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Henry Marten (regicide)

Henry Marten was an English lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons in two periods between 1640 and 1653. He was a regicide of King Charles I of England. Marten was the elder son of diplomat Sir Henry Marten. Henry "Harry" Marten was born at his father's house on 3 Merton Street, Oxfordshire, England, and educated in the same city. Marten matriculated on 31 October 1617 as a gentleman commoner from University College, graduating BA in 1620. Like many young men of his social background he entered the Inns of Court, he may have been the Henry Marten admitted to Gray's Inn in August 1618 and was admitted to the Inner Temple in November 1619. In the 1620s he toured Europe and enjoyed much high living there, but during his time in France he was exposed to the thinking of the French stoical philosophers; as a public figure, Marten first came to prominence in 1639 when he refused to contribute to a general loan. In April 1640, he was elected Member of Parliament for Berkshire in the Short Parliament.

He was re-elected MP for Berkshire for the Long Parliament in November 1640. He lived at Beckett Hall in Shrivenham and soon afterwards, his official residence became Longworth House in nearby Longworth, he preferred to live in London. In the House of Commons, he joined the popular party, spoke in favour of the proposed bill of attainder against Strafford, in 1642 was a member of the committee of safety; some of his language about the king was so frank that Charles demanded his arrest and his trial for high treason. When the English Civil War broke out Marten did not take the field, although he was appointed governor of Reading, but in Parliament he was active. On one occasion his zeal in the parliamentary cause led him to open a letter from the Earl of Northumberland to his countess, an impertinence for which, says Clarendon, he was cudgelled by the Earl. In 1643 he was expelled from the Houses of Parliament and imprisoned in the Tower of London for expressing the view that the royal family should be extirpated and monarchy brought to an end.

In 1644, however, he was made governor of Aylesbury, about this time took direct part in the war. Allowed to return to Parliament in January 1646, Marten again advocated extreme republican views, he spoke of his desire to prepare the king for heaven. He was associated with John Lilburne and the Levellers, was one of those who suspected the sincerity of Oliver Cromwell, whose murder he is said to have contemplated. However, he acted with Cromwell in bringing Charles I to trial, he was energetic in establishing the Commonwealth and in destroying the remaining vestiges of the monarchical system. He was chosen a member of the Council of State in 1649, as compensation for his losses and reward for his services during the war, lands valued at £1000 a year were settled upon him. In parliament he spoke and with effect, but he took no part in public life during the Protectorate, passing part of this time in prison, where he was placed on account of his debts. Having sat among the restored members of the Long Parliament in 1659, Marten surrendered himself to the authorities as a regicide in June 1660, with some others he was excepted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act, but with a saving clause.

He behaved courageously at his trial, which took place in October 1660, but he was found guilty of taking part in the king's death. Through the action, or rather the inaction of the House of Lords, he was spared the death penalty, but he remained a captive. Having escaped the death penalty for his involvement in the regicide Marten was sent into internal exile, first in the far north of England and to Windsor Castle, where he remained until Charles II ordered him to be moved away from such close proximity to himself. In 1668 Marten was sent in Wales. Marten's imprisonment there lasted some twelve years but does not appear to have been unduly arduous, at least at first, his legitimate wife Margaret lived apart from him, remaining at the family home in Berkshire, but he was attended there by Mary Ward, his common-law wife. Marten died at Chepstow Castle on 9 September 1680, having choked while eating his supper, was buried beneath the floor at an entryway of Priory and Parish Church of St Mary, Monmouthshire, Wales, UK.

Although a leading Puritan, Marten enjoyed good living. He had a contemporary reputation as a heavy drinker and was said to be a man of loose morals. According to John Aubrey he was "a great lover of pretty girls to whom he was so liberal that he spent the greatest part of his estate" upon them. In the opinion of King Charles I he was "an ugly rascal and whore-master", he married twice (to Elizabeth Lovelace and Margaret Staunton but had an open and lengthy relationship with Mary Ward, a woman not his wife, by whom he had three daughters. Ward was to remain with him throughout his imprisonment, his enemies branded him an atheist but his religious views were more complex, influenced his position regarding the need to allow freedom of worship and conscience. His political views throughout his life were constant: he opposed one-man rule and was in favour of representative government. In 1643, e

Shields Road subway station

Shields Road subway station is a station of Glasgow Subway, serving the Pollokshields and Kingston areas of Glasgow, Scotland. Nearby is Charles Rennie Mackintosh's Scotland Street School Museum; this was one of four stations which has Ride facilities. The station has been left in an industrial area by post-war reconstruction and is isolated from surrounding areas by the M8 motorway and approach roads for the Kingston Bridge. There were 460,000 passengers in the 12 months to 31 March 2005; these trips were generated by the adjacent'Park & Ride' car park. The car park was rebuilt with over 800 spaces in a project that ended in September 2006; the east end of the car park is closer to the entrance of West Street subway station. The station is on Scotland Street, not Shields Road. There has been some consideration of changing its name. Shields Road is one of the stations mentioned in Cliff Hanley's song The Glasgow Underground. 2004/05: 0.460 million annually 2011/12: 0.457 million annually

