafter with the town being the seat of the Council of Wales and the Marches during its existence. At the time of the Domesday Book survey, the area was part of the large Stanton parish and manor, a possession of Walter de Lacy. Neither Ludlow nor Dinham are mentioned in the Book, compiled in 1086, although the Book recorded manors and not settlements per se; the Book does record a great number of households and taxable value for Stanton suggesting that any early settlement by the nascent castle was being counted. Neighbouring places Ludford, the Sheet and Steventon do feature in the Book, as they were manors, proving that they were well-established places by the Norman conquest.
The manor of Stanton came within the hundred of Culvestan, but during the reign of Henry I this Saxon hundred was merged into the new Munslow hundred. Walter's son Roger de Lacy began the construction of Ludlow Castle on the crest of the hill about 1075, forming what is now the inner bailey. Between about 1090 and 1120, the Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene was built inside the walls, by 1130 the Great Tower was added to form the gatehouse. About 1170 the larger outer bailey was added to the castle; the settlement of Dinham grew up alongside the development of the early castle in the late 11th century, with the northern part of this early settlement disturbed by the building of the outer bailey. Dinham had its own place of worship, the Chapel of St Thomas the Martyr, dedicated to Thomas Becket sometime in 1177-1189 when the present chapel replaced an older church building. During the 12th century the planned town of Ludlow was formed, in stages, the town providing a useful source of income for successive Marcher Lords, based on rents and tolls.
They developed the town on a regular grid pattern, although this was adapted somewhat to match the local topography, from the late 11th century through the 12th century. The first laid street was along the ridge of the hilltop, what is now Castle Square, High Street and King Street; this formed a wide market place running from the castle gates east across to St Laurence's and the Bull Ring, itself located on the ancient north-south road, now called Corve Street to the north and Old Street to the south. The wide Mill and Broad Streets were added as part of a southern grid plan of streets and burgage plots filling the area bounded by Dinham, the new High Street market, Old Street and the Teme to the south. Old Street ran down to a ford which took the ancient route south across to Ludford. A bridge was constructed at the foot of Broad Street, upstream of the ford, which replaced the ford. St Laurence's church, whose origins are late 1
Diethyl ether, or ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula 2O, sometimes abbreviated as Et2O. It is a colorless volatile flammable liquid, it is used as a solvent in laboratories and as a starting fluid for some engines. It was used as a general anesthetic, until non-flammable drugs were developed, such as halothane, it has been used as a recreational drug to cause intoxication. Most diethyl ether is produced as a byproduct of the vapor-phase hydration of ethylene to make ethanol; this process uses solid-supported phosphoric acid catalysts and can be adjusted to make more ether if the need arises. Vapor-phase dehydration of ethanol over some alumina catalysts can give diethyl ether yields of up to 95%. Diethyl ether can be prepared both in laboratories and on an industrial scale by the acid ether synthesis. Ethanol is mixed with a strong acid sulfuric acid, H2SO4; the acid dissociates in the aqueous environment producing hydronium ions, H3O+. A hydrogen ion protonates the electronegative oxygen atom of the ethanol, giving the ethanol molecule a positive charge: CH3CH2OH + H3O+ → CH3CH2OH2+ + H2OA nucleophilic oxygen atom of unprotonated ethanol displaces a water molecule from the protonated ethanol molecule, producing water, a hydrogen ion and diethyl ether.
CH3CH2OH2+ + CH3CH2OH → H2O + H+ + CH3CH2OCH2CH3This reaction must be carried out at temperatures lower than 150 °C in order to ensure that an elimination product is not a product of the reaction. At higher temperatures, ethanol will dehydrate to form ethylene; the reaction to make diethyl ether is reversible, so an equilibrium between reactants and products is achieved. Getting a good yield of ether requires that ether be distilled out of the reaction mixture before it reverts to ethanol, taking advantage of Le Chatelier's principle. Another reaction that can be used for the preparation of ethers is the Williamson ether synthesis, in which an alkoxide performs a nucleophilic substitution upon an alkyl halide, it is important as a solvent in the production of cellulose plastics such as cellulose acetate. Diethyl ether has a high cetane number of 85–96 and is used as a starting fluid, in combination with petroleum distillates for gasoline and Diesel engines because of its high volatility and low flash point.
Ether starting fluid is sold and used in countries with cold climates, as it can help with cold starting an engine at sub-zero temperatures. For the same reason it is used as a component of the fuel mixture for carbureted compression ignition model engines. In this way diethyl ether is similar to one of its precursors, ethanol. Diethyl ether is a common laboratory aprotic solvent, it has limited solubility in water and dissolves 1.5 g/100 g water at 25 °C. This, coupled with its high volatility, makes it ideal for use as the non-polar solvent in liquid-liquid extraction; when used with an aqueous solution, the diethyl ether layer is on top as it has a lower density than the water. It is a common solvent for the Grignard reaction in addition to other reactions involving organometallic reagents. Due to its application in the manufacturing of illicit substances, it is listed in the Table II precursor under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances as well as substances such as acetone and sulfuric acid.
William T. G. Morton participated in a public demonstration of ether anesthesia on October 16, 1846 at the Ether Dome in Boston, Massachusetts. However, Crawford Williamson Long, is now known to have demonstrated its use as a general anesthetic in surgery to officials in Georgia, as early as March 30, 1842, Long publicly demonstrated ether's use as a surgical anesthetic on six occasions before the Boston demonstration. British doctors were aware of the anesthetic properties of ether as early as 1840 where it was prescribed in conjunction with opium. Diethyl ether supplanted the use of chloroform as a general anesthetic due to ether's more favorable therapeutic index, that is, a greater difference between an effective dose and a toxic dose. Diethyl ether increases tracheobronchial secretions. Diethyl ether could be mixed with other anesthetic agents such as chloroform to make C. E. mixture, or chloroform and alcohol to make A. C. E. Mixture. In the 21st century, ether is used; the use of flammable ether was displaced by nonflammable fluorinated hydrocarbon anesthetics.
Halothane was the first such anesthetic developed and other used inhaled anesthetics, such as isoflurane and sevoflurane, are halogenated ethers. Diethyl ether was found to have undesirable side effects, such as post-anesthetic nausea and vomiting. Modern anesthetic agents reduce these side effects. Prior to 2005 it was on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines for use as an anesthetic. Ether was once used in pharmaceutical formulations. A mixture of alcohol and ether, one part of diethyl ether and three parts of ethanol, was known as "Spirit of ether", Hoffman's Anodyne or Hoffman's Drops. In the United States this concoction was removed from the Pharmacopeia at some point prior to June 1917, as a study published by William Procter, Jr. in the American Journal of Pharmacy as early as 1852 showed that there were differences in formulation to be found between commercial manufacturers, between international pharmacopoeia, from Hoffman's original recipe. The anesthetic and intoxicating effects of ether have made it a recreational drug.
Diethyl ether in anesthetic dosage is an inhalant which has a long history