XEW-AM is a radio station in Mexico City, broadcasting on the AM frequency of 900 kHz. XEW-AM serves as the originating station for other "W-Radio" stations around Mexico that carry some of its programs; the programming on XEW-AM is simulcast on Mexico City FM radio station 96.9 XEW-FM. XEW began regular broadcasts at 20:00 CST on 18 September 1930. Broadcasting from a room at the Olympia Cinema on 16 September Street in Mexico City, it had only 5 kW of transmitter power, although this was increased to 50 kW by 1934. With the installation of new transmitters, the power became 250 kW by 1935 and remained there for more than 80 years, making XEW-AM the most powerful AM radio station in North America, it was the first Mexico City station in Emilio Azcarraga Vidaurreta's Chain of the Americas, the forerunner to today's Televisa whose radio unit still owns XEW-AM. XEW-AM was affiliated with the NBC Radio Networks; as radio in Mexico evolved with the country's growth and more radio stations signed on, XEW-AM became flagship to the country's largest radio network.
Several radio and television stations have derived their call signs from XEW radio and television, all of them affiliated at one time or another with Televisa. In the United States, the call letters for KXEW, a commercial AM radio station in Tucson, owned by Pan American Radio Corporation, that went on the air May 10, 1963, were chosen by its president and CEO, J. Carlos McCormick, because of his admiration of Vidaurreta, whom he had met as a teenager during a 1950 visit to Mexico City. On February 10, 2016, XEW-AM was approved to relocate its transmitter to a site in Los Reyes Acaquilpan, La Paz Municipality, in the State of Mexico and to reduce power to 100,000 watts; the FM frequency, 96.9, received its concession on April 28, 1962. By 1981, it had changed to "Rock Stereo". On September 9, 1985, it was renamed "WFM" with an English rock and pop format, being the direct competition of XHSON-FM. Among the DJs that conformed the station were Alejandro González Iñárritu, Martha Debayle and Charo Fernández.
After 14 years, in 1999, the station changed its name and format to "W Radical", directed by the former head of "Rock 101", Luis Gerardo Salas, airing electronic music and eurodance. By 2001, it returned to its former WFM format with the slogan "Frecuencia Adictiva", but in late 2002, after the association of Televisa Radio and PRISA, it was decided to simulcast the same programming on AM and FM, thus XEW-FM became a news and talk outlet. Manuel "Maber" Bernal Emilio Tuero Juan Arvizu Luis Arcaráz Nicolás Urcelay Alfonso Ortiz Tirado Los Panchos Juan García Esquivel Mario Ruiz Armengol Maria Luisa Landín María Victoria Mario Moreno Cantinflas Germán Valdés "Tin-Tan" José Sabre Marroquín Agustín Lara Toña la Negra Angelines Fernández Carmen Rey Pedro Infante Jorge Negrete Pedro Vargas Gustavo Adolfo Palma from Guatemala Fernando Fernández Eulalio González "Piporro" Francisco Gabilondo Soler Hugo Avendaño, Amparo Montes Héctor Martínez Serrano Antonio Aguilar Paco Stanley XEW-AM, official page Radio-Locator Information on XEW-FM Radio-Locator Information on XEW Query the FCC's AM station database for XEW
In music, tape loops are loops of magnetic tape used to create repetitive, rhythmic musical patterns or dense layers of sound when played on a tape recorder. Originating in the 1940s with the work of Pierre Schaeffer, they were used among contemporary composers of 1950s and 1960s, such as Steve Reich, Terry Riley, Karlheinz Stockhausen, who used them to create phase patterns, rhythms and timbres. Popular music authors of 1960s and 1970s in psychedelic and ambient genres, used tape loops to accompany their music with innovative sound effects. In the 1980s, analog audio and tape loops with it gave way to digital audio and application of computers to generate and process sound. In a tape loop, sound is recorded on a section of magnetic tape and this tape is cut and spliced end-to-end, creating a circle or loop which can be played continuously on a reel-to-reel machine. By accelerating the speed of a loop to a sufficient degree, a sequence of events perceived as a rhythm becomes heard as a pitch, variation of the rhythm in the original succession of events produces different timbres in the accelerated sound.