ArenaBowl V

ArenaBowl'91 was the Arena Football League's fifth ArenaBowl. The game featured the #2 Tampa Bay Storm against the #1 Detroit Drive; the Storm were in their first season in Tampa, Florida since moving from Pittsburgh and having spent their first four seasons as the Pittsburgh Gladiators, while the Drive were trying to win an unprecedented fourth-straight ArenaBowl title. In the first quarter, the Storm struck first with Quarterback Jay Gruden getting a one-yard touchdown run, yet the Drive responded with Quarterback Art Schlichter completing a 10-yard touchdown pass to WR/DB Gary Mullen and a 32-yard touchdown pass to OS George LaFrance. In the second quarter, Tampa Bay struck back with Gruden completing a 13-yard touchdown pass to WR/LB Stevie Thomas. Detroit responded with FB/LB Alvin Rettig, the Storm began to take control with FB/LB Lynn Bradford getting a three-yard touchdown run, while Gruden and Thomas hooked up with each other again on a 42-yard touchdown pass. In the third quarter, the Drive answered with Schlichter completing a 13-yard touchdown pass to WR/LB Will McClay, while the Storm replied with Gruden completing a 37-yard touchdown pass to WR/DB Darren Willis.

While Detroit could only answer with Kicker Novo Bojovic getting a 46-yard field goal, Tampa Bay increased its lead with Gruden hooking up with Thomas again with a 17-yard touchdown pass. In the fourth quarter, the Drive tried to come back with Schlichter and Mullen hooking up again on a 23-yard touchdown pass and FB/LB Aric Anderson getting a one-yard touchdown run, the Storm wrapped the game up with Gruden and Thomas hooking up with each other once more on a 35-yard touchdown pass. With the win, not only did Tampa Bay win its first-ever ArenaBowl title, but they prevented Detroit from winning its fourth consecutive league title. 1st Quarter TB - Gruden 1 run DET - Mullen 10 pass from Schlichter DET - LaFrance 32 pass from Schlichter 2nd Quarter TB - Thomas 13 pass from Gruden DET - Rettig 2 run TB - Bradford 3 run TB - Thomas 42 pass from Gruden 3rd Quarter DET - McClay 13 pass from Schlichter TB - Willis 37 pass from Gruden DET - FG Bojovic 46 TB - Thomas 17 pass from Gruden 4th Quarter DET - Mullen 23 pass from Schlichter DET - Anderson 1 run TB - Thomas 35 pass from Gruden On the Arena Football League's 20 Greatest Highlights Countdown, this game is a #5.

