Saeed Anwar is a Pakistani religious preacher and former cricketer and a former captain for Tests and ODIs. An opening batsman and occasional slow left arm orthodox bowler, Anwar played international cricket between 1989 and 2003. Considered as one of greatest opening batsmen Pakistan has produced, Anwar has scored twenty centuries in ODIs, more than any other Pakistani batsmen in this format, he played 55 Test matches, scoring 4052 runs with eleven centuries, average 45.52. In 247 One Day Internationals he made 8824 runs at an average of 39.21. Anwar got a pair at his Test debut against the West Indies in 1990, scored 169 runs in his third Test against New Zealand in February 1994. In 1998–99, he became the third Pakistani to carry his bat through a Test innings, scored his highest Test score of 188 not out, he made four ODI centuries at Sharjah Cricket Association Stadium, including three consecutive during 1993–94. Anwar scored two successive hundreds on three different occasions in his career.
He is most notable for scoring 194 runs against India in Chennai in 1997, the highest score for that time, now the tenth highest individual score in an ODI. Anwar participated in three Cricket World Cups, captained Pakistan in seven Tests and 11 ODIs. In August 2003, he announced his retirement from International cricket. Saeed Anwar was the highest runs scoring batsman for Pakistan bin 2003 world cup but was dropped from the team for no reason after 2003 world cup. Saeed Anwar was born on 6 September 1968 in Karachi. In 1973, he shifted with his family to Canada and came back to Karachi in 1977. Anwar went to high school at Government Degree Science College, Malir Cantt and went to university at NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, he graduated from NED in 1989 majoring in Computer System Engineering. He was planning to go to the United States for his Master's studies before becoming a professional Test cricketer, his father, a businessman by profession, played cricket at club level whereas his brother, Jawed Anwar, represented Lahore Under-19 cricket team.
Anwar married his cousin, Lubna, a doctor by profession, in March 1996. He faced a personal tragedy in 2001 when his daughter, died after a prolonged illness; as a result, he turned religious and starting preaching Islam across Pakistan with the Tablighi Jamaat. He made his return to cricket after a long hiatus and was one of the most consistent Pakistani batsmen in the 2003 World Cup; however upon his return, he could not perform as he did before. He was criticized for the loss of form. "I retired because I felt unwanted", he said. During his career, he was an elegant batsman and played well on the off side, his trademark flick being a sure shot feature in all of his innings, he led the funeral prayers for Huma Akram, in Lahore. He is believed to be instrumental in Saad's conversion to Islam in 2005. Saad was the only Hindu in the Pakistan Domestic Galli cricket league till and was said to be influenced by Anwar and the Tablighi Jamaat. Anwar was an outstanding opener in Test cricket, he played 55 Test matches for Pakistan and scored 4052 at the average of 45.52.
He is the seventh-highest run scorer for Pakistan in Test cricket, scored 11 centuries and 25 half-centuries during his international career. As an aggressive opening batsman, most of his centuries turned into big scores, he scored many of his centuries away against every team he toured, averaged more than 40 against three of the four nations – South Africa, New Zealand and England – which have been most difficult for Asian batsmen. He has the highest Test batting average of any Pakistani against Australia, once scored two consecutive centuries against them. Former Pakistan captain Ramiz Raja commented the " used an eclectic approach to batting – classical betrothed to unorthodox, footwork against spin as quick as a hiccup supple yet powerful to brush the field like a Picasso."He made his Test debut against the West Indies in a match which Pakistan lost at Iqbal Stadium, Faisalabad, in 1990. He got a pair in the match. Curtly Ambrose and Ian Bishop dismissed him in the second innings respectively.
In the third Test of his career, Anwar scored 169 runs in Pakistan's solitary innings against New Zealand in February 1994. In the same year during Pakistan's tour to Sri Lanka, his 94 and 136 runs in the first match at Colombo earned him a man of the match award, ensured Pakistan's victory by 301 runs. Scroring fifties—85 and 77 runs—in both the innings of the first Test against Australia at Karachi in September 1994, Anwar helped Pakistan led the three match series 1–0. In the same season against Zimbabwe, he was unsuccessful with bat in the away series. Anwar scored three consecutive fifties against Sri Lanka in the 1995 home series. In the series, he played three innings scoring 154 runs with an average of 51.50. In the 1996 Pakistan's tour of England, a three-Test match series was played between the teams. Pakistan won the series by 2 -- their fifth consecutive series win against England. Anwar remained the second highest run scorer with 362 runs – only behind Alec Stewart's 396 – with an average of 60.33.
