Board of directors
A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency. Such a board's powers and responsibilities are determined by government regulations and the organization's own constitution and bylaws; these authorities may specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, how they are to meet. In an organization with voting members, the board is accountable to, might be subordinate to, the organization's full membership, which vote for the members of the board. In a stock corporation, non-executive directors are voted for by the shareholders, with the board having ultimate responsibility for the management of the corporation; the board of directors appoints the chief executive officer of the corporation and sets out the overall strategic direction. In corporations with dispersed ownership, the identification and nomination of directors are done by the board itself, leading to a high degree of self-perpetuation.
In a non-stock corporation with no general voting membership, the board is the supreme governing body of the institution, its members are sometimes chosen by the board itself. Other names include board of directors and advisors, board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, or board of visitors, it may be called "the executive board" and is simply referred to as "the board". Typical duties of boards of directors include: governing the organization by establishing broad policies and setting out strategic objectives. For companies with publicly trading stock, these responsibilities are much more rigorous and complex than for those of other types; the board chooses one of its members to be the chairman, who holds whatever title is specified in the by-laws or articles of association. However, in membership organizations, the members elect the president of the organization and the president becomes the board chair, unless the by-laws say otherwise; the directors of an organization are the persons.
Several specific terms categorize directors by the presence or absence of their other relationships to the organization. An inside director is a director, an employee, chief executive, major shareholder, or someone connected to the organization. Inside directors represent the interests of the entity's stakeholders, have special knowledge of its inner workings, its financial or market position, so on. Typical inside directors are: A chief executive officer who may be chairman of the board Other executives of the organization, such as its chief financial officer or executive vice president Large shareholders Representatives of other stakeholders such as labor unions, major lenders, or members of the community in which the organization is locatedAn inside director, employed as a manager or executive of the organization is sometimes referred to as an executive director. Executive directors have a specified area of responsibility in the organization, such as finance, human resources, or production.
An outside director is a member of the board, not otherwise employed by or engaged with the organization, does not represent any of its stakeholders. A typical example is a director, president of a firm in a different industry. Outside directors are not affiliated with it in any other way. Outside directors bring outside experience and perspectives to the board. For example, for a company that only serves a domestic market, the presence of CEOs from global multinational corporations as outside directors can help to provide insights on export and import opportunities and international trade options. One of the arguments for having outside directors is that they can keep a watchful eye on the inside directors and on the way the organization is run. Outside directors are unlikely to tolerate "insider dealing" between insider directors, as outside directors do not benefit from the company or organization. Outside directors are useful in handling disputes between inside directors, or between shareholders and the board.
They are thought to be advantageous because they can be objective and present little risk of conflict of interest. On the other hand, they might lack familiarity with the specific issues connected to the organization's governance and they might not know about the industry or sector in which the organization is operating. Director – a person appointed to serve on the board of an organization, such as an institution or business. Inside director – a director who, in addition to serving on the board, has a meaningful connection to the organization Outside director – a director who, other than serving on the board, has no meaningful connections to the organization Executive director – an insi
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
Newhall, Santa Clarita, California
Newhall is the southernmost and oldest community of Santa Clarita, California. Prior to the 1987 consolidation of Canyon Country, Saugus and other neighboring communities into the city of Santa Clarita, it was an unincorporated area, it was the first permanent town in the Santa Clarita Valley. Named after businessman Henry Mayo Newhall, Newhall is home to the William S. Hart County Park, featuring tours of the famous silent movie maker's mansion. Newhall is home to the Pioneer Oil Refinery, the oldest surviving oil refinery in the world and the first commercially successful refinery in California. Over the years, Newhall has been the location for many movies, including Suddenly and Disney's The World's Greatest Athlete; the TV-series The Magnificent Seven was for the most part filmed in Newhall. The Lyons Station Stagecoach Stop was a few miles away from. Newhall was the site of the Newhall incident, in which four California Highway Patrol officers were shot to death on April 6, 1970, during a traffic stop of two armed career criminals.