Simultaneous playing of tape loops to create phrase patterns and rhythms was developed and used by musique concrète and tape music composers, was most extensively utilized by Steve Reich for his "phasing" pieces such as "Come Out" and "It's Gonna Rain", by Karlheinz Stockhausen in Gesang der Jünglinge and Kontakte. Stockhausen used the technique for live performance in Solo. If, instead of playing back a recorded loop, something is done to progressively alter the recorded material between cycles, such as re-recording the sound as it passes the playback head or adding new material to the loop a process of change will occur in the content, complexity, or perception—or some combination of them; the length of the loop controls the length of the repeated sound, combines with the desired content of the composer to create a single tape loop. On a standard reel-to-reel, one loop is, at most, a few seconds of sound; some composers were satisfied with this approach, but there were other methods to allow for longer loops.
For example, placing two reel-to-reel machines side by side and stringing the tape between them, using one machine for playback and the other as a pulley for the length of tape allowed for longer loop times. By using this or other methods, some composers could create long loops which allowed for lengthier fragments of sound; when recording his landmark 1978 ambient album Music for Airports, Brian Eno reported that for a particular song, "One of the tape loops was seventy-nine feet long and the other eighty-three feet". The longest tape loop created was made by Barry Anderson for performances of Stockhausen's Solo. In the late 1940s, Pierre Schaeffer used special phonograph discs with a sillon fermé to repeat segments of sounds in his musique concrète studio in Paris; when magnetic tape technology became available, he replaced this technique with tape loops, where such segments could either be repeated, or could undergo electronic transformation during repetition. Halim El-Dabh, who experimented with tape music from the early 1940s to the 1950s utilized tape loops.
Beginning in the late 1950s the BBC Radiophonic Workshop began using tape loops to add special effects to some BBC programming. Several different configurations of tape loops were employed in the early years of the WDR Studio in Cologne. One such arrangement was used to build up multilayered textures by sequentially recording sounds with the erase head disconnected or with a customised arrangement of the heads. Gottfried Michael Koenig applied this method in 1954, in his Klangfiguren I. In Canada, Hugh Le Caine produced "a clear and memorable example of musique concrète" in 1955 titled Dripsody, it was built from the sound of a single drop of water, using a variable-speed tape recorder, tape loops, just 25 splices. At this same time in Cologne, Karlheinz Stockhausen produced a more ambitious work, Gesang der Jünglinge, which made extensive use of tape loops for its stratified impulse groups and choral swarms. Pioneer of minimalism Terry Riley began employing tape loops at the end of the 1950s.
Using simple Wollensak tape recorders, he recorded piano music and other sound samples, which he would reproduce on speakers surrounding the audience along with live performance, creating "orchestral textures", as Edward Strickland puts it. With assistance of Richard Maxfield and Ramon Sender, Riley combined tape loops with echoplex devices, producing an "acid trip" piece Mescalin Mix, made from sound samples from his earlier works, he experimented with combining different tapes together, producing pieces such as Music for the Gift and culminating in his use of a tape delay/feedback system employing two tape recorders in live solo performances. The use of tape loops in popular music dates back to Jamaican dub music in the 1960s. Dub producer King Tubby used tape loops in his productions, while improvising with homemade delay units. Another dub producer, Sylvan Morris, developed a slapback echo effect by using both mechanical and handmade tape loops; these techniques were adopted by hip hop musicians in the 1970s.
Steve Reich used tape
George Walton Lucas Jr. is an American filmmaker and entrepreneur. Lucas is known for creating the Star Wars and Indiana Jones franchises and founding Lucasfilm, LucasArts and Industrial Light & Magic, he was the chairman and CEO of Lucasfilm before selling it to The Walt Disney Company in 2012. After graduating from the University of Southern California in 1967, Lucas co-founded American Zoetrope with filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola. Lucas wrote and directed THX 1138, based on his earlier student short Electronic Labyrinth: THX 1138 4EB, a critical success but a financial failure, his next work as a writer-director was the film American Graffiti, inspired by his youth in early 1960s Modesto and produced through the newly founded Lucasfilm. The film was critically and commercially successful, received five Academy Award nominations including Best Picture. Lucas' next film, the epic space opera Star Wars, had a troubled production but was a surprise hit, becoming the highest-grossing film at the time, winning six Academy Awards and sparking a cultural phenomenon.