He scored 88 and 74 runs in the first Test at Lord's, 176 and one runs in the third match at The Oval. In the 1996–97 season, he played two Tests against the touring Zimbabwe and aggregated 182 runs in three innings, the second highest after Wasim Akram's 292. In the same season, Anwar replaced injured Akram as captain for the home series against N
In the sport of cricket, throwing referred to as chucking, is an illegal bowling action which occurs when a bowler straightens the bowling arm when delivering the ball. The Laws of Cricket specify. Only the rotation of the shoulder can be used to impart velocity to the ball. Throws are not allowed. If the umpire deems that the ball has been thrown, he will call a no-ball which means the batsman cannot be given out from that delivery. Current regulations of the International Cricket Council set the legal limit of 15 degrees of permissible straightening of the elbow joint for all bowlers in international cricket; this law applies between the point at which the bowling arm passes above shoulder height and the point at which the ball is released. The limit is to allow some natural flexing of the elbow joint which happens during the course of legal delivery; the charge of'throwing' against a bowler is one of the most serious and controversial that can be made in cricket, as a bowler with an illegal action cannot dismiss a batsman.
This means the player cannot participate in the game, may not be selected again without significant change to the way they bowl. Law 24, Clause 3 defines a fair delivery with respect to the arm: A ball is delivered in respect of the arm if, once the bowler's arm has reached the level of the shoulder in the delivery swing, the elbow joint is not straightened or from that point until the ball has left the hand; this definition shall not debar a bowler from rotating the wrist in the delivery swing. Before the advent of developed biomechanical and audiovisual technology, this law was implemented by the field umpires, who judged a delivery as illegal or "thrown" on visual judgement alone; the law against throwing has not changed in its essence since overarm bowling was legalised in 1864. Tom Wills, Australia's most revered cricketer of the mid-19th century, was its most controversial and he was accused of throwing. Many of his contemporaries recalled his trickery: " used to say to the umpire,'Just look at my feet, will you.
The umpire would look at Tom's feet, Tom would let go a throw for all he was worth." In 1872 he became the first cricketer to be called for throwing in a major Australian match ending his first-class career. In the early 1880s there were a number of bowlers who were considered to have unfair actions, with the Lancashire pair of Jack Crossland and George Nash coming in for particular criticism. After playing for Kent against Lancashire in 1885, when he faced the bowling of Crossland and Nash, Lord Harris decided to take action, he persuaded the Kent committee to cancel the return fixture. That season, Crossland was found to have broken his residential qualification for Lancashire by living in Nottinghamshire and Nash dropped out of the side, thus the two counties resumed playing each other the following season. Harris's Wisden obituarist wrote: "...there can be no doubt the action of Lord Harris if it did not remove the throwing evil, had a healthy effect on the game."Sydney Pardon, the editor of Wisden, accused quick bowler Ernest Jones of throwing during Australia's tour of England in 1896 but it was left to an Australian umpire, Jim Phillips, to "call" Jones for throwing in the Melbourne Test in 1897.
The same umpire ended the great C. B. Fry's bowling career by calling him for throwing. Pardon considered the end of the career of the famous Corinthian bowler "a case of long-delayed justice". Phillips went on to call Lancashire and England fast bowler Arthur Mold in 1900 and 1901, all but ending his productive career. Mold took 1,673 wickets in first-class cricket at only 15.54 apiece, bowling at high pace with a sharp'break back' from just a four pace run up, but his bowling had always attracted as much controversy as praise. He took 192 wickets in 1895 and was a Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 1892 but he left the first-class scene after the 1901 season and Phillips' intervention; the Australian aboriginal fast bowler Eddie Gilbert was another fast bowler who generated extreme pace from a remarkably short run. Standing 5 feet 7 inches tall and 9 stone in weight he took wickets at a prodigious rate in the late 1920s in Queensland club cricket, he was chosen for Queensland against New South Wales Colts in 1930 and took 6 wickets but the Brisbane Courier's correspondent "Long On" was moved to describe his whipped catapult action as "almost a throw".
