Anthony Wayne was a United States Army officer and statesman. He adopted a military career at the outset of the American Revolutionary War, where his military exploits and fiery personality earned him promotion to brigadier general and the nickname Mad Anthony, he led the Legion of the United States. Wayne was born in Chester County, he worked as a tanner and surveyor after attending the College of Philadelphia, he won election to the Pennsylvania General Assembly and helped raise a Pennsylvania militia unit in 1775. During the Revolutionary War, he served in the Invasion of Quebec, the Philadelphia campaign, the Yorktown campaign, his reputation suffered due to his defeat in the Battle of Paoli, but he won wide praise for his leadership in the 1779 Battle of Stony Point. After the war, Wayne settled in Georgia on land, granted to him for his military service, he represented Georgia in the United States House of Representatives returned to the Army to accept command of the Northwest Indian War.
His forces defeated several Indian tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, the subsequent Treaty of Greenville ended the war. Wayne died in 1796 while on active duty. Various places and things have been named after him, including the cities of Fort Wayne, Waynesburg, Waynesboro and Waynesboro, Georgia, as well as Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. Wayne was one of four children born to Isaac Wayne and Elizabeth Iddings Wayne in Easttown Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, his father was part of a Protestant Anglo-Irish family. Wayne was born on January 1745 on his family's Waynesborough estate, he was educated as a surveyor at his uncle's private academy in Philadelphia as well as at the College of Philadelphia, although he did not earn a degree. In 1765, Benjamin Franklin sent him and some associates to work for a year surveying land granted in Nova Scotia, he assisted with starting a settlement the following year at The Township of Monckton. In 1767, he returned to work in while continuing work as a surveyor.
He became a prominent figure in Chester County and served in the Pennsylvania legislature from 1774 to 1780. He married Mary Penrose in 1766 and they had two children, their daughter Margretta was born in 1770 and their son Isaac Wayne was born in 1772 and became a Representative from Pennsylvania. Wayne raised a militia unit in 1775 and became colonel of the 4th Pennsylvania Regiment in 1776, he and his regiment were part of the Continental Army's unsuccessful invasion of Canada where he was sent to aid Benedict Arnold, during which he commanded a successful rear-guard action at the Battle of Trois-Rivières and led the distressed forces on Lake Champlain at Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence. His service resulted in a promotion to brigadier general on February 21, 1777. On September 11, 1777, Wayne commanded the Pennsylvania Line at the Battle of Brandywine where they held off General Wilhelm von Knyphausen to protect the American right flank; the two forces fought for three hours until the American line withdrew and Wayne was ordered to retreat.
He was ordered to harass the British rear in order to slow General Howe's advance towards Pennsylvania. Wayne's camp was attacked on the night of September 20–21 in the Battle of Paoli. General Charles Grey ordered his men to remove their flints and attack with bayonets in order to keep their assault secret; the attack earned General Grey the nickname "No Flint," but the Americans pointed to the tactics and casualties as examples of British brutality. General Wayne's own reputation was tarnished by the American losses, he demanded a formal inquiry in order to clear his name. On October 4, 1777, Wayne again led his forces against the British in the Battle of Germantown, his soldiers pushed ahead of other units, the British "pushed on with their Bayonets—and took Ample Vengeance" as they retreated, according to Wayne's report. Generals Wayne and Sullivan advanced too however, became entrapped when they reached two miles ahead of other American units. General Wayne was again ordered to cover the rear of the retreating body.
After winter quarters at Valley Forge, Wayne led the attack at the 1778 Battle of Monmouth where his forces were abandoned by General Charles Lee and pinned down by a numerically superior British force. Wayne held out; the body of Lt. Colonel Henry Monckton was discovered by the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment, a legend grew that he had died fighting Wayne. In July 1779, Washington named Wayne to command the Corps of Light Infantry, a temporary unit of four regiments of light infantry companies drawn from all the regiments in the Main Army, his successful attack on British positions in the Battle of Stony Point was the highlight of his Revolutionary War service. On July 16, 1779, he replicated the bold attack used against him at Paoli and led a nighttime bayonet attack lasting 30 minutes, his three columns of about 1,500 light infantry stormed and captured British fortifications at Stony Point, a cliff-side redoubt commanding the southern Hudson River. The battle lasted 25 minutes and ended with around 550 prisoners taken, with fewer than 100 casualties for Wayne's forces.
