Meppel is a municipality and a city in the northeast of the Netherlands, in the south-west of the province Drenthe. It developed in the 16th century as a transport and distribution inland harbour for turf, there used to be a lot of waterways in the town, but now only one remains. People born in Meppel are occasionally referred to as Meppeler Muggen and this is due to a traditional folk tale. The people of Meppel thought the tower was on fire. After closer inspection it was only a swarm of mosquitos, broekhuizen, De Kolk, De Schiphorst, Kolderveen, Kolderveense Bovenboer, Meppel, Nijeveen, Nijeveense Bovenboer, and Rogat. Meppel received city rights in 1644 and it is the oldest town in the province of Drenthe
Mauritius "Post Office" stamps
The Mauritius Post Office stamps were issued by the British Colony Mauritius in September 1847, in two denominations, an orange-red one penny and a deep blue two pence. Their name comes from the wording on the stamps reading Post Office and they are among the rarest postage stamps in the world. They were engraved by Joseph Osmond Barnard, born in England in 1816, although these locally produced stamps have a distinct primitive character, they made Barnard’s “name immortal in the postal history of Mauritius”. The stamps were printed using the method, and bear the engravers initials JB at the lower right margin of the bust. The words Post Office appear in the panel, but on the following issue in 1848. A legend arose that the words Post Office had been an error, the stamps, as well as the subsequent issues, are highly prized by collectors because of their rarity, their early dates and their primitive character as local products. Two other places where they can be seen, in Mauritius, are at the Postal Museum and at the Blue Penny Museum, the two stamps can be seen at the Museum for Communication in Berlin and in the Postal Museum of Sweden in Stockholm.
A two pence blue is at display at the Museum for Communication in The Hague, in 1928, Georges Brunel published Les Timbres-Poste de lÎle Maurice in which he stated that the use of the words Post Office on the 1847 issue had been an error. Over the years, the story was embellished, one version was that the man who produced the stamps, Joseph Barnard, was a half-blind watchmaker and an old man who absent-mindedly forgot what he was supposed to print on the stamps. On his way from his shop to visit the postmaster, a Mr. Brownrigg and this provided the necessary jog to his memory and he returned to his work and finished engraving the plates for the stamps, substituting Post Office for Post Paid. These stories are fictional, philatelic scholars have confirmed that the Post Office inscription was intentional. Adolphe and dUnienville wrote that It is much more likely that Barnard used Post Office because this was, and still is, the plates were approved and the stamps issued without any fuss at the time.
Joseph Barnard was an Englishman of Jewish descent from Portsmouth who had arrived in Mauritius in 1838 as a stowaway, thrown off a commercial vessel bound for Sydney. In addition, several rubber stamps used in Mauritius on letters prior to these used the words Post Office. The Mauritius Post Office stamps were unknown to the world until 1864 when Mme. Borchard, the wife of a Bordeaux merchant, found copies of the one and she traded them to another collector. Through a series of sales, the stamps ultimately were acquired by the famous collector Philipp von Ferrary, over the years, the stamps sold for increasing and ultimately astronomical prices. King George V paid £1,450 for an unused Two Pence Post Office at an auction in 1904, adjusting by inflation rate it is about £141,000 in 2015
Stamp collecting is the collecting of postage stamps and related objects. It is related to philately which is the study of stamps and it has been one of the worlds most popular hobbies since the late nineteenth century with the rapid growth of the postal service. Stamp collecting proved to be an almost perfect hobby for collectors because there was a never ending stream of new stamps as each sought to advertise its distinctiveness through its stamps. Because some stamps became rare, a international trade in stamps was created. While stamp collectors are of all ages, it has been particularly popular hobby among children, Stamp collecting is generally accepted as one of the areas that make up the wider subject of philately, which is the study of stamps. A philatelist may, but does not have to, collect stamps and it is not uncommon for the term philatelist to be used to mean a stamp collector. Many casual stamp collectors accumulate stamps for sheer enjoyment and relaxation without worrying about the tiny details, the creation of a large or comprehensive collection, generally requires some philatelic knowledge and will usually contain areas of philatelic studies.
