Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland
Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, 4th Baron Percy, titular King of Mann, KG, Lord Marshal was the son of Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy, and a descendant of Henry III of England. His mother was Mary of Lancaster, daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, son of Edmund, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, Henry Percy was originally a follower of Edward III of England, for whom he held high offices in the administration of northern England. At a young age he was made Warden of the Marches towards Scotland in 1362, in February 1367 he was entrusted with the supervision of all castles and fortified places in the Scottish marches. He went on to support King Richard II and was created an Earl, after Richard elevated his rival Ralph Neville to the position of Earl of Westmorland in 1397, Percy supported the rebellion of Henry Bolingbroke, who became King as Henry IV. On King Henry IVs coronation he was appointed Constable of England, in 1403 the Percys turned against Henry IV in favour of Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, and conspired with Owain Glyndŵr against King Henry.
The Tripartite Indenture was signed by all three parties, which divided England up between them, the Mortimers were to have received the rest of southern England, below the river Trent. The Percy rebellion failed at the Battle of Shrewsbury, where Hotspur was killed, since the earl did not directly participate in the rebellion, he was not convicted of treason. However, he lost his office as Constable, in 1405 Percy supported Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York, in another rebellion, after which Percy fled to Scotland, and his estates were confiscated by the king. In 1408 Percy invaded England in rebellion once more and was killed at the Battle of Bramham Moor, Percys severed head was subsequently put on display at London Bridge. In 1358, he married Margaret Neville, daughter of Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby and they had four sons and one daughter. Northumberland is a character in Shakespeares Richard II, Henry IV, part 1. The other novels in the trilogy, Lion Dormant and Lion Invincible tell the story of his other descendants and their role in the English War of the Roses.
Henry Percy and his son Hotspur are characters in Edith Pargeters novel. He is a character in My Lord John by Georgette Heyer. Alnwick Castle, the home of the Percy family, was featured in the Harry Potter movies as the location of Hogwarts. Rymer, Thomas Foedera, The Hague,1739 Beltz, G. F. Memorials of the most noble Order of the Garter, from its foundation to the present time London 1841 Doyle, J. W. Rose, phoenix/Orion Books Ltd,2002, ISBN 1-84212-485-4
Elizabeth Mortimer, Baroness Camoys was an English noblewoman, the granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, and great-granddaughter of King Edward III. Her first husband was Sir Henry Percy, known to history as Hotspur and she married secondly Thomas de Camoys, 1st Baron Camoys. She is represented as Kate, Lady Percy, in Shakespeares Henry IV, Part 1, the couple resided at Alnwick Castle in Northumberland. They had two children, Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, who married Eleanor Neville, by whom he had issue and he was slain at the First Battle of St Albans. On 21 July 1403, Elizabeths husband was slain at the Battle of Shrewsbury while commanding an army that fought against the superior forces of King Henry IV. She had him buried in York Minster in November of that year, in January 1404, Percy was posthumously declared a traitor and his lands were forfeited to the Crown. The king ordered Elizabeth herself arrested on 8 October 1403, sometime after 3 June 1406, Elizabeth Mortimer was married to her second husband, Thomas de Camoys, 1st Baron Camoys.
Although Camoys was in his mid-sixties, she may have had a son by him, like her first husband, Camoys was a renowned soldier who commanded the left wing of the English army at the Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415. Elizabeth died on 20 April 1417 at the age of 46 years and she was buried in St. Georges Church at Trotton, Sussex. Her second husband was buried beside her and their table-tomb with its fine monumental brass depicting the couple slightly less than life size and holding hands can be viewed in the middle of the chancel inside the church. King Henry VIIIs Queen consort Jane Seymour was one of Elizabeth Mortimers many descendants through her daughter Elizabeth Percy, Lady Elizabeth is represented as Kate, Lady Percy, in William Shakespeares plays Henry IV, Part 1 and Henry IV, Part 2. The Complete Peerage, edited by H. A, the Complete Peerage, edited by H. A. The Complete Peerage, edited by H. A, davies, R. R. Mortimer, fourth earl of March and sixth earl of Ulster. Mortimer, third earl of March and earl of Ulster, John L.