Lucas cowrote the sequels The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi. With director Steven Spielberg, he created the Indiana Jones films Raiders of the Lost Ark, Temple of Doom, The Last Crusade, he produced and wrote a variety of films through Lucasfilm in the 1980s and 1990s and during this same period Lucas' LucasArts developed high-impact video games, including Maniac Mansion, The Secret of Monkey Island and Grim Fandango alongside many video games based on the Star Wars universe. In 1997, Lucas rereleased the Star Wars trilogy as part of a Special Edition, featuring several alterations, he returned to directing with the Star Wars prequel trilogy, comprising The Phantom Menace, Attack of the Clones, Revenge of the Sith. He collaborated on served as executive producer for the war film Red Tails and wrote the CGI film Strange Magic. Lucas is one of the American film industry's most financially successful filmmakers and has been nominated for four Academy Awards, his films are among the 100 highest-grossing movies at the North American box office, adjusted for ticket-price inflation.
Lucas is considered a significant figure in the New Hollywood era. Lucas was born and raised in Modesto, the son of Dorothy Ellinore Lucas and George Walton Lucas Sr. and is of German, Swiss-German, English and distant Dutch and French descent. He was interested including TV shows such as Flash Gordon. Long before Lucas began making films, he yearned to be a racecar driver, he spent most of his high school years racing on the underground circuit at fairgrounds and hanging out at garages. On June 12, 1962, at age eighteen, while driving his souped-up Autobianchi Bianchina, another driver broadsided him, flipping over his car, nearly killing him, causing him to lose interest in racing as a career. Lucas's father owned a stationery store, wanted George to work for him when he turned 18. Lucas had been planning to go to art school, declared upon leaving home that he would be a millionaire by the age of 30, he attended Modesto Junior College, where he studied anthropology and literature, amongst other subjects.
He began shooting with an 8 mm camera, including filming car races. At this time and his friend John Plummer became interested in Canyon Cinema: screenings of underground, avant-garde 16 mm filmmakers like Jordan Belson, Stan Brakhage, Bruce Conner. Lucas and Plummer saw classic European films of the time, including Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless, François Truffaut's Jules et Jim, Federico Fellini's 8½. "That's when George started exploring," Plummer said. Through his interest in autocross racing, Lucas met renowned cinematographer Haskell Wexler, another race enthusiast. Wexler to work with Lucas on several occasions, was impressed by Lucas' talent. "George had a good eye, he thought visually," he recalled. Lucas transferred to the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts. USC was one of the earliest universities to have a school devoted to motion picture film. During the years at USC, Lucas shared a dorm room with Randal Kleiser. Along with classmates such as Walter Murch, Hal Barwood, John Milius, they became a clique of film students known as The Dirty Dozen.
He became good friends with fellow acclaimed student filmmaker and future Indiana Jones collaborator, Steven Spielberg. Lucas was influenced by the Filmic Expression course taught at the school by filmmaker Lester Novros which concentrated on the non-narrative elements of Film Form like color, movement and time. Another inspiration was the Serbian montagist Slavko Vorkapić, a film theoretician who made stunning montage sequences for Hollywood studio features at MGM, RKO, Paramount. Vorkapich taught the autonomous nature of the cinematic art form, emphasizing kinetic energy inherent in motion pictures. Lucas saw many inspiring films in class the visual films coming out of the National Film Board of Canada like Arthur Lipsett's 21-87, the French-Canadian cameraman Jean-Claude Labrecque's cinéma vérité 60 Cycles, the work of Norman McLaren, the documentaries of Claude Jutra. Lucas fell madly in love with pure cinema and became prolific at making 16 mm nonstory noncharacter visual tone poems and cinéma vérité with such titles as Look at Life, Herbie, 1:42.08, The Emperor, Anyone Lived in a Pretty Town, 6-18-67.
He was passionate and interested in camerawork an
Psychedelia is the subculture, originating in the 1960s, of people who use psychedelic drugs such as LSD, mescaline and psilocybin. The term is used to describe a style of psychedelic artwork and psychedelic music. Psychedelic art and music try to recreate or reflect the experience of altered consciousness. Psychedelic art uses distorted and surreal visuals, bright colors and full spectrums and animation to evoke and convey to a viewer or listener the artist's experience while using such drugs, or to enhance the experience of a user of these drugs. Psychedelic music uses distorted electric guitar, Indian music elements such as the sitar, electronic effects, sound effects and reverberation, elaborate studio effects, such as playing tapes backwards or panning the music from one side to another; the term "psychedelic" is derived from the Ancient Greek words psychē and dēloun, translating to "soul-revealing". A psychedelic experience is characterized by the striking perception of aspects of one's mind unknown, or by the creative exuberance of the mind liberated from its ostensibly ordinary fetters.