Stamp collectors are an important source of income for countries who create limited runs of elaborate stamps designed mainly to be bought by stamp collectors. The stamps produced by these countries may exceed their postal needs and it has been suggested that John Bourke, Receiver General of Stamp Dues in Ireland was the first collector. In 1774 he assembled a book of the existing embossed revenue stamps, ranging in value from 6 pounds to half a penny and his collection is preserved in Dublin. The first postage stamp, the Penny Black, was issued by Britain in 1840 and it was produced without perforations and consequently had to be cut from the sheet with scissors in order to be used. While unused examples of the Penny Black are quite scarce, used examples are quite common, people started to collect stamps almost immediately. One of the earliest and most notable was John Edward Gray, in 1862, Gray stated that he began to collect postage stamps shortly after the system was established and before it had become a rage.
As the hobby and study of stamps began to grow, stamp albums and stamp related literature began to surface and teenagers were early collectors of stamps in the 1860s and 1870s. Many adults dismissed it as a pursuit but many of those same collectors, as adults, began to systematically study the available postage stamps. Some stamps, such as the issues of the Cape of Good Hope, have become legendary. Stamp collecting is a popular hobby in the early 21st century than it was a hundred years ago. In 2013, the Wall Street Journal estimated the number of stamp collectors was around 60 million
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Philately is the study of stamps and postal history and other related items. It refers to the collection and research activities on stamps, Philately involves more than just stamp collecting, which does not necessarily involve the study of stamps. It is possible to be a philatelist without owning any stamps, for instance, the stamps being studied may be very rare, or reside only in museums. The word philately is the English version of the French word philatélie, Herpin stated that stamps had been collected and studied for the previous six or seven years and a better name was required for the new hobby than timbromanie, which was disliked. He took the Greek root word φιλ- phil-, meaning an attraction or affinity for something, and ἀτέλεια ateleia, meaning exempt from duties and taxes to form philatelie. The introduction of postage meant that the receipt of letters was now free of charge. The alternative terms timbromania and timbrology gradually fell out of use as philately gained acceptance during the 1860s.
Comparison with the records of postal authorities may or may not show that the variations were intentional, which leads to further inquiry as to how the changes could have happened, and why. To make things interesting, thousands of forgeries have been produced over the years, some of them very good. Thematic philately, known as philately, is the study of what is depicted on the stamps. There are hundreds of subjects, such as birds on stamps. A classic example is the Pony Express, which was the fastest way to send letters across the United States during the few months that it operated, covers that can be proven to have been sent by the Pony Express are highly prized by collectors. Aerophilately is the branch of history that specializes in the study of airmail. Philatelists have observed the development of transport by air from its beginning. Postal stationery includes stamped envelopes, postal cards, letter sheets, aérogrammes and wrappers, cinderella philately is the study of objects that look like stamps, but are not postal stamps.
Examples include Easter Seals, Christmas Seals, propaganda labels, Philatelic literature documents the results of philatelic study and includes thousands of books and periodicals. Maximaphily is the study of Maximum Cards, Maximum Cards can be defined as a picture post card with postage stamp on the same theme and a cancellation, with a maximum concordance between all three. Philately uses a number of tools, including stamp tongs to safely handle the stamps, a magnifying glass
An art dealer is a person or company that buys and sells works of art. Art dealers professional associations serve to set standards for accreditation or membership and to support art exhibitions. An art dealer typically seeks out various artists to represent, and builds relationships with collectors, some dealers are able to anticipate market trends, while some prominent dealers may be able to influence the taste of the market. Many dealers specialize in a style, period, or region. They often travel internationally, frequenting exhibitions and artists studios looking for good buys, little-known treasures, when dealers buy works of art, they resell them either in their galleries or directly to collectors. Those who deal in art usually exhibit artists works in their galleries. Art dealers often study the history of art before entering on their careers, related careers that often cross-over include curators of museums and art auction firms are industry-related careers. Gallery owners who do not succeed may seek to work for more successful galleries, others pursue careers as art critics, curators of museums or auction houses, or practicing artists.
Dealers have to understand the business side of the art world and they keep up with trends in the market and are knowledgeable about the style of art people want to buy. They figure out how much they should pay for a piece and they are often passionate and knowledgeable about art. Those who deal with contemporary art promote new artists, creating a market for the artists works, the art world is subject to economic booms and bust just like any other market. Art dealers must be economically conscious in order to maintain their livelihoods, the mark ups of art work must be carefully monitored. If prices and profits are too large, investments may be devalued should an overstock or economic downturn occur, to determine an artworks value, dealers inspect the objects or paintings closely, and compare the fine details with similar pieces. Some dealers with many years of experience learn to identify unsigned works by examining stylistic features such as strokes, color. They recognize the styles of different periods and individual artists, often art dealers are able to distinguish authentic works from forgeries.