ArenaFan Box Score

List of South American saints

This page is a list of South American saints, blesseds and Servants of God, as recognized by the Roman Catholic Church. These people were born, died, or lived their religious life in any of the territories of South America with the exception of Brazil, which has its own page; the Catholic Church entered South America in 1500 through Brazil and expanded across the continent with the Spanish and Portuguese cultures. Today this area remains Catholic; the following is the list of saints, including the year in which they were canonized and the country or countries with which they are associated. St. Louis Bertrand, Dominican priest Declared Venerable: N/A Beatified: 19 July 1608 by Pope Paul V Canonized: 12 April 1671 by Pope Clement X St. Rose of Lima, lay Dominican Declared Venerable: N/A Beatified: 15 April 1668 by Pope Clement IX Canonized: 12 April 1671 by Pope Clement X St. Turibius of Mongrovejo, secular Archbishop Declared Venerable: N/A Beatified: 2 July 1679 by Pope Innocent XI Canonized: 10 December 1726 by Pope Benedict XIII St. Francis Solanus, Franciscan priest Declared Venerable: N/A Beatified: 20 June 1675 by Pope Clement X Canonized: 27 December 1726 by Pope Benedict XIII St. Peter Claver, Jesuit priest Declared Venerable: N/A Beatified: 21 September 1851 by Pope Pius IX Canonized: 15 January 1888 by Pope Leo XIII St. Mariana de Jesús de Paredes, secular Franciscan Declared Venerable: 19 March 1776 Beatified: 20 November 1853 by Pope Pius IX Canonized: 9 July 1950 by Pope Pius XII St. Martin de Porres, Dominican brother Declared Venerable: N/A Beatified: 29 October 1837 by Pope Gregory XVI Canonized: 6 May 1962 by Pope John XXIII St. John Macias, Dominican brother Declared Venerable: 2 February 1762 Beatified: 22 October 1837 by Pope Gregory XVI Canonized: 28 September 1975 by Pope Paul VI St. Miguel Febres Cordero, De La Salle Brother Declared Venerable: 16 March 1970 Beatified: 30 October 1977 by Pope Paul VI Canonized: 21 October 1984 by Pope John Paul II St. Roque González de Santa Cruz, Juan del Castillo, Alfonso Rodríguez Olmedo, Jesuits Declared Martyrdom: 3 December 1933 Beatified: 28 January 1934 by Pope Pius XI Canonized: 16 May 1988 by Pope John Paul II St. Ezequiel Moreno y Díaz, Augustinian Recollect Declared Venerable: 1 February 1975 Beatified: 1 November 1975 by Pope Paul VI Canonized: 11 October 1992 by Pope John Paul II St. Teresa of Los Andes, Discalced Carmelite Declared Venerable: 22 March 1986 Beatified: 3 April 1987 by Pope John Paul II Canonized: 21 March 1993 by Pope John Paul II St. Benito de Jesus, De La Salle Brother and Martyr in Spain Declared Martyrdom: 7 September 1989 Beatified: 29 April 1990 by Pope John Paul II Canonized: 21 November 1999 by Pope John Paul II St. Alberto Hurtado, Jesuit priest Declared Venerable: 21 December 1991 Beatified: 16 October 1994 by Pope John Paul II Canonized: 23 October 2005 by Pope Benedict XVI St. Maria Bernarda Bütler, Franciscan Missionary Sisters of Mary Help of Christians Declared Venerable: 21 December 1991 Beatified: 29 October 1995 by Pope John Paul II Canonized: 12 October 2008 by Pope Benedict XVI St. Narcisa de Jesús, layperson Declared Venerable: 23 October 1987 Beatified: 25 October 1992 by Pope John Paul II Canonized: 12 October 2008 by Pope Benedict XVI St. Laura of Saint Catherine of Siena, Missionary Sisters of Mary Immaculate and St. Catherine of Siena Declared Venerable: 22 January 1991 Beatified: 25 April 2004 by Pope John Paul II Canonized: 12 May 2013 by Pope Francis St. Jose Gabriel del Rosario Brochero, secular priest Declared Venerable: 19 April 2004 Beatified: 14 September 2013 by Cardinal Angelo Amato Canonized: 16 October 2016 by Pope Francis St. Ignacia Nazaria March Mesa, Missionary Crusaders of the Church Declared Venerable: 1 September 1988 Beatified: 27 September 1992 by Pope John Paul II Canonized: 14 October 2018 by Pope Francis Bl.

Peter Donders, Redemptorist priest Declared Venerable: 25 March 1945 Beatified: 23 May 1982 by Pope John Paul II Bl. Mercedes de Jesús Molina, Marianitas Sisters Declared Venerable: 27 November 1981 Beatified: 1 February 1985 by Pope John Paul II Bl. Ana de los Angeles Monteagudo, Dominican nun Declared Venerable: 23 May 1975 Beatified: 2 February 1985 by Pope John Paul II Bl. Laura Vicuña, child Declared Venerable: 5 June 1986 Beatified: 3 September 1988 by Pope John Paul II Bl. Arturo Ayala Niño and 6 Hospitallers of Saint John of God and martyrs in Spain Declared Martyrdom: 14 May 1991 Beatified: 25 October 1992 by Pope John Paul II Bl. Francesca Maria Rubatto, Capuchin Sisters of Mother Rubatto Declared Venerable: 1 September 1988 Beatified: 10 October 1993 by Pope John Paul II Bl. Laura Evangelista Alvarado Cardozo, Recollect nun Declared Venerable: 7 March 1992 Beatified: 7 May 1995 by Pope John Paul II Bl. Maria Vicenta Rosal, Bethlemite Sisters, Daughters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Declared Venerable: 6 April 1995 Beatified: 4 May 1997 by Pope John Paul II Bl. Mariano de Jesús Euse Hoyos, diocesan priest Declared Venerable: 3 March 1990 Beatified: 9 April 2000 by Pope John Paul II Bb.