He was bowled with great success. Queensland selectors responded to complaints from New South Wales by filming his arm action in slow motion but took no action against him, his most famous spell came against Don Bradman on 6 November 1931. He dismissed the NSW opener with his first ball, a vicious bouncer knocked Bradman's bat out of his hands with the next; the next delivery knocked. A month playing against Victoria, he was called for throwing, he played on for Queensland, bowling at a reduced pace, in 1934–35 headed the Queensland averages. He was a victim of legislation outlawing intimidatory bowling, in the wake of the Bodyline affair and retired in 1936, having taken 87 first-class wickets at 29.21. He suffered from mental illness. An epidemic of throwing plagued cricket in the 1950s. Umpire Frank Chester wanted to no-ball the South African Cuan McCarthy for throwing in 1951 but was blocked by the authorities at Lords, Plum Warner commenting diplomatically "These people are our guests". Surrey and England left-arm spinner Tony Lock was thought to throw his da
Rhodes Estate Preparatory School
Rhodes Estate Preparatory School is an all-boys' private boarding preparatory school in Matopos, Zimbabwe near the Matobo National Park. Founded in 1932, its completion was funded by the estate of Cecil John Rhodes, after whom it is named and whose summer home is located on the main site; the school is modelled after the traditional British public school in terms of system and traditions due to its deep English roots. The school admits boys from the ages of 8 -- 12 on basis of musical and/or sporting merit; some boys are required to take an entrance examination, but most enter directly and follow the school's curriculum. The school only admitted white pupils but following the dissolution of Zimbabwe Rhodesia and Zimbabwean independence in 1980, its student body soon diversified. However, the school maintained its low acceptance rate and merit-based admissions system. During the 20th Century, the school was recognised as one of the most prestigious of its kind in Zimbabwe and maintains that reputation to-date.
All pupils gain entry to top private secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Most boys go on to excel at such schools as, Brother school, Plumtree High School, Falcon College, Christian Brothers College and Watershed College. However, a large number of REPS boys attend secondary schools abroad; the boys are famous for being competent rugby players and cricketers and its alumni includes Henry Olonga, his brother Victor Olonga and Heath Streak. Each year, the school produces at least one Matabeleland Duikers U13 Rugby player, the greatest honour in Matabeleland at that level of play. There are three academic terms in the year: Summer term, from early January to late March; this is. Winter term, from early May to late July. Few boys are accepted during this term. Spring term, from early September to mid December. No boys are accepted during this term. At least once every term, boys have an exeat weekend which allows them to return home between Friday and Sunday, before normal timetable is resumed the following Monday.
The summer term commences one week after each new year. During this term, new boys join the school whilst existing boys progress to the next grade, which requires moving into a new dormitory house. Unlike the other two terms, all boys must take part in compulsory cross country running every morning and sometimes in the afternoon too. Junior boys complete a 3 kilometre course known as the "sadac" because its route winds around SADC headquarters, while senior boys take a longer route colloquially referred to as the "dip tank", 5 kilometres. Most boys participate in track and field athletics and long-distance running, with few taking part in racquet sports such as tennis; the daily uniform in summer consists of short-sleeved khaki shirts, khaki shorts, knee-length grey socks, veldskoen chukka boots and, on weekends, a safari hat. This is worn to lessons, the dining hall, during social time but is substituted for full colours for Sunday chapel service; this is the most popular term for two key reasons.
Firstly, this is the biggest sporting season insofar as the boys play rugby every week and is the term during which trials for Matabeleland Duikers U13 rugby take place. Rugby is a popular sport at REPS, with over half the boys taking part to form the First and Colts teams; the First team plays at a competitive level defeating local schools such as Whitestone School and Petra Junior School and faring well in the coveted Falcon College Junior Rugby Festival. Those boys not taking part in rugby are encouraged to do other sports such as gymnastics which, although less popular, attract a fraction of the school's population; the daily uniform is altered in winter to match the weather conditions: boys wear their summer gear but without the safari hat and may wear a grey sweatshirt with purple lining and/or the school's purple jacket, but not blazer, purple gloves and the school's scarf. Unlike the other two terms, there is one exeat weekend in winter in the second week of June. Spring term is confused for the summer term due to similar weather conditions.