Psychedelic states are an array of experiences including changes of perception such as hallucinations, altered states of awareness or focused consciousness, variation in thought patterns, trance or hypnotic states, mystical states, other mind alterations. These processes can lead some people to experience changes in mental operation defining their self-identity different enough from their previous normal state that it can excite feelings of newly formed understanding such as revelation, enlightenment and psychosis. Psychedelic states may be elicited by various techniques, such as meditation, sensory stimulation or deprivation, most by the use of psychedelic substances; when these psychoactive substances are used for religious, shamanic, or spiritual purposes, they are termed entheogens. The term was first coined as a noun in 1956 by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond as an alternative descriptor for hallucinogenic drugs in the context of psychedelic psychotherapy. Seeking a name for the experience induced by LSD, Osmond contacted Aldous Huxley, a personal acquaintance and advocate for the therapeutic use of the substance.
Huxley coined the term "phanerothyme," from the Greek terms for "manifest" and "spirit". In a letter to Osmond, he wrote: To make this mundane world sublime, Take half a gram of phanerothyme To which Osmond responded: To fathom Hell or soar angelic, Just take a pinch of psychedelic It was on this term that Osmond settled, because it was "clear and uncontaminated by other associations." This mongrel spelling of the word'psychedelic' was loathed by American ethnobotanist Richard Evans Schultes, but championed by Timothy Leary, who thought it sounded better. Due to the expanded use of the term "psychedelic" in pop culture and a perceived incorrect verbal formulation, Carl A. P. Ruck, Jeremy Bigwood, Danny Staples, Jonathan Ott, R. Gordon Wasson proposed the term "entheogen" to describe the religious or spiritual experience produced by such substances. From the second half of the 1950s, Beat Generation writers like William Burroughs, Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg wrote about and took drugs, including cannabis and Benzedrine, raising awareness and helping to popularise their use.
In the same period Lysergic acid diethylamide, better known as LSD, or "acid", began to be used in the US and UK as an experimental treatment promoted as a potential cure for mental illness. In the early 1960s the use of LSD and other hallucinogens was advocated by proponents of the new "consciousness expansion", such as Timothy Leary, Alan Watts, Aldous Huxley and Arthur Koestler, their writings profoundly influenced the thinking of the new generation of youth. There had long been a culture of drug use among jazz and blues musicians, use of drugs had begun to grow among folk and rock musicians, who began to include drug references in their songs. By the mid-1960s, the psychedelic life-style had developed in California, an entire subculture developed; this was true in San Francisco, due in part to the first major underground LSD factory, established there by Owsley Stanley. There was an emerging music scene of folk clubs, coffee houses and independent radio stations catering to a population of students at nearby Berkeley, to free thinkers that had gravitated to the city.
From 1964, the Merry Pranksters, a loose group that developed around novelist Ken Kesey, sponsored the Acid Tests, a series of events based around the taking of LSD, accompanied by light shows, film projection and discordant, improvised music known as the psychedelic symphony. The Pranksters helped popularize LSD use through their road trips across America in a psychedelically-decorated school bus, which involved distributing the drug and meeting with major figures of the beat movement, through publications about their activities such as Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. Leary was a well-known proponent of the use of psychedelics. However, both advanced different opinions on the broad use of psychedelics by state and civil society. Leary promulgated the idea of such substances as a panacea, while Huxley suggested that only the cultural and intellectual elite should partake of entheogens systematically. In the 1960s the use of psychedelic drugs became widespread in modern Western culture in the United States and Britain.