The success of this operation provided a boost to the morale of the army, which had suffered a series of military defeats, the Continental Congress awarded him a medal for the victory. It was after this battle that he earned the name Mad Anthony for what his fellow sold
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Georgia General Assembly
The Georgia General Assembly is the state legislature of the U. S. state of Georgia. It is bicameral, consisting of the House of Representatives; each of the General Assembly's 236 members serve two-year terms and are directly elected by constituents of their district. The Constitution of Georgia vests all legislative power with the General Assembly. Both houses have similar powers. For example, the origination of appropriations bills only occurs in the House, while the Senate is tasked with confirmation of the Governor's appointments; the General Assembly meets in the Georgia State Capitol in Atlanta. The General Assembly, the legislative branch of the state's government, was created in 1777 during the American Revolution—it is older than the United States Congress. During its existence the Assembly has moved four different times when the state capital changed its location; the first location the Assembly served in was Savannah Augusta and Louisville, moving from there to Milledgeville, to Atlanta in 1868.
By January 1777 Savannah had become the capital of Georgia—when the former colony declared independence from Britain. The legislature a unicameral body, met there in 1777–1778—retreating to Augusta when the British captured the city, they were not in Augusta long before it was captured by the British in 1779. Augusta changed hands three times during the war returning to American possession in July 1781, they stayed in Augusta until the British left Savannah in May 1782 and the legislature returned to the capital. Between 1783–95, the Georgia General Assembly met in both Savannah and Augusta—moving from there when tensions arose between the two cities, causing Governor Lyman Hall to reside in both places. On February 22, 1785 the General Assembly held its last meeting in Savannah—Augusta had become the official capital due to pressure from the general populace to have their capital in the center of the state; as the population dispersed—shifting the geographic center, it was determined that the state's capital needed to move as well.
A commission was appointed by the legislature in 1786 to find a suitable location, central to the new demography. The commission recommended Louisville, which would become Georgia's first planned capital and would hold her first capitol building. Due to the fact that the capital would have to be built from the ground up, because of numerous construction delays, it took a decade to build the city; the name Louisville was chosen by the General Assembly in honor of King Louis XVI of France for France's aid during the Revolutionary War. The new state house, a two-story 18th century Gregorian building of red brick, was completed in 1796; the Legislature designated Louisville the "permanent seat" of Georgia's government. Yet, further western expansion created the need for another new state capital; the capitol building was purchased by Jefferson County and used as a courthouse, but the building had to be torn down because it became unsound. A plaque marks the location of the old Capitol. In 1804, the state government decided.
Subsequently, an act was passed authorizing construction of a new capital city on 3,240 acres in the area known as Baldwin County. The city was named Milledgeville in honor of Governor John Milledge; the new Capitol was a brick construction in the Gothic Revival style. The legislature convened The Georgia Secession Convention of 1861 in the Milledgeville statehouse on January 16, 1861. On January 19, delegates voted for Georgia to secede from the Union—208 in favor with 89 against—drafting a new constitution, declaring the state an independent Republic. On January 21, Assembly delegates celebrated their decision by a public signing of the Ordinance of Secession outside of the State Capitol; that year, the legislature voted to send $100,000 to South Carolina for "the relief of Charlestonians" who suffered a disastrous fire in December 1861. With General Sherman's approach, the members of the General Assembly adjourned in fall 1864, reconvening in Macon in 1865; as the American Civil War came to a close with the federal government in military control of Georgia, the legislature reconvened at the Capitol in Milledgeville.
In 1867, Major General John Pope, military governor of Georgia, called for an assembly in Atlanta to hold a constitutional convention. At that time Atlanta officials moved once again to have the city designated as Georgia's state capital, donating the property where Atlanta's first city hall was constructed; the constitutional convention agreed and the people voted to ratify the decision on April 20, 1868. The Georgia General Assembly first convened in Atlanta on July 4, 1868. In 1884, the legislature appropriated one million dollars to build a new State Capitol. Construction began October 26, 1884 and the building was completed and occupied on June 15, 1889. Notably, the dome atop the capitol building is plated with real gold, most of which came from the Dahlonega, Georgia area; the roofing gives rise to local colloquialisms—for instance, if one knowledgeable Georgian wanted to ask another what the General Assembly was doing, he might ask what was happening "under the gold dome." The General Assembly meets in regular session on the second Monday in January for no longer than 40 legislative days each year.