Camoys, Baron Camoys. Everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, Charles, Medieval Lands, Earls of March
Henry V (play)
Henry V is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around 1599. It tells the story of King Henry V of England, focusing on events immediately before, in the First Quarto text, it was entitled The Cronicle History of Henry the fift, which became The Life of Henry the Fifth in the First Folio text. The play is the part of a tetralogy, preceded by Richard II, Henry IV, Part 1. In Henry V, the prince has become a mature man. Elizabethan stages did not use scenery, acknowledging the difficulty of conveying great battles and shifts of location on a bare stage, the Chorus calls for a Muse of fire so that the actor playing King Henry can ssume the port of Mars. He asks, Can this cockpit hold / The vasty fields of France, and encourages the audience to use their imaginary forces to overcome the stages limitations, Piece out our imperfections with your thoughts. The early scenes deal with the embarkation of Henrys fleet for France, when the Chorus reappears, he describes the countrys dedication to the war effort – They sell the pasture now to buy the horse.
The chorus tells the audience, Well not offend one stomach with our play, at the siege of Harfleur, Henry utters one of Shakespeares best-known speeches, beginning Once more unto the breach, dear friends. He agonizes about the burden of being king, noting that a king is only a man. Before the battle, Henry rallies his troops with the famous St Crispins Day Speech, referring to we few, we happy few, following the victory at Agincourt, Henry attempts to woo the French princess, Catherine of Valois. This is difficult because neither speaks the language well. As with all of Shakespeares serious plays, a number of comic characters appear whose activities contrast with. In this case, they are mostly common soldiers in Henrys army, and they include Pistol and Bardolph from the Henry IV plays. The army includes a Scot, an Irishman, and an Englishman, and Fluellen, the play deals briefly with the death of Falstaff, Henrys estranged friend from the Henry IV plays, whom Henry had rejected at the end of Henry IV, Part 2.
An earlier play, the Famous Victories of Henry V is believed to have been a model for the work. On the basis of an apparent allusion to Essexs mission to quell Tyrones Rebellion, Q1 of Henry V is a bad quarto, a shortened version of the play that might be an infringing copy or reported text. A second quarto, a reprint of Q1, was published in 1602 by Pavier, another reprint was issued as Q3 in 1619, the superior text first was printed in the First Folio in 1623. Readers and audiences have interpreted the play’s attitude to warfare in several different ways, on the one hand, it seems to celebrate Henrys invasion of France and valorises military might
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Pembroke, KG was an English nobleman. Mettled and courageous, he was a foil for the beautiful Jacqueline of Hainaut and his learned, widely read, scholarly approach to the early renaissance cultural expansion demonstrated the quintessential well-rounded princely character. He was an exemplar for Oxford, diplomatic, with political cunning, unlike his brothers, he was not naturally brave, but opinionated and judgmental. He exaggerated his own achievements, but idolized his brother Henry V and he was the youngest in a powerful quadrumvirate of brothers, who were very close companions, on 20 March 1413, Henry and Humphrey had been at their dying fathers bedside. Thomas and Humphrey had all been knighted in 1399 and they joined the Order of the Garter together in 1400. The place of his birth is unknown, but he was named after his grandfather, Humphrey de Bohun. During the reign of Henry IV, Humphrey received a scholars education, following his fathers death he was created Duke of Gloucester in 1414, and Chamberlain of England, and he took his seat in Parliament.