The movement is cre
THX 1138 is a 1971 American science fiction film set in a dystopian future in which the populace is controlled through android police and mandatory use of drugs that suppress emotions. It was directed by George Lucas in his feature film directorial debut in 1971. Produced by Francis Ford Coppola and written by Lucas and Walter Murch, it stars Robert Duvall and Donald Pleasence. THX 1138 was developed from Lucas's student film Electronic Labyrinth: THX 1138 4EB, which he made in 1967 while attending the USC School of Cinematic Arts; the feature film was produced in a joint venture between American Zoetrope. A novelization by Ben Bova was published in 1971; the film received mixed reviews from critics and failed to find box-office success on initial release. In the 25th century, sexual intercourse and reproduction are prohibited, whereas use of mind-altering drugs is mandatory to enforce compliance among the citizens and to ensure their ability to conduct dangerous and demanding tasks. Emotions and the concept of family are taboo.
Everyone is clad in identical uniforms and has shaven heads to emphasize uniformity, except the police androids and robed monks. Instead of names, people have designations with three arbitrary letters and four digits, shown on an identity badge worn at all times. At their jobs in central video control centers, SEN 5241 and LUH 3417 keep surveillance on the city. LUH has THX 1138, who works in a factory producing android police officers. At the beginning of the story, THX finishes his shift while the loudspeakers urge the workers to "increase safety"—and congratulate them for only losing 195 workers in the last period—to the competing factory's 242. On the way home, he stops at a confession booth in a row of many, relates his concerns and mumbles prayers about "party" and "masses", under the portrait of "OMM 0000". A soothing voice greets THX, OMM ends every confession with a parting salutation: "You are a true believer, blessings of the State, blessings of the masses. Work hard, increase production, prevent accidents and be happy".
At home, THX watches holobroadcasts while engaging with a masturbatory device. LUH secretly substitutes pills in her possession for THX's medications, causing him to develop nausea and sexual desires. LUH and THX have sex. THX is confronted by SEN, who arranges THX as his new roommate, but THX files a complaint against SEN for the illegal housing mate change. Without drugs in his system, THX falters during a critical and hazardous phase of his job, a control center engages a "mind lock" on THX which raises the level of danger. After the release of the mind lock, THX makes the necessary correction to that work phase. THX and LUH are arrested and THX undergoes drug therapy, he enjoys a brief reunion with LUH, disrupted shortly. At THX's trial, THX is sentenced to prison, alongside SEN. Most of the prisoners seem uninterested in escape, but THX and SEN find an exit, they are joined by hologram SRT 5752, who starred in the holobroadcasts. During the escape, THX and SRT are separated from SEN. Chased by the police robots, THX and SRT are trapped in a control center, from which THX learns that LUH has been "consumed", her name has been reassigned to fetus 66691 in a growth chamber.
SEN escapes to an area reserved for the monks of OMM, where a lone monk notices that SEN has no identification badge. SEN attacks him and wanders into a child-rearing area, strikes up a conversation with children, sits aimlessly until police androids apprehend him. THX and SRT steal two cars. Pursued by two police androids on motorcycles, THX flees to the limits of the city and escapes into a ventilation shaft; the police androids pursue him on motorcycles along the shaft to an escape ladder, but are ordered by Central Command to cease pursuit, on the grounds that the expense of his capture exceeds their budget by 6%. The city is revealed to be underground, THX has escaped onto the surface, where he witnesses the Sun setting. Robert Duvall as THX 1138 Donald Pleasence as SEN 5241 Maggie McOmie as LUH 3417 Don Pedro Colley as the hologram SRT Ian Wolfe as the old prisoner PTO Marshall Efron as prisoner TWA Sid Haig as prisoner NCH John Pearce as prisoner DWY James Wheaton as the voice of OMM 0000 Terry McGovern THX 1138 was the first film made in a planned seven-picture slate commissioned by Warner Bros. from the 1969 incarnation of American Zoetrope.
