Mastic, New York
Mastic is a hamlet and census-designated place in the southeastern part of the town of Brookhaven in central Suffolk County, New York, United States. The population was 15,481 at the 2010 census; the hamlet was called Forge until 1893, when it was changed to the current name of Mastic. The Long Island Rail Road built a station in 1882 and, on July 15, 1960, the stop was moved 7,010 feet west and renamed Mastic–Shirley. Mastic is served by the William Floyd School District, but the Eastport-South Manor Central School District north of Grove Drive in the Manor Park section of the hamlet; the Poospatuck Indian Reservation lies within the community, near its southern end and along the Forge River. The northernmost section of the hamlet has been notably called Manor Park, which stretches from Sunrise Highway to Moriches-Middle Island Road east of Brookhaven Airport. Part of the neighborhood lies within the hamlet of Shirley, but is served by Mastic's zip code of 11950. Mastic is located at 40°48′8″N 72°50′38″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 4.0 square miles, of which 3.9 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles, or 2.13%, is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 15,481 people, 4,526 households, 3,743 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 3,969.5 per square mile. There were 4,847 housing units at an average density of 1,242.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 46.1% White, 22.4% African American, 0.7% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 7.2% some other race, 4.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.8% of the population. There were 4,526 households, out of which 48.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were headed by married couples living together, 18.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.3% were non-families. 12.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.3% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.41, the average family size was 3.63.
In the CDP, the population was spread out with 28.3% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, 6.3% who were 65 years of age or older, the median age was 33.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.1 males and for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.7 males. From 2007 to 2011, the median annual income for a household in Mastic was $70,979, the median income for a family was $79,839. Males had a median income of $51,315 versus $40,581 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $26,176. About 18% of families and 22% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.6% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. Forge River Moriches Bay Moriches Inlet Smith Point Bridge Tri Hamlet News Forge River Inlet at Marinas.com Old Mastic RR Station
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
United States congressional delegations from New York
These are tables of congressional delegations from New York to the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. This is a list of members of the current New York delegation in the U. S. House, along with their respective tenures in office, district boundaries, district political ratings according to the CPVI; the delegation has a total including 21 Democrats and 6 Republicans. From 1805 to 1809, the 2nd and 3rd districts jointly elected two representatives. After the 1910 census, New York gained three seats. After the 1910 census, New York gained six seats. During these two decades, New York had its maximum apportionment of 45 seats. From 1933 to 1945 there were 43 districts and two seats At-large. After 1945, there were 45 districts. New York lost two seats following the 1950 Census, it continued to lose seats from this point forward following every reapportionment. New York lost two seats following the 1960 Census. New York lost two seats in the 1970 census. New York lost five seats in the 1980 census.
New York lost three seats in the 1990 census. New York lost two seats in the 2000 census. New York lost two seats in the 2010 census; as of April 2015, there are three former United States Senators from the State of New York who are living at this time, two from Class 1 and one from Class 3. List of United States congressional districts New York's congressional districts List of United States Senators from New York List of United States Representatives from New York New York's congressional districts Elections in New York
In law, the bar is the legal profession as an institution. The term is a metonym for the line that separates the parts of a courtroom reserved for spectators and those reserved for participants in a trial such as lawyers; the origin of the term bar is from the barring furniture dividing a medieval European courtroom, similar to the origin of the term bank for the bench-like location of financial transactions in medieval Europe. In the USA, Europe and many other countries referring to the law traditions of Europe, the area in front of the barrage is restricted to participants in the trial: the judge or judges, other court officials, the jury, the lawyers for each party, the parties to the case, witnesses giving testimony; the area behind the bar is open to the public. This restriction is enforced in nearly all courts. In most courts, the bar is represented by a physical partition: a railing or barrier that serves as a bar; the bar may refer to the qualifying procedure by which a lawyer is licensed to practice law in a given jurisdiction.
In the United States, this procedure is administered by the individual U. S. states. In general, a candidate must graduate from a qualified law school and pass a written test: the bar examination; some states use the Multistate Bar Examination with additions for that state's laws. The candidate is admitted to the bar. A lawyer whose license to practice law is revoked is said to be disbarred. In the United Kingdom, the practice of law is divided between solicitors, it is the former who appear in an advocacy role before the court. When a lawyer becomes an advocate or barrister, he/she is called to the bar. In Britain the bar is differentiated between the outer bar; the bar refers to the legal profession as a whole. With a modifier, it may refer to a branch or division of the profession: as, for instance, the tort bar—lawyers who specialize in filing civil suits for damages. In conjunction with bench, bar may differentiate lawyers who represent clients from judges or members of a judiciary. In this sense, the bar advocates and the bench adjudicates.
Yet, judges remain members of the bar and lawyers are referenced as Officers of the Court. The phrase bench and bar denotes all lawyers collectively. Admission to practise law Admission to the bar in the United States Bar Association Bench Call to the bar Courtroom Importance of Bar & Bench relationship, Available at learningthelaw.in
New York's 3rd congressional district
New York's 3rd congressional district is a congressional district for the United States House of Representatives in the State of New York. It is represented by Democrat Tom Suozzi, in office since 2017; the district includes most of the North Shore of Long Island. It expands from northwestern Suffolk County, across northern Nassau County and into far northeastern Queens. Long Island communities in the district include Manhasset, Northport, Dix Hills, Bethpage, Syosset, Glen Cove, Port Washington and Great Neck. Queens neighborhoods in the district include Little Neck, Glen Oaks and Floral Park. From 2003 to 2013, the district included southwestern Suffolk County and the eastern half of Nassau County, with some parts as far west as Island Park and Long Beach. Much of this area is now the 2nd congressional district. S. Representative Steve Israel traded district numbers with Republican Peter T. King; this district has been centered in northeast Nassau County, but has added other areas from time to time.
In the 1960s the district encompassed the northern half of Nassau County and a small corner of Queens. In the 1970s North Hempstead town was added to the 6th District and the 3rd moved into Huntington in Suffolk County and parts of southeast Nassau County. In the 1980s most of eastern Nassau was added to the 4th District, the 3rd was composed of northwest Nassau, a narrow corridor along LI Sound, northwest Suffolk. After the 1992 redistricting the North Shore was transferred to the new 5th District and the 3rd consisted of inland areas of northern and eastern Nassau County, the Nassau County south shore. An narrower corridor linked the northwest Nassau and northwest Suffolk portion of the 5th District, leaving most of Oyster Bay in the 3rd; the 2002 remap removed some areas of eastern Nassau, but added south shore towns in Suffolk County and the shore areas of northeast Nassau. In 2012, the district moved from the South Shore to the North Shore and re-entered Queens for the first time since the 1960s.
Gurdon S. Mumford is listed as member from the 2nd district, George Clinton Jr. from the 3rd district, because Clinton was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the election of Mitchill to the U. S. Senate, Mitchill had been elected in the 3rd district. However, in 1804 Mitchill was re-elected on the 2nd/3rd general ticket, both Clinton and Mumford were elected in special elections, receiving votes in both districts; the districts were separated in 1809. Starting in 1823, three seats were elected at-large district-wide on a general ticket. In 1833, a fourth seat was apportioned to the district elected district-wide at-large on the same general ticket; the single-seat district was restored in 1843. In New York State there are numerous parties at various points on the political spectrum. Certain parties will invariably endorse either the Republican or Democratic candidate for every office, hence the state electoral results contain both the party votes, the final candidate votes. List of United States congressional districts New York's congressional districts United States congressional delegations from New York Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present National atlas congressional maps