In 1415 he became a member of the Privy Council, before embarking for France, the army camped at Southampton, where the Earl of Cambridge failed in an assassination plot to kill the king. Humphrey and his brother, the Duke of Clarence, led an Inquiry of Lords to try Lords Cambridge, during Henry Vs campaigns in France, Humphrey gained a reputation as a successful commander. His knowledge of warfare, gained from his classical studies. During the Battle of Agincourt Humphrey was wounded, as he fell, the king sheltered his body, for his services, Humphrey was granted offices including Constable of Dover, Warden of the Cinque Ports on 27 November, and Kings Lieutenant. His tenure in government was peaceful and successful and this period commenced with Emperor Sigismunds peace mission. At Paris in March 1416, the Emperor was arrested on the beach by Duke Humphrey, the Treaty of eternal friendship signed at Canterbury on 15 August served only to anticipate renewed hostility from France. Upon the death of his brother in 1422, Humphrey became Lord Protector to his young nephew Henry VI and he claimed the right to the regency of England following the death of his elder brother, Duke of Bedford.
Humphreys claims were contested by the lords of the kings council. Henry Vs will, rediscovered at Eton College in 1978, actually supported Humphreys claims, in 1436 Philip, Duke of Burgundy, attacked Calais. Duke Humphrey was appointed garrison commander, the Flemings assaulted from the landward but the English resistance was stubborn. Humphrey marched the army to Baillieul, taking the English to safety, Humphrey was consistently popular with the citizens of London and the Commons
William Shakespeare was an English poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the worlds pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called Englands national poet, and the Bard of Avon and his extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 38 plays,154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright, Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a career in London as an actor, writer. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613, at age 49, Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were primarily comedies and histories, which are regarded as some of the best work ever produced in these genres.
He wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, in his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and it was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Shakespeare is hailed, presciently, as not of an age, but for all time. In the 20th and 21st centuries, his works have been adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship. His plays remain highly popular and are studied, performed. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden and he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April. This date, which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholars mistake, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616 and he was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway, the consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582. The next day, two of Hathaways neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years and were baptised 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596, after the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592. The exception is the appearance of his name in the bill of a law case before the Queens Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589
Ancient Pistol is a swaggering soldier who appears in three plays by William Shakespeare. Though full of grandiose boasts about his prowess, he is essentially a coward, the character is introduced in Henry IV, part 2 and reappears in The Merry Wives of Windsor and Henry V. The characters first name is never given and he is referred to as Falstaffs ancient, meaning ensign, or standard bearer. Pistol is introduced as a swaggerer who suddenly turns up at the Boars Head Tavern, Falstaff tells her that Pistol is his ancient. He gets into a fight with Falstaff after an exchange of insults with the prostitute Doll Tearsheet, in another scene it is revealed that the police are after him because a man he assaulted in tandem with Doll Tearsheet and Mistress Quickly has died. He shares Falstaffs punishment of banishment from the king at the end of the play, Pistol reappears as Falstaffs crony in The Merry Wives of Windsor and is roped into Falstaffs scheme to seduce the wives. He and his colleague Corporal Nym believe such a scheme beneath their dignity as soldiers, Falstaff dismisses them from his service and in revenge they inform the wives husbands of Falstaffs plan, leading to Falstaffs humiliations at their hands.
He decides to pursue Mistress Quickly, dressed as a fairy, he participates in the final scene at Hernes Oak. The phrase the worlds my oyster derives from one of Pistols lines in the play, Why the worlds mine oyster, Pistol plays a major role in Henry V. He marries Mistress Quickly after the death of Falstaff, though its implied that he is still involved with Doll Tearsheet. In the war in France, he gets into a feud with the Welsh officer Fluellen, in the end Fluellen beats him and forces him to eat a raw leek. At Agincourt he becomes involved in comic antics with a French soldier, after the battle he gets a letter from which he learns that my Doll is dead from malady of France, i. e. syphilis. He says he intends to desert, return to England and become a pimp, Pistol is the Elizabethan version of the miles gloriosus, the braggart soldier from Roman-comedy. Another possible source is the character Piston in Thomas Kyds play Soliman, there are numerous puns on his name in the plays, with comic reference to his explosive temperament, tendency to misfire, and his unrestrained phallic sexuality.