Neither the House nor the Senate can adjourn during a regular session for longer than three days or meet in any place other than the state capitol without the other house's consent. Both houses of the General Assembly may determine procedural rules provide for its employees; the Gene
St. Marys, Georgia
St. Marys is a city in Camden County, United States; the city is the gateway to Cumberland Island National Seashore, the largest of the Georgia Coast's barrier islands. The National Seashore's visitor center and boat access are both located at the St. Marys waterfront; the city is home to the annual St. Marys Rock Shrimp Festival, the St. Marys Submarine Museum, Crooked River State Park, its territory is bordered by Kings Bay Naval Submarine Base, the home port for several Ohio-class submarines. The population of St. Marys was 17,121 as of the 2010 Census. St. Marys is located along the southern border of Camden County at 30°45′23″N 81°34′17″W, on the north bank of the St. Marys River; the state of Florida is across the river. The city of Kingsland borders St. Marys to the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, St. Marys has a total area of 24.9 square miles, of which 22.5 square miles is land and 2.4 square miles, or 9.57%, is water. The closest major city is Florida, 38 miles south.
The St. Marys area was first explored in the mid 16th century as part of the settlement of Spanish Florida, with nearby St. Augustine as the established capital. Settlement for Georgians became legal after the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Local inhabitants of Camden County gathered on Cumberland Island and signed a charter for "a town on the St. Marys" on November 20, 1787. There were twenty charter members who each received one marsh lot; these twenty city founders are named on an historical marker in downtown St. Marys: Isaac Wheeler, William Norris, Nathaniel Ashley, William Ashley, Lodowick Ashley, James Seagrove, James Finley, John Fleming, Robert Seagrove, Henry Osborne, Thomas Norris, Jacob Weed, John Alexander, Langley Bryant, Jonathan Bartlett, Stephen Conyers, William Keady, Prentis Gallup, Simeon Dillingham and Richard Cole; the original boundaries of the town correspond to the modern waterfront, Bartlett Street, North Street, a block east of Norris Street. There were two public town squares.
However, in the original deed the town was unnamed, for several years afterwards in public documents it was referred to as either St. Marys or St. Patrick's, colloquially as "the New Town". Accounts differ regarding the origin of the name itself—some say it is named after the St. Marys River, while others say it comes from a seventeenth-century Spanish mission, Santa Maria, on nearby Amelia Island, Florida. St. Marys was recognized by an act of the Georgia legislature on December 5, 1792, with the result of incorporation in November 1802. Oak Grove Cemetery is included in the St. Marys Historic District and was laid outside the western border of St. Marys during its founding in 1787. On June 29, 1796, the Treaty of Colerain was signed just up the river from St Marys between the United States and the Creek Nation. St. Marys town founder Langley Bryant served as the official interpreter between the Creek Indians and the United States. St. Marys was made a United States port of entry by act of the U.
S. Congress March 2, 1799; the first Collector was James Seagrove. During the antebellum period, Archibald Clark served as the U. S. Customs Collector from 1807 until his death in 1848. After the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves took effect in 1808, St. Marys became, along with Spanish Amelia Island, a center for smuggling during the period between 1812-1819 when various rebel groups held Amelia Island. During the War of 1812 the Battle of Fort Peter occurred near the town, at the fort on Point Peter along the St. Marys River; the British occupied it for about a month. The United States Navy bombarded the town's shoreside buildings during the American Civil War. St. Marys served as Camden County's seat of government from 1869 until 1923; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,761 people, 4,837 households, 3,758 families residing in the city. The population density was 733.8 people per square mile. There were 5,351 housing units at an average density of 285.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 72.78% White, 19.99% African American, 0.47% Native American, 1.21% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.56% from other races, 2.09% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 4.46% of the population. There were 4,837 households out of which 47.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.3% were non-families. 16.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.18. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.4% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 34.7% from 25 to 44, 15.6% from 45 to 64, 5.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $42,087, the median income for a family was $46,065. Males had a median income of $35,419 versus $24,449 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,099. About 9.6% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.5% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.
Cumberland Island Duck House Orange Hall List of county seats in Georgia St. Marys Historic District St. Marys Railroad St. Marys Airport St
Camden County, Georgia
Camden County is a county located in the southeastern corner of the U. S. state of Georgia. According to the 2010 Census, the population was 50,513, its county seat is Woodbine, the largest city is St. Marys, it is one of the original counties of Georgia, created February 5, 1777. It is the 11th largest county in the state of Georgia by area, the 41st largest by population. Camden County comprises the St. Marys, GA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Jacksonville-St. Marys-Palatka, FL-GA Combined Statistical Area; the first recorded European to visit what is today Camden County was Captain Jean Ribault of France in 1562. Ribault was sent out by French Huguenots to find a suitable place for a settlement. Ribault named the rivers he saw the Seine and the Some, known today as the St. Marys and Satilla Rivers. Ribault described the area as, "Fairest and pleasantest of all the world."In 1565, Spain became alarmed by the French settlements and sent out a large force to take over and settle the area.