This led to increased emphasis on officer safety both within nationwide. This region experiences dry summers. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Newhall has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps. Gene Autry, singing cowboy actor Trevor Brown, Major League Baseball player Andrew Lorraine, Major League Baseball pitcher James Shields, Major League Baseball player Greater Los Angeles portal "Complete History of Newhall". Santa Clarita Valley Historical Society. Retrieved 2004-07-04. Newhall Information on SantaClarita.com Hub for Newhall history and redevelopment info
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Newhall Land and Farming Company
The Newhall Land and Farming Company is a land management company based in Valencia, United States. The company is responsible for the master community planning of Valencia, as well as the management of farm land elsewhere in the state; the company was incorporated on July 1, 1883, by the five sons of Henry Newhall, a businessman who had purchased a number of former Mexican land grants. Newhall had instructed his sons not to sell the land; the company had 143,000 acres of land, ranging from Monterey to Los Angeles counties. The income generated by ranching was not enough to support the families of all five sons in the comfortable lifestyle they had grown up with, they began to sell off portions of their vast holdings in order to generate income. Successive land sales allowed the Newhalls to maintain their lifestyle, but William, a graduate of Yale University, understood that they needed a better way to generate income. After a few more land sales, Mayo took the income and reinvested it into the land by developing agriculture.
The land around their headquarters, the former Rancho San Francisco, was cleared for citrus trees, lima beans were planted in the Sacramento Valley. The income from these crops allowed the company to grow in the 1920s. Additionally, one more land sale, a 38,000 acre parcel in 1922 to William Randolph Hearst for $1 million helped fill the company's coffers; the collapse of the St. Francis Dam in 1928 was devastating to the company. Much of its livestock and buildings were destroyed. Although the city of Los Angeles agreed to pay reparations for its role in the dam's construction, those payments would not be available for some time. Compounding the problem was the onset of the Great Depression. George Newhall, the last surviving of Mayo's brothers and treasurer of the company, died that year, Mayo discovered that the company was bankrupt and on the brink of insolvency. At this point, Mayo was in his late seventies and growing frail, he turned the operation over to his son-in-law, Atholl McBean, a San Francisco businessman who had held onto his entire savings during the Wall Street Crash.
With McBean's money, the company was able to hold on long enough for the reparations payments to come through. That, combined with the last of the Hearst payments, was enough for the company to climb out of debt. By his third year in charge, Newhall Land and Farming reported a profit of $25,000 and by 1935, they resumed dividend payments, the first since 1930. Henry Newhall had purchased Rancho San Francisco from speculators who had purchased it from Ygnacio del Valle in the hopes of finding crude oil. Alex Mentry had discovered oil in 1876 just to the south of the rancho, but the group of investors who sold to Newhall had had no such luck. McBean was convinced no oil was to be found on the land, which by now he had renamed Newhall Ranch, but he leased it to Barnscall Oil Company anyway. To his great astonishment, Barnscall struck oil in 1937 and there was so much oil that over the next few years, 44 oil wells were producing millions of dollars of "black gold" for the company, which ended all of their cash flow problems.
By the 1950s, urbanization began to encroach on Newhall Ranch. The County of Los Angeles, hoping to encourage more residential development, changed its rules for property taxes, taxing land at what its "best use" would be, regardless of its actual use. Newhall Ranch was assessed to be a residential zone, which increased the tax burden of Newhall Land and Farming. McBean understood that agriculture alone was not going to pay the taxes, that if the land was to be designated for residential homes, the company might as well head in that direction. Real estate developers made offers to buy the land, but family members did not want to sell pieces of the family homestead. Instead, McBean hired city planners and the company opted to create a brand new city, which would be called Valencia after the oranges they had grown for so many years. Construction began in the early 1960s, the Master Plan was adopted in 1965, in 1967 the first new homeowners moved in. McBean retired soon after. During the next two decades, the company continued to flourish.
Valencia garnered praise as a planned city. During 1971 the city saw the opening of Magic Mountain amusement park, sold to Six Flags in 1979. In the 1980s, the company expanded its oil interests to seven states and Canada, found another revenue source in leasing its land for film and television show production. In 1994, the company submitted plans to the county for a new master-planned community to be named *Newhall Ranch. In 2004 the company was purchased by Lennar Corporation and LNR Corporation for $1 billion, leaving Newhall Land and Farming owning 50% and Lennar and its industrial and commercial properties spinoff LNR owning the other 50% through a new holding company called LandSource Communities Development LLC. In early 2007, by a further transaction, Lennar and LNR each sold 34% interests in LandSource Communities Development LLC to a new set of investors, including the California Public Employees Retirement System. In June 2008, LandSource Communities Development LLC, along with Newhall Land and Farming Company and other subsidiaries, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection with the US Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware.