His bombastic speeches may be parodies of the heroes of Christopher Marlowes plays. In his first scene, he one of Tamburlaines lines from Marlowes Tamburlaine the Great. He has an impulse to form horrendous speeches out of half-remembered tags from old plays written in Cambyses vein. Pistols florid bombast is often contrasted with the gnomic pronouncements of his colleague Corporal Nym, in Henry V he essentially replicates Falstaffs role in the Henry IV plays, being the butt of jokes for his empty bluster, while parodying the rhetoric of the noble characters
Robert Smirke (painter)
Robert Smirke RA was an English painter and illustrator, specialising in small paintings showing subjects taken from literature. He was a member of the Royal Academy, Smirke was born at Wigton near Carlisle, the son of a travelling artist. When he was twelve he was apprenticed to a painter in London. In 1775 he became a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists, with which he began to exhibit by sending five works, he showed works there again in 1777 and 1778. In 1786 he exhibited Narcissus and The Lady and Sabrina at the Royal Academy, in 1791 Smirke was elected an associate of the Royal Academy, in which year he exhibited The Widow. He became an academician in 1793, when he painted as his diploma work Don Quixote. His last contribution to the academy, entitled Infancy, appeared in 1813, Smirke is generally accepted as the author in 1815–16 of a series of satirical Catalogues Raisonnés, which savagely lampooned the great and the good of British art patronage. Of his sons, Richard Smirke, was a notable antiquarian artist and Sydney both became notable architects and were both elected members of the Royal Academy.
His fourth son, Edward was a lawyer and antiquary. There is a portrait of Smirke by John Jackson taken from a picture by Mary Smirke. Sir William John Newton painted several miniatures of him, Smirke died at 3 Osnaburgh Terrace, Regents Park, London, on 5 January 1845, aged 92, and was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery. Smirkes pictures were usually of small size and painted in monochrome, the Pedagogue, engraved by Joseph Goodyear for the Amulet of 1830, is typical. The Rivals was engraved by William Finden for the Keepsake of 1828, The Secret, by James Mitchell for the annual in 1830. Smirke painted some pictures for John Boydells Shakespeare Gallery and for Bowyers History of England and these works included Katharine and Petruchio and the Nurse, Prince Henry and Falstaff, and The Seven Ages. A large commemorative plate, with fifteen medallion portraits, of The Victory of the Nile was engraved by John Landseer from his design. In the Guildhall Art Gallery was a picture by him representing Conjugal Affection, or Industry and Prudence, and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed.
Smirke, Robert. Robert Smirke online Profile on Royal Academy of Arts Collections
Richard II (play)
King Richard the Second is a history play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written in approximately 1595. Although the First Folio edition of Shakespeares works lists the play as a history play, the play spans only the last two years of Richards life, from 1398 to 1400. Bolingbrokes father, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, the tournament scene is very formal with a long, ceremonial introduction, but as the combatants are about to fight, Richard interrupts and sentences both to banishment from England. Bolingbroke is originally sentenced to ten years banishment, but Richard changes this to six years, Mowbray predicts that the king will sooner or fall at the hands of Bolingbroke. John of Gaunt dies and Richard II seizes all of his land and they help Bolingbroke to return secretly to England, with a plan to overthrow Richard II. There remain, subjects who continue faithful to the King, among them Bushy, Green, when King Richard leaves England to attend to the war in Ireland, Bolingbroke seizes the opportunity to assemble an army and invades the north coast of England.