Maria of Jesus, Consuelo Aguiar-Mella Diaz and Maria Dolores Agu

Long-tailed triller

The long-tailed triller is a species of bird in the family Campephagidae. It is found in New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu; the Norfolk Island subspecies of the long-tailed triller, the Norfolk triller, has become extinct. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. Norfolk Island Triller. Lalage leucopyga. By Paul Martinson. Artwork produced for the book Extinct Birds of New Zealand, by Alan Tennyson, Te Papa Press, Wellington, 2006

Sikhism in Pakistan

Sikhism in the area of present-day Pakistan has an extensive heritage and history, although Sikhs form a small community in Pakistan today. Most Sikhs live in the province of Punjab, a part of the larger Punjab region where the religion originated in the Middle Ages, Peshawar in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province. Nankana Sahib, the birthplace of Guru Nanak Sahib Ji, the founder of Sikhism, is located in the Punjab province. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Sikh community became a powerful political force, with Sikh leader Ranjit Singh founding the first Sikh empire, which had its capital in Lahore, the second-largest city in Pakistan today. Significant populations of Sikhs inhabited the largest cities in the Punjab such as Lahore and Faisalabad. After the Partition of India in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while many Muslim refugees from India settled in Pakistan. In the decades following Pakistan's independence in 1947, the Sikh community began to re-organise, forming the Pakistan Sikh Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee to represent the community and protect the holy sites and heritage of the Sikh religion in Pakistan.

The Pakistani government has begun to allow Sikhs from India to make pilgrimages to Sikh places of worship in Pakistan and for Pakistani Sikhs to travel to India. According to the Government of Pakistan's National Database and Registration Authority, there were 6,146 Sikhs registered in Pakistan in 2012, it increased to 50,000 Sikhs. Most are settled in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa followed by Punjab. Other sources, including the US Department of State, claim the Sikh population in Pakistan to be as high as 20,000. Many Pakistani Sikhs have emigrated and continue to emigrate to countries like the United Kingdom and Canada. According to the UK's 2001 census, there were 346 Pakistani Sikhs in the UK. There is a growing Pakistani Sikh expatriate community in the United Arab Emirates. Prior to independence in 1947, 2 million Sikhs resided in the present day Pakistan and were spread all across Northern Pakistan the Punjab region and played an important role in its economy as farmers and traders. Significant populations of Sikhs inhabited the largest cities in the Punjab such as Lahore and Faisalabad.

Lahore, the capital of Punjab and still is today the location of many important Sikh religious and historical sites, including the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh. The nearby town of Nankana Sahib has nine gurdwaras, is the birthplace of Sikhism's founder, Guru Nanak Sahib; each of Nankana Sahib's gurdwaras are associated with different events in Guru Nanak Sahib's life. The town remains an important site of pilgrimage for Sikhs worldwide; the largest Sikh population in Pakistan is found in Peshawar, in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, where the Pashtun law of "nanawati" spared the scale of violence which had raged across the Indus River in Punjab. Despite the longstanding tensions between the Sikh and Muslim communities in South Asia, the Pashtuns were tolerant towards the religious minority of Sikhs. There are small pockets of Nankana Sahib in Punjab; the Sikhs and Hindus of West Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan migrated to India after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. These Sikh and Hindu refugee communities have had a major influence in the culture and economics of the Indian capital city of Delhi.

Today, segments of the populations of East Punjab and Haryana states and Delhi in India can trace their ancestry back to towns and villages now in Pakistan, including former Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. There has been an influx of Sikhs refugees from Afghanistan in Pakistan due to the turbulent civil war and conflicts that have ravaged neighboring Afghanistan. Afghanistan, like Pakistan, has had Hindu populations. There has been a massive exodus of refugees from Afghanistan into Pakistan during the past 30 years of turmoil up to the reign of the Taliban and the subsequent US invasion of Afghanistan in late 2001. Due to Pakistan's porous borders with Afghanistan, large numbers of Afghanistan's minority communities, based around the cities of Kabul and Jalalabad have fled, some Sikhs have joined their kinsmen in Peshawar and Lahore, they have kept a low profile within the monolithic Muslim population of Pakistan. Though, Pakistan maintains the title of Islamic state, the articles twenty, twenty-one and twenty-two in chapter two of its constitution guarantees religious freedom to the non-Muslim residents.

Since independence in 1947, relations between Pakistan's minorities and the Muslim majority have remained and politically stable. From 1984 to 2002, Pakistan held a system of separate electorates for all its national legislative assemblies, with only a handful of parliamentary seats reserved for minority members. Minorities were only permitted to vote for designated minority candidates in general elections; the regime of former President General Pervez Musharraf had professed an agenda of equality for minorities and promotion and protection of minority rights, the implementation of corrective measures has been slow. Considerable amount of Sikhs are found in neighbourhood called Narayanpura of Karachi's Ranchore Lines; the historical and holy sites of Sikhs are maintained by a Pakistani governmental body, the Pakistan Sikh Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee, responsible for their upkeep and preservation. After the independence of Pakistan and the migration of nearly all Sikhs to India the Sikh community's rights were diminished as their population decreased.

The Pakistani Constitution states. The Sikh community within Pakistan has been making every effort possible to progress in Pakistan. For example, Her