During that time, the Spaniards attempted to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism. At least two missions operated on Cumberland Island, ministering to the Timucuan people, who had resided on the island for at least four thousand years. Competing British and Spanish claims to the territory between their respective colonies of South Carolina and Florida was a source of international tension, the colony of Georgia was founded in 1733 in part to protect the British interests; the Spanish theoretically lost their claim to the territory in 1742 after the Battle of Bloody Marsh. However, settlement south of the Altamaha River was discouraged by both the British and Spanish governments. One group of settlers led by Edmund Gray sparked Spanish military action after settling on the Satilla River in the 1750s near present-day Burnt Fort, were subsequently disbanded by the Royal Governor John Reynolds. General Oglethorpe was at Cumberland Island, he erected a hunting lodge on Cumberland named Dungeness, the predecessor of the famous Greene and Carnegie Dungeness Mansions.
He founded Fort St. Andrews on the north end of Cumberland Island as well as a strong battery, Fort Prince Williams, on the south end. Fort Prince Williams commanded the entrance to the St. Marys River, but had become a ruin by the Revolutionary War. In 1763, under a treaty of peace with Great Britain, ceded Florida to the British. After this, the boundaries of Georgia were extended from the Altamaha to the St. Marys River. In 1765, four parishes were laid out between the St. Marys Rivers; these were St. Davids, St. Patricks, St. James, the parishes of St. Marys and St. Thomas. Due to security issues arising from proximity to powerful Indian groups and British Florida, Georgia was the last colony to join in the War for Independence in 1775. In the Georgia Constitution of 1777 St. Thomas and St. Marys Parishes were formed into Camden County, named for Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden in England, a supporter of American independence. Camden County was larger and included parts of present-day Ware and Charlton Counties, which were re-designated in the nineteenth century.
Under the 1777 state constitution, Glynn County and Camden County had limited and restricted representation in the new patriotic Georgia government due to their extreme "state of alarm" throughout the war. Between 1776 and 1778 Camden County saw the construction of numerous forts, three failed American campaigns against the British at St. Augustine, numerous depredations by raiders of various allegiance. One of the most notorious of these raiders was Daniel McGirth. A significant loyalist faction existed in Camden County, headed by the brothers of Royal Governor James Wright and German Wright, they built a fort on the St. Marys River in 1775 to protect their lands and chattel during the war after repeated attacks by patriot banditti. Wright's Fort became a rendezvous for a group of loyalists called the "Florida Rangers". Two skirmishes were fought by Loyalist and Continental forces over Wright's Fort, both times American troops failed to rout the Loyalists from the area. Retreating British soldiers burned it down in 1778.
The Americans rebuilt it when they invaded East Florida, burned it down to prevent it falling into enemy hands. The archaeological site was rediscovered in 1975; the primary economic enterprise of the county was rice planting along the Satilla River. Sea Island cotton was grown on Cumberland Island, short-staple cotton was grown on the mainland along with sugar cane. Various forest products including turpentine and timber were produced for consumption in the naval industry and the West Indies. Camden County served as a hub of backcountry trade with American settlers and various Indian groups, as a shipyard and shipping center centered around the town of St. Marys; the land in Camden County was owned by fewer than 300 people throughout the colonial and antebellum eras. Most of the white population worked in trades or as tenant farmers, while nearly all black residents were slaves; until the 1840s, Camden County had a small population of free black workers involved in day labor or maritime industry.
Camden County was the site of many trading posts with the Native Americans, who by the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries consisted of people of the Creek Nation. From America's earliest years and after Indian Removal in the 1830s, the county was a site of significant conflict between settlers and In
Muscogee (Creek) Nation
The Muscogee Nation is a federally recognized Native American tribe based in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. The nation descends from the historic Creek Confederacy, a large group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Official languages include Muscogee, Natchez and Koasati, with Muscogee retaining the largest number of speakers, they refer to themselves as Este Mvskokvlke. They were referred to as one of the Five Civilized Tribes of the American Southeast; the Muscogee Nation is the largest of the federally recognized Muscogee tribes. The Muskogean-speaking Alabama, Koasati and Natchez people, as well as Algonquian-speaking Shawnee and Yuchi are enrolled in the Muscogee Creek Nation; the latter two groups were from different language families than the Muscogee. Other federally recognized Muscogee groups include the Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, Thlopthlocco Tribal Town of Oklahoma, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas, the Poarch Band of Creeks in Alabama.