Executing both Bushy and Green, he wins over the Duke of York, whom Richard has left in charge of his government in his absence, upon Richards return, Bolingbroke not only reclaims his lands but lays claim to the very throne. Crowning himself King Henry IV, he has Richard taken prisoner to the castle of Pomfret, after interpreting King Henrys living fear as a reference to the still-living Richard, an ambitious nobleman goes to the prison and murders him. King Henry repudiates the murderer and vows to journey to Jerusalem to cleanse himself of his part in Richards death, a somewhat more complicated case is presented by the anonymous play sometimes known as The First Part of Richard II. This play, which exists in one manuscript copy is subtitled Thomas of Woodstock. This play treats the leading up to the start of Shakespeares play. The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 29 August 1597 by the bookseller Andrew Wise, the second and third quartos followed in 1598 – the only time a Shakespearean play was printed in three editions in two years.
Q4 followed in 1608, and Q5 in 1615, the play was next published in the First Folio in 1623. Richard II exists in a number of variations, the quartos vary to some degree from one another, and the folio presents further differences. The first three quartos lack the deposition scene, the fourth quarto, published in 1608, includes a version of the deposition scene shorter than the one printed, presumably from a prompt-book, in the 1623 First Folio. The scant evidence makes explaining these differences largely conjectural, there is no external evidence for this hypothesis and the title page of the 1608 quarto refers to a lately acted deposition scene. The play is divided into five acts and its structure is as formal as its language and it has a double complementary plot describing the fall of Richard II and the rise of Bolingbroke, known as Henry IV. Critic John R. Elliott Jr. notes that this particular play can be distinguished from the other history plays because it contains an ulterior political purpose
Edward Ned Poins, generally referred to as Poins, is a fictional character who appears in two plays by Shakespeare, Henry IV, Part 1 and Henry IV, Part 2. He is mentioned in The Merry Wives of Windsor, Poins is Prince Hals closest friend during his wild youth. He devises various schemes to ridicule Falstaff, his rival for Hals affections, unlike Hals other principal low-life associates, who all reappear in Henry V, Poins disappears from the narrative with no explanation. Poins appears early in Henry IV, Part I to inform Falstaff that at Gads Hill there will be unprotected pilgrims going to Canterbury with rich offerings and he suggests that they organise a robbery. When Falstaff and the others agree, Poins says to Hal that the pair of them should play trick on Falstaff by letting them rob the travellers, the point of the jest will be to hear the incomprensible lies Falstaff will tell to excuse himself. When they surprise Falstaff, he and his followers instantly run away, Poins is with Hal when Hal plays a joke on Francis, a drawer at the Boars Head.
He listens to Falstaffs increasingly ridiculous lies, in Part 2 Poins discusses the illness of Hals father the king, expecting Hal to be pleased at the prospect of his fathers death. Hal gets a letter from Falstaff, in which Falstaff tells him not to trust Poins because he has been telling people that Hal will be marrying Poins sister Nell, bardolph and a boy arrive with news that Falstaff is metting Doll Tearsheet at the tavern. Poins suggests that they disguise themselves again, this time as waiters, at the tavern, Doll asks why Hal likes Poins, Falstaff says that they are both similar in size and shape, and equally empty headed, His wit’s as thick as Tewkesbury mustard. There’s no more conceit in him than is in a mallet, Poins principal role is to act as Hals confidant. In Part 2 especially he is more than a sounding board for Hals views. In Part 1 he is presented as the more assertive of the two, being the mastermind of both the Gads Hill robbery and its comeuppance. In this respect Poins is a figure, who is both part of the criminal underworld and of the superior social world that looks down on it.
He represents wayward tendencies within the class, closely linked to Hals own behaviour. He is effectively a side of Hal himself. Throughout both plays the tension between Poins and Falstaff beneath the apparent bonhomie represents their competition for Hals favour and each ones willingness to undermine the other. However, while Poins accusations against Falstaff are proven correct, it is never clear whether Falstaffs accusation about Poins sister is true or a lie. Poins ambiguous role is implied by the reference to him in The Merry Wives of Windsor, in which Anne Pages suitor Fenton is said to have been a companion of the wild Prince