In July 2009, LandSource Communities Development LLC and its
Saugus is a town in Essex County, United States, in the Greater Boston area. The population was 26,628 at the 2010 census. Saugus was first settled in 1629. Saugus is a Native American name believed to mean "great" or "extended". In 1637, the territory known as Saugus was renamed Lin or Lynn, after King's Lynn in Norfolk, England. In 1646, the Saugus Iron Works called Hammersmith, began operations, it was the first integrated iron works in North America as well as one of the most technologically advanced in the world. The Iron Works was not financially successful, it closed around 1670. In September 1687, Major Samuel Appleton was said to have given a speech from a rocky cliff near the Iron Works denouncing the tyranny of Colonial Governor Sir Edmund Andros; the place where he is said to have delivered the speech became known as Appleton's Pulpit. Nearly 100 men from Saugus fought in the American Revolutionary War. Saugus' preacher, Parson Joseph Roby, worked to strengthen the spirit of independence in Saugus and was instrumental in seeing that Saugus sent a large contingent to fight in the war.
The nineteenth century ice industry began in Saugus when in 1804 Frederic Tudor cut ice from a pond on the family farm and shipped it to Martinique. In 1805 the Newburyport Turnpike was built. About four miles of this road was built in Saugus. At first the turnpike was considered a mistake, as it was built over hills and swamps and grass soon grew over the road bed. From 1840 to 1846, the tolls were discontinued and it became a public highway; the invention of the automobile resulted in an increase of traffic on the Turnpike. In 1933 the road was widened and an overpass was added to separate the traffic on Route 1 and Main Street. In the 1950s new businesses began moving to Route 1. Today the businesses along Route 1 generate millions in dollars for Saugus; the Lynn territory was shortened beginning in 1814 with the incorporation of Lynnfield. On February 17, 1815, present-day Saugus was incorporated as a town; the first town meeting was held on March 1815 in the parish church. At the time of its incorporation, Saugus' population was 784.
Its main industry was agriculture. During the Industrial Revolution, many new industries moved to Saugus. Shoes and woolen goods were made in Saugus Center, tobacco was manufactured in Cliftondale and East Saugus. Saugus' first post office was established in 1832 in East Saugus. In 1858 two more were established - one in Cliftondale. Now only the Cliftondale post office remains in Saugus; the first town hall was built in 1837. It was built with $2,000 of the United States revenue surplus distributed by President Andrew Jackson, it is an American Legion hall. In 1875, the town built its current town hall on Central Street; the construction of the town hall put Saugus in a $50,000 debt. For this and other reasons the neighborhood of East Saugus sought to be set off from Saugus and annexed to the city of Lynn. East Saugus was unable to get a bill in both houses of the state legislature, the issue was dropped after the town appropriated $5,000 for the laying of water pipes through East Saugus. Passenger trains ran through Saugus from 1853 to 1958 on the Saugus Branch Railroad.
There were three Saugus Branch stations in Saugus and two just outside the town's borders in Lynn and Revere. During the American Civil War, 155 Saugonians enlisted in the Union Army and eight others enlisted in the Union Navy. Saugus native Gustavus Fox served as the United States Assistant Secretary of the Navy during the war; the USS Saugus, a Union Navy monitor named after the town was launched in December 1863. Following the war Henry E. Hone donated a large granite monument to the town of Saugus; the monument, designed by Melzar Hunt Mosman and cost $10,000 to build, contains the names of all of the men from Saugus who served during the Civil War on bronze tablets. Above the tablets are two bronze statues, one of a soldier and one of a sailor, it is topped by a granite statue of woman wearing a helmet with an eagle on the top and holding a shield in her right hand, which serves as an allegorical representation of the United States. The monument was erected in the rotary at Saugus Center in 1875.
Following the Civil War, the Cliftondale section of Saugus became a major producer of tobacco as many of the southern tobacco plantations had been destroyed. Waitt & Bond became a major producer of cigars and the snuff factory in East Saugus was the nation's largest producer of that product. From 1859 to 1905, Saugus was home to the Franklin Park harness racing track. Known as the Old Saugus Race Track or Saugus Race Course, it closed in 1905 after local citizens complained about the questionable patrons that the racetrack attracted. In 1911 the racetrack became an airfield. In 1912, the property was purchased by the General Aviation Corporation who named it Atwood Park in honor of their most famous pilot, Harry Atwood; the airfield saw the first airmail delivery in New England on May 30, 1912. Pioneer aviators Lincoln J. Beachey flew at Saugus; the airport closed in the 1920s. On October 8, 1900, George E. Bailey was murdered at Breakheart Hill Farm in Saugus, his legs and torso would be found nine days in Floating Bridge Pond in Lynn.
His head and arms were found there the next day. After a publicized investigation and trial, John C. Best was found guilty of murder, he was executed on September 9, 1902. In 1934, Breakheart Hill Forest, a private hunting retreat located in North Saugus, was purchased by the Metr