The Muscogee Nation is headquartered in Okmulgee and serves as the seat of tribal government. The Muscogee Nation Reservation status was reaffirmed in 2017 by decision of Tenth Circuit Court in Murphy v. Royal which held that the allotted Muscogee Nation reservation in Oklahoma has not been disestablished and therefore retains jurisdiction over tribal citizens in Creek, Okfuskee, Okmulgee, McIntosh, Muskogee and Wagoner counties in Oklahoma; the decision in Murphy v. Royal was appealed to the United States Supreme Court on February 6, 2018 and certiorari was granted on May 21, 2018; the government of the Muscogee Nation is divided into three branches: executive and judicial. Okmulgee is the capitol of the Muscogee Nation and serves as the seat of government; the Executive branch is led by a Principal Chief, Second Chief, Tribal Administrator, Secretary of the Nation. The Principal Chief and Second Chief are democratically elected every four years. Citizens cast ballots for both the Principal Chief and Second Chief as they are elected individually.
The Principal Chief chooses staff. The current members of the executive branch are as follows: James Floyd, Principal Chief Louis Hicks, Second Chief Jerry McPeak, Tribal Administrator The legislative branch is the National Council and consists of 16 members elected to represent the 8 different districts within the tribe's jurisdictional area. National Council representatives sponsor the laws and resolutions of the Nation; the 8 districts include: Creek, Wagoner, Muskogee, Okmulgee, McIntosh, Tukvpvtce. The Nation has two courts: the Supreme Court; the Supreme Court has final authority over disputes about the Muscogee Creek Constitution and Laws. The current members of the Supreme Court are as follows: Chief Justice Kathleen Supernaw Vice-Chief Justice Montie Deer Associate Justice Jonodev Chaudhuri Associate Justice Leah Harjo-Ware Associate Justice Andrew Adams III Associate Justice Richard LerblanceThere is a separate Muscogee Nation Bar Association. In 2016, there were 80,591 people enrolled in the Muscogee Creek Nation.
Of these, 60,403 lived within the state of Oklahoma. Since 1979, membership to the tribe is based on documented lineal descent from persons listed as Creek'Indians by Blood' on the Dawes Rolls; the tribe does not have a minimum blood quantum requirement. The Nation operates its own division of housing and issues vehicle license plates, their Division of Health contracts with Indian Health Services to maintain the Creek Nation Community Hospital and several community clinics, a vocational rehabilitation program, nutrition programs for children and the elderly, programs dedicated to diabetes, tobacco prevention, caregivers. The Muscogee Nation operates the Lighthorse Tribal Police Department, with 43 active employees; the tribe has its own program for enforcing child support payments. The Mvskoke Food Sovereignty Initiative is sponsored by the nation, it educates and encourages tribal members to grow their own traditional foods for health, environmental sustainability, economic development, sharing of knowledge and community between generations.
The Muscogee Nation operates a Communications Department that produces a bi-monthly newspaper, the Muscogee Nation News, a weekly television show, the Native News Today. The tribe operates a budget in excess of $290 million, has over 4,000 employees, provides services within their jurisdiction; the tribe has non-gaming businesses. Non-gaming business ventures include Onefire. MNBE and Onefire oversee economic development as well as investigating, planning and operating business ventures projects for the tribe related to non-gaming business. Gaming enterprises consist of 9 stand alone casinos; the revenue from both gaming and non-gaming business are reinvested to develop new businesses, as well as support the welfare of the tribe. The Muscogee Nation operates two Travel Plaza truck stops; the Nation's historic old Council House was located in downtown Okmulgee. It is under renovation, it now serves as a museum of tribal history. In 2004, the Muscogee Nation founded a tribal college in Okmulgee, the College of the Muscogee Nation.
CMN is a two-year institution, offer
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America, they defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, they rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor followed with a series of legislative acts which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government and caused the other colonies to rally behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain.
Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king's army attempted to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Continental Army forced the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, but that summer the British captured and held New York City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.
The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to defeat Washington's forces. The Patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76, but captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France now entered the war as an ally of the United States with a large army and navy that threatened Britain itself; the war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.
Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of the United States Constitution, establishing a strong federal national government that included an executive, a national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. The Revolution resulted in the migration of around 60,000 Loyalists to other British territories British North America; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies. On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, barring trade with foreign nations; some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the merchants most directly affected were most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, much of it was fought without significant assistance from England.
This contributed to the development of a unique identity from that of the British people. In the 1680s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more effectively, his efforts were fiercely opposed by the colonists, resulting in the abrogation of their colonial charter by the Crown. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England that saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689. Colonial governments reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive governments made no more attempts to restore the Dominion. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passing acts regulating the trade of wool and molasses; the Molasses Act of 1733 in particular was egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product.
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