Guillam Forchondt the Elder A 17th century Flemish Baroque painter and art based in Antwerp. He established an important art dealing business with international connections in Europe maintained by his extended family and he originally trained as a painter and cabinet maker but built a reputation through his international art business. At one point, the Brothers Forchondt had 60 painters in service for export to France, Spain, matthijs Musson A painter and art dealer based in Antwerp, who helped popularize artists of the 17th century Antwerp school by marketing them throughout Europe
Hawaiian Missionaries (stamps)
The Hawaiian Missionaries are the first postage stamps of the Kingdom of Hawaii, issued in 1851. They came to be known as the Missionaries because they were found on the correspondence of missionaries working in the Hawaiian Islands. Only a handful of these stamps have survived to the present day, in the early 19th century, mail to and from Hawaii was carried by ship captains on an ad hoc basis. By 1849, partly as an effect of the California Gold Rush. In response, the Hawaiian government established a post office and set postal rates, henry Martyn Whitney, the first postmaster, was authorized to print stamps for those rates in June 1851, which he did using the printing press of The Polynesian, a weekly government newspaper. The design was simple, consisting only of a central numeral of the denomination framed by a standard printers ornament. The top line read Hawaiian / Postage for the 2- and 5-cent values, & U. S. / Postage for the 13-cent value, reflecting its unusual role of paying two different countries postage.
A thin line surrounded by a thicker line framed the stamp as a whole, all stamps were printed in the same shade of blue on pelure paper, an extremely thin tissue-like paper prone to tearing, 90% of known Missionaries are damaged in some way. Although the stamps were in use until as late as 1856, of the four values issued only about 200 have survived, of which 28 are unused. The 2-cent is the rarest of the Hawaiian Missionaries, with 15 copies recorded, an astonishing lore surrounds this stamp, in 1892, one of its earlier owners, Gaston Leroux, was murdered for it by an envious fellow philatelist, Hector Giroux. The most valuable of all Missionary items is a cover sent to New York City bearing the only use of the 2-cent value on cover, as well as a 5-cent value. This is known as the Dawson Cover and it was in a bundle of correspondence shoved into a factory furnace around 1870, but packed so tightly that the fire went out. The factory was abandoned,35 years later, a workman cleaning the factory for reuse discovered the stuffed furnace, moore agreed by early December, and the Honolulu Post Office opened on December 21,1850.
In 1920,43 additional Missionaries appeared on the philatelic market and they came from a Charles Shattuck, whose mother had apparently corresponded with a missionary family in Hawaii, were acquired by George H. Grinnell and sold to dealer John Klemann for $65,000. But in 1922, the stamps authenticity became the subject of a court case and they have been studied on a number of occasions since then, but opinion remains divided. Further analysis showed that the ink and paper were consistent with 1850s types, even so, the Royal Philatelic Society declared the stamps to be counterfeit. A book detailing their findings was published in 2006 titled The Investigation of the Grinnell Hawaiian Missionaries by the Expert Committee of the Royal Philatelic Society London by Patrick Pearson. In May 2006, Mystic Stamp Company announced that they had acquired 36 of the Grinnells from the descendants of George Grinnell, many of the surviving Missionaries are repaired, and David Beech has commented that they probably would not have survived had they not been
A stamp album is a book, often loose-leafed, in which a collection of postage stamps may be stored and displayed. Albums are the nearly universal means for keeping stamps, used for beginners and world-class collections, and it is common to characterize the size of a collection by its number of albums. The arrangement of stamps on an album page depends on the taste of the collector, traditional page creation was done by hand with pen and ink, in recent years page layout software and computer printers have become popular. AlbumEasy, available free, for both Windows and Linux, is an example of one of the page layout programs. A stamp album is a book, often loose-leafed, in which a collection of stamps may be stored and displayed. Many collectors buy preprinted albums and pages, which are produced by several manufacturers, the gamut ranges from worldwide albums, with only enough spaces for the common stamps and a few more, to one-country albums with spaces for every type of stamp known. The usual format is to print a picture of the stamp in each space, reduced in size so that a real stamp will cover it up.