Lucas wrote the initial script draft based on his earlier short film but Coppola and Lucas agreed it was unsatisfactory. Murch assisted Lucas in writing an improved final draft. For some of SEN's dialogue in the film, the script included excerpts from speeches by Richard Nixon; the script required the entire cast to shave their heads, either bald or with a buzz cut. As a publicity stunt, several actors were filmed having their first haircuts/shaves at unusual venues, with the results used in a promotional featurette titled Bald: The Making of THX 1138. Many of the shaven-headed extras seen in the film were recruited from the nearby addiction recovery program Synanon. Filming began on September 22, 1969; the schedule was between 35 and 40 days, completing in November 1969. Lucas filmed THX 1138 in Techniscope. Most locations for filming were in the San Francisco area, including the unfinished tunnels of the Bay Area Rapid Transit subway system, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Marin County Civic Center in San Rafael designed by
Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music that originated in Trinidad and Tobago during the early to mid-19th century and spread to the rest of the Caribbean Antilles and Venezuela by the mid-20th century. Its rhythms can be traced back to West African Kaiso and the arrival of French planters and their slaves from the French Antilles in the 18th century, it is characterized by rhythmic and harmonic vocals, is most sung in a French creole and led by a griot. As calypso developed, the role of the griot became known as a chantuelle and calypsonian; as English replaced "patois" as the dominant language, calypso migrated into English, in so doing it attracted more attention from the government. It allowed the masses to challenge the doings of the unelected Governor and Legislative Council, the elected town councils of Port of Spain and San Fernando. Calypso continued to play an important role in political expression, served to document the history of Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago. Calypso in the Caribbean includes a range of genres, including: the Benna in Barbuda.
It is thought that the name "calypso" was "kaiso", now believed to come from Efik "ka isu" and Ibibio "kaa iso", used in urging someone on or in backing a contestant. There is a Trinidadian term "cariso" that means "old-time" calypsos; the term "calypso" is recorded from the 1930s onwards. Alternatively, the insert for The Rough Guide to Calypso and Soca favours John Cowley's arguments in Carnival and Calypso: Traditions in the Making, that the word might be a corruption of the French carrouseaux and through the process of patois and Anglicization became caliso and finally "calypso". Calypso music was developed in Trinidad in the 17th century from the West African Kaiso and canboulay music brought by African slaves imported to that Caribbean island to work on sugar plantations; the slaves, brought to toil on sugar plantations, were stripped of all connections to their homeland and family and not allowed to talk to each other. They used calypso to communicate with each other. Many early calypsos were sung in French Creole by an individual called a griot.
As calypso developed, the role of the griot became known as a chantuelle and calypsonian. Modern calypso, began in the 19th century, a fusion of disparate elements ranging from the masquerade song lavway, French Creole belair and the calinda stick-fighting chantwell. Calypso's early rise was connected with the adoption of Carnival by Trinidadian slaves, including canboulay drumming and the music masquerade processions; the French brought Carnival to Trinidad, calypso competitions at Carnival grew in popularity after the abolition of slavery in 1834. The first identifiably calypso genre song was recorded in 1912, by Lovey's String Band while visiting New York City. In 1914, the second calypso song was recorded, this time in Trinidad, by chantwell Julian Whiterose, better known as the Iron Duke and famous calinda stick-fighter. Jules Sims would record vocal calypsos; the majority of these calypsos of the World War I era were instrumentals by Lovey and Lionel Belasco. Due to the constraints of the wartime economy, no recordings of note were produced until the late 1920s and early 1930s, when the "golden era" of calypso would cement the style and phrasing of the music.
Calypso evolved into a way of spreading news around Trinidad. Politicians and public figures debated the content of each song, many islanders considered these songs the most reliable news source. Calypsonians pushed the boundaries of free speech as their lyrics spread news of any topic relevant to island life, including speaking out against political corruption. British rule enforced censorship and police began to scan these songs for damaging content. With this censorship, calypsos continued to push boundaries, with a variety of ways to slip songs past the scrutinizing eyes of the editor. Double entendre, or double-speak, was one way, as was the practice of denouncing countries such as Hitler's Germany and its annexation of Poland, while making pointed references toward the UK's policies on Trinidad. Sex, gossip, politics, local news and insulting other calypsonians were the order of the day in classic calypso, just as it is today with classic hip-hop, and just as the hip-hop of today, the music sparked shock and outrage in moralistic sections of society.
Countless recordings were dumped at sea in the name of censorship, although in truth, rival US companies did this in the spirit of underhanded competition, claiming that the rivals' material was unfit for US consumption. Decca Records lost untold pressings in this manner, as did RCA's Bluebird label. An entrepreneur named Eduardo Sa Gomes played a significant role in spreading calypso in its early days. Sa Gomes, a Portuguese immigrant who owned a local music and phonograph equipment shop in Port of Spain, promoted the genre and gave financial support to the local artists. In March 1934, he sent Roaring Attila the Hun to New York City to record.