However, unlike the summer term, this is swimming term. The school has an outdoor pool located opposite the dining hall and hostels and adjacent to the classrooms. REPS boys take part in swimming gala events in central Bulawayo against other schools where they come in the top three. Cricket is more popular, with boys doing it for both leisure and competitive purposes; the school produces two cricket teams – the seniors and juniors – which compete against schools in Bulawayo and Beitbridge, its most popular rivals being Centenary and Masiyephambili Junior School, against whom it shares a long-standing rivalry. It is during this term that senior boys sit their external 11+ exams and the rest of the school sit internal assessment tests. There are two types of house at REPS. There are six dormitory houses: Victory Nelson Rodney Vanguard Ajax Warspite And two sporting houses: Falcons Eagles Hull Cecil The six dormitories share similar cultures and amenities, the key difference being cohort. All dormitories have a hall monitor and a prefect to supervise the boys, selected by senior staff and the headmaster and are responsible for overseeing the boys' daily performance and welfare.
New boys board at Victory, where they are "trained", before progressing to Ne
Grant William Flower is a former Zimbabwean cricketer and a former ODI captain, who played Tests and ODIs. He is rated among the best Zimbabwean cricketers in history for his handy left arm spin and fine batting skills, he was a fitness fanatic who spends hours in the gym, was regarded as a brilliant fielder, seen in the gully. "Flower Power", the combination of Grant and his brother Andy Flower, was the mainstay of Zimbabwean batting for a decade. He was his team's most successful opening batsman who played the role of anchorman, with strokeplayers coming in down the order, he played a lead role in, Zimbabwe's finest Test victory, against a strong Pakistan side. He would show a liking for the Pakistani side over his career, averaging over 40 against them and scoring 3 centuries including an unbeaten 201. In July 2014, he was appointed as batting coach of the Pakistan cricket team for a period of two years, he was the first batsman to have carried his bat across 2 different formats and the only batsman to have carried out his bat in both ODIs as well as in tests.
Grant Flower was born in Salisbury and was educated along with his brother Andy at North Park School where they were the best players in their age groups. Although always an allrounder, he bowled seamers in his early days and his bowling was rated more than his batting, it was at St. George's College where he changed to spin bowling. Quite Flower is part of the famous talent production line from St George’s College, which includes England cricketers Sam and Tom Curran as well as New Zealand international Colin de Grandhomme among a plethora of other internationally capped players. In the summer of 1990/91 his elevation to a professional cricketer was confirmed when he was employed by the Zimbabwe Cricket Union, his debut first-class game for Zimbabwe came against England A. In his second match he opened the innings and was rewarded with a fifty adding what would be the first of many century partnerships with his brother Andy. At just 19, Flower was part of the 1990 ICC tournament where the winner would qualify for the World Cup.
Zimbabwe would go on to win the competition with Grant Flower scoring in the early games. Had they not won the competition it is that Zimbabwe would not have made their rise to Test cricket, at least not until much later. Grant Flower missed out on the 1992 World Cup due to injury. In 1993 Grant spent a season in England with Widnes Cricket Club in the Manchester and District Cricket Association. After the World Cup Zimbabwe were promoted to Test status and Flower was unanimously selected to play against the Indians for the Inaugural Test match. On a flat pitch, he dominated in a 100 run opening stand, he would go on to score 82. Zimbabwe again met the Indians this time on their home turf and again fell just short of a maiden Test century when he fell for 96. Pakistan toured Zimbabwe in 1995 and in the 1st Test Flower scored his maiden Test century. Not content, he went on to register double hundred, he faced 523 balls as Zimbabwe scored a massive 4/544 declared. His innings would help Zimbabwe to win their first Test match as they won by a convincing Innings and 64 Runs.
He would continue to haunt the Pakistani side, scoring his second Test century at Sheikhupura Stadium in Pakistan. In 1997 Flower became the first Zimbabwean to score a century in both innings of a Test match. Playing against New Zealand in Harare, he scored 104 and 151. A year he scored his 5th Test century, an innings of 156 not out at Queens Sports Club against Pakistan, he would suffer a form slump after that innings, not scoring a 99 for 33 innings including 6 ducks. On 25 November 2000 he ended his slump with a fine 106 against India and would go on to score 4 50's in his next 6 innings. By the end of his ODI career, Flower had taken more wickets than any other Zimbabwean bowler except Heath Streak, his ODI statistics make better reading than his Test statistics. He would score 6 ODI tons and had it not been for the nervous nineties may have had many more. 9 times he was either dismissed in the 90's. One of his most memorable centuries would come in the final of a one-day triangular tournament in Bangladesh.
Playing against Kenya he smashed an 82 ball century and finished with 140, just 2 short of the national record at the time. He holds the record for taking the most catches as fielder for Zimbabawe in ODI historyFlower more was the first batsman to carry his bat right through the completed innings of an ODI, he holds the unique record for being the only batsman in ODI cricket to have carried his bat in an One Day International match in a winning cause. In 2004 he announced his retirement from international cricket; this was due to the dispute between the rebels and the Zimbabwean Cricket Union. He signed a contract with Essex as a Kolpak player. There was some grumbling amongst Essex supporters at his signing, but this appeared to die down after his first season, when he topped the Essex 2005 List-A batting averages and was third in the number of wickets taken. Following another fine season for Essex which turned out to be his last season of county cricket, Flower was handed a shock recall to the Zimbabwe team for the tour of South Africa.
He is expected to combine playing duties with his role of batting coach of the national side and was in contention to play in the 2011 Cricket World Cup held in India. He made his international return in October 2010 the first ODI of a three-match series vs South Africa. On May 2014, he was appointed as the batting coach of Pakistan cricket team. Grant
Zimbabwe national cricket team
The Zimbabwe national cricket team is administered by Zimbabwe Cricket. Zimbabwe is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test and One Day International status; as of November 2018, Zimbabwe is ranked tenth in Tests, eleventh in ODIs and twelfth in Twenty20 Internationals by the ICC. Zimbabwe – known as Rhodesia until 1980 – had a national cricket team before it achieved Test status. A brief summary of key moments: Rhodesia was represented in the South African domestic cricket tournament, the Currie Cup, sporadically from 1904 to 1932, regularly from 1946 until independence. Following independence, the country began to play more international cricket. On 21 July 1981, Zimbabwe became an associate member of the ICC. Zimbabwe participated in the 1983 Cricket World Cup, as well as the 1992 events. Zimbabwe's first World Cup campaign in 1983 ended in the group stage, as they lost five of their six matches. However, they threw a surprise against Australia. Batting first, Zimbabwe reached a total of 239 for 6 in the allotted 60 overs, with skipper Duncan Fletcher top-scoring with 69 not out.
Fletcher produced career-best figures of 4 for 42 to restrict Australia to 226 for 7, thereby recording a stunning upset in cricket history. In the 1987 World Cup, Zimbabwe lost all six of their group-stage matches, though they came close to winning against New Zealand. Chasing 243 to win from 50 overs, wicketkeeper-batsman David Houghton scored 142, but Zimbabwe were all out for 239 in the final over, thus losing by three runs. In the 1992 tournament, Zimbabwe failed to progress beyond the round-robin stage, losing seven of their eight matches, though there were two notable achievements. Against Sri Lanka in their first match, Zimbabwe posted their then-highest total of 312 for 4, with wicketkeeper-batsman Andy Flower top-scoring with 115 not out. However, the Sri Lankans chased this total down with four balls to spare. In their final match, Zimbabwe faced England in an inconsequential encounter, England having made the semi-finals. Batting first, Zimbabwe were all out for 134. Eddo Brandes produced a stunning spell of 4 for 21, including dismissing Graham Gooch first ball, to help restrict England to 125 all out and thus give Zimbabwe a shock nine-run victory.
These twenty World Cup matches were Zimbabwe's only international games during this period. Zimbabwe was granted Test status by the ICC in July 1992 and played its first Test match in October that year, against India at Harare Sports Club, they became the ninth Test nation. Zimbabwe's early Test performances were weak, leading to suggestions that they had been granted Test status prematurely. Of their first 30 Test matches, they won just one, at home against Pakistan in early 1995. In the one-day arena, the team soon became competitive, if not strong. In particular, world respect was gained for their fielding ability. In spite of his team's difficulties, wicket-keeper/batsman Andy Flower was at one point rated the best batsman in world cricket. During this era, Zimbabwe produced such cricketers as Flower's brother Grant, allrounders Andy Blignaut and Heath Streak. Murray Goodwin was a world-class batsman. Another world-class batsman was David Houghton, who holds the record for the highest individual Test score for Zimbabwe of 266 against Sri Lanka in 1994/95.
Sometime captain and middle order batsman Alistair Campbell, leg-spinning all rounder Paul Strang, Eddo Brandes, pace bowler/opener Neil Johnson were other important contributors for Zimbabwe on the world stage at this time. With the appearance of these quality players, a breakthrough was achieved in levels of performance in the late 1990s where the Zimbabwean team began winning Tests against other nations, which included a series win against Pakistan; the political situation in Zimbabwe declined at around the same time, which had a detrimental effect on the national team's performances. Zimbabwe excelled at the 1999 Cricket World Cup, coming in fifth place in the Super Sixes and only missing out on a semi-final place due to having an inferior net run-rate than New Zealand. In the group stage, Zimbabwe beat India by three runs, before facing their neighbours South Africa the best team in the world. Batting first, Zimbabwe made 233 for 6, with a well-fought 76 by opening batsman Neil Johnson.
In reply, South Africa collapsed to 40 for 6, before Lance Klusener and Shaun Pollock scored half-centuries to reduce the margin of defeat to 48 runs. This was one of Zimbabwe's most famous wins. Neil Johnson excelled with the ball, taking three wickets and claiming the Man of the Match award. Johnson quit playing for Zimbabwe after this tournament. During this period, Zimbabwe beat all Test-playing nations regularly. Zimbabwe beat New Zealand both home and away in 2000–2001; the team reached finals of many multi-national one day tournaments. Increasing politicisation of cricket, including selectorial policy, along with the declining situation in Zimbabwe disrupted the 2003 Cricket World Cup, jointly hosted by Zimbabwe and South Africa. England forfeited a match scheduled to be played in Zimbabwe, risking their own progress through the competition, citing "security concerns" as their reason. Zimbabwean players Andy Flower and fast bowler Henry Olonga wore black armbands, for "mourning the death of democracy" in Zimbabwe.
Both were dismissed from the team and applied for political asylum overseas. This public political protest caused considerable embarrassment to the co-h
Acting is an activity in which a story is told by means of its enactment by an actor or actress who adopts a character—in theatre, film, radio, or any other medium that makes use of the mimetic mode. Acting involves a broad range of skills, including a well-developed imagination, emotional facility, physical expressivity, vocal projection, clarity of speech, the ability to interpret drama. Acting demands an ability to employ dialects, improvisation and emulation, stage combat. Many actors train at length in specialist colleges to develop these skills; the vast majority of professional actors have undergone extensive training. Actors and actresses will have many instructors and teachers for a full range of training involving singing, scene-work, audition techniques, acting for camera. Most early sources in the West that examine the art of acting discuss it as part of rhetoric. One of the first known actors is believed to have been an ancient Greek called Thespis of Icaria. Writing two centuries after the event, Aristotle in his Poetics suggests that Thespis stepped out of the dithyrambic chorus and addressed it as a separate character.
Before Thespis, the chorus narrated. When Thespis stepped out from the chorus, he spoke. To distinguish between these different modes of storytelling—enactment and narration—Aristotle uses the terms "mimesis" and "diegesis". From Thespis' name derives the word "thespian". A professional actor is someone, paid to act. Professional actors sometimes undertake unpaid work for a variety of reasons, including educational purposes or for charity events. Amateur actors are those. Not all people working as actors in film, television, or theatre are professionally trained. Bob Hoskins, for example, had no formal training before becoming an actor. Conservatories and drama schools offer two- to four-year training on all aspects of acting. Universities offer three- to four-year programs, in which a student is able to choose to focus on acting, whilst continuing to learn about other aspects of theatre. Schools vary in their approach, but in North America the most popular method taught derives from the'system' of Konstantin Stanislavski, developed and popularised in America as method acting by Lee Strasberg, Stella Adler, Sanford Meisner, others.
Other approaches may include a more physically based orientation, such as that promoted by theatre practitioners as diverse as Anne Bogart, Jacques Lecoq, Jerzy Grotowski, or Vsevolod Meyerhold. Classes may include psychotechnique, mask work, physical theatre and acting for camera. Regardless of a school's approach, students should expect intensive training in textual interpretation and movement. Applications to drama programmes and conservatories involve extensive auditions. Anybody over the age of 18 can apply. Training may start at a young age. Acting classes and professional schools targeted at under-18s are widespread; these classes introduce young actors to different aspects of acting and theatre, including scene study. Increased training and exposure to public speaking allows humans to maintain calmer and more relaxed physiologically. By measuring a public speaker’s heart rate maybe one of the easiest ways to judge shifts in stress as the heart rate increases with anxiety; as actors increase performances, heart rate and other evidence of stress can decrease.
This is important in training for actors, as adaptive strategies gained from increased exposure to public speaking can regulate implicit and explicit anxiety. By attending an institution with a specialization in acting, increased opportunity to act will lead to more relaxed physiology and decrease in stress and its effects on the body; these effects can vary from hormonal to cognitive health that can impact quality of life and performance Some classical forms of acting involve a substantial element of improvised performance. Most notable is its use by the troupes of the commedia dell'arte, a form of masked comedy that originated in Italy. Improvisation as an approach to acting formed an important part of the Russian theatre practitioner Konstantin Stanislavski's'system' of actor training, which he developed from the 1910s onwards. Late in 1910, the playwright Maxim Gorky invited Stanislavski to join him in Capri, where they discussed training and Stanislavski's emerging "grammar" of acting.
Inspired by a popular theatre performance in Naples that utilised the techniques of the commedia dell'arte, Gorky suggested that they form a company, modelled on the medieval strolling players, in which a playwright and group of young actors would devise new plays together by means of improvisation. Stanislavski would develop this use of improvisation in his work with his First Studio of the Moscow Art Theatre. Stanislavski's use was extended further in the approaches to acting developed by his students, Michael Chekhov and Maria Knebel. In the United Kingdom, the use of improvisation was pioneered by Joan Littlewood from the 1930s onwards and by Keith Johnstone and Clive Barker. In the United States, it was promoted by Viola Spolin, after working with Neva Boyd at a Hull House in Chicago, Illinois. Like the British practitioners, Spolin felt that playing games was a useful means of training actors and helped to improve an actor's performance. With improvisation, she argued, people may find expressive freedom, since they do not know how an improvised situation will turn out.
Improvisation demands an open mind
Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest duration, is considered the game's highest standard. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council; the term Test stems from the fact of the form's long, gruelling matches being both mentally and physically testing. Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, it is considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability. The first recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, where Australia won by 45 runs. A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne between 12 and 17 March 1977, in which Australia beat England by 45 runs—the same margin as that first Test. In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches; the first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015.
Women's Test cricket is played over four days, with slight differences in format from men's Tests. Test matches are the highest level of cricket, statistically, their data form part of first-class cricket. Matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council; as of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended, because of poor performances between 2006 and 2011. In January 2014, during an ICC meeting in Dubai, the pathway for new potential Test nations was laid out with the winners of the next round of the ICC Intercontinental Cup playing a 5-day match against the bottom ranked Test nation. If the Associate team defeats the Test nation they could be added as the new Test country and granted full membership. A list of matches, defined as "Tests", was first drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s.
Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 and 1929–30 are deemed to have "Test status". In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI; these matches scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their government's policy of apartheid. Although given Test status, this was withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations. Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place in October 2005, between Australia and a World XI, was an official Test match; some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, ignored the ICC's ruling and excluded the 2005 match from their records. The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72 do not have Test status; the commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise and played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979 have never been regarded as official Test matches.
There are twelve Test-playing men's teams. The teams all represent individual, independent nations, except for England, the West Indies and Ireland. Test status is conferred upon a group of countries by the International Cricket Council. Teams that do not have Test status can play in the ICC Intercontinental Cup designed to allow non-Test teams to play under conditions similar to Tests; the teams are listed below with the date of each team's Test debut: England Australia South Africa West Indies New Zealand India Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Bangladesh Ireland Afghanistan In the mid 2010s, the ICC evaluated proposals for dividing Test cricket into two tiers, with promotion and relegation between Tier-1 and Tier-2. These proposals were opposed by others; these proposals were not implemented. A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the breaks between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea; however the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately.
Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days