Captions range from minimal mentions of perforation or watermark, up to a giving a little background on the stamps subject. Album pages are almost always one-sided, two-sided pages save space, one of the first albums was the Stanley Gibbons “V. R. ” published in the early 1870s. This was followed by the “Improved”, and the illustrated “Imperial” albums, present-day makers include Safe, Lindner, Palo and White Ace. Once collectors have started using a brand, they have a strong incentive to stay with it. In the earliest albums, stamps were adhered to the pages, Stamp hinges were introduced soon after, allowing stamps to be removed without major damage to either the stamp or the album page. In the second half of the 20th century, stamp mounts were introduced, when properly used, mounts allow the stamp to be removed from the album in the same condition in which it was inserted. An album in which the mounts are affixed at the factory, better-quality albums have padded covers, which reduces possible pressure on the stamps exerted by adjacent albums on a shelf.
Careful collectors do not cram albums tightly together, so as allow for a bit of air movement through the pages, Stamp catalog Philately Stamp collecting Stockbook Richard McP. Cabeen, Standard Handbook of Stamp Collecting, pp. 30-34, Stamp albums in the Printed Book Collections of the British Library by David Beech
Association of British Philatelic Societies
The aims of the ABPS are, To represent the hobby both nationally and internationally. To encourage the growth of philately, to support events and, if required, offer support and advice to Federations/Society events. To provide workshops locally or nationally on various aspects of the hobby, to provide a directory which serves a compendium of information useful to the Society Secretary and its members. To publish books, papers etc of value to the members, to assist in the organisation of an annual congress which acts as a national focus for philately within the British Isles. To issue at least 4 times a year a journal, ABPS News, to work with the International bodies in the creation of regulation for competitive entries. Each year the ABPS holds the Philatelic Congress of Great Britain, the first congress was in 1909. At the Congress, the Congress Medal is presented and the new signatories to the Roll of Distinguished Philatelists sign the Roll, awards of Merit are made. A quarterly journal, ABPS News, is issued and the ABPS closely supports the Stamp Active Network which aims to promote youth philately within Britain, grosvenor Philatelic Auctions and Stanley Gibbons are dealer patrons of the association.
The ABPS is incorporated as The Association of British Philatelic Societies Limited, the association is run by an executive committee
Roll of Distinguished Philatelists
The Roll of Distinguished Philatelists is a philatelic award of international scale, created by the Philatelic Congress of Great Britain in 1921. The Roll consists of three pieces of parchment to which the signatories add their names, the following four years, the candidate is examined once a year with the other current ones by a Board of election. The ceremony of signature of the Roll happens at the annual Philatelic Congress of Great Britain, under the Congress rules, the signatories can talk and vote during the Congress. Forty-two philatelists were honoured posthumously on the first page of the Roll as Fathers of Philately, four other names were added in the 1950s at the bottom of the first page. In 1951, Edward R. Woodward and J. Stanley Telfer were honoured by the Board of election because they were two important philatelists and member of the Board. In 1956, because the Board was sure they would have called to sign the Roll if they would have lived longer, United States citizen Clarence W.
Hennan. Tort Nicolau of Spain were added too, on 30 October 1919, Percy C. Bishop, a member of the London Stamp Club, proposed the institution of an Philatelic Order of Merit to honour philatelic writers and this order would be given more important than existing philatelic prizes and would have an international importance. In late 1919, F. H. Vallencey, President of the Club, in March 1920, a jury of five published a list of twenty-five names who the jury selected from the ninety-one names sent by the readers and British associations. However, to official recognition, the London Stamp Club let the associative members of the 1920 Philatelic Congress of Great Britain in Newcastle upon Tyne decide the future of Bishops idea. A sub-committee was constituted to find a new name and write rules of the award, at the 1921 Congress in Harrogate, the Roll of Distinguished Philatelists was created without any discussion. Starting in 1922, the selection of the signatories was annual, the names of forty-two deceased philatelists are printed on the Roll page that was signed between 1921 and 1935.
They were placed in the ribbons that ornates the two columns on each side of the page and they were included as fathers of philately. James H. Abbott, pioneer of the overprint collection, sir William Beilby Avery, director of W & T Avery Ltd. great collector. François Georges Oscar Berger-Levrault and collector, author of the first stamp catalogue in 1862, Friedrich Andreas Breitfuss, one of the collectors of essays and proofs. Mount Brown, author of a stamp catalogue between 1862 and 1864, maitland Burnett, editor of The Philatelic Record. Gustave and Martial Caillebotte and stamp collectors, marcellus Purnell Castle, President of the Royal Philatelic Society London from 1913 to 1917, editor of The London Philatelist. Daniel Cooper, first President of the Philatelic Society, London from 1869 to 1878, J. A. Dunbar-Dunbar, a Scottish reverend, his Australian collection went to the Museum of Science and Art in Edinburgh
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker