Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany
Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, a member of the Scottish royal house, served as regent to three different Scottish monarchs. He held the titles of Earl of Menteith, Earl of Fife, Earl of Buchan and Earl of Atholl, in addition to his 1398 creation as Duke of Albany. A ruthless politician, Albany was regarded as having caused the murder of his nephew, the Duke of Rothesay, brother to the future King James I of Scotland. James was held in captivity in England for eighteen years, during which time Albany served as regent in Scotland, king in all but name, he died in 1420 and was succeeded by his son, Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, who would be executed for treason when James returned to Scotland in 1425 causing the complete ruin of the Albany Stewarts. Robert Stewart was the second son of the future King Robert II of Scotland and of Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan, his parents' marriage was deemed as uncanonical at first, which, in some circle, gave their children and descendants the label of illegitimacy, but the granting of a papal dispensation in 1349 saw their remarriage and their children's legitimisation.
Robert's grandfather was Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and his father was the first monarch of the House of Stewart. His great-grandfather was legendary victor of the Battle of Bannockburn. Robert Stewart was raised in a large family with many siblings, his older brother John Stewart became Earl of Carrick in 1368, would be crowned King of Scotland under the name Robert III. In 1361 Stewart married Margaret Graham, Countess of Menteith, a wealthy divorcee who took Robert as her fourth husband, his sister-in-law's claim to the Earldoms of Menteith and Fife allowed him to assume those titles, becoming Earl of Menteith and Earl of Fife. In 1362 the couple had a son and heir, Murdoch Stewart, who would in time inherit his father's titles and estates. Stewart was responsible for the construction of Doune Castle, which remains intact today; when Stewart was created Earl of Menteith, he was granted the lands on which Doune Castle now stands. Building may have started any time after this, the castle was at least complete in 1381, when a charter was sealed here.
Scottish politics in the late 14th century was unstable and bloody, much of Albany's career would be spent acquiring territory and titles by violent means. In 1389 his son Murdoch Stewart was appointed Justiciar North of the Forth, father and son would now work together to expand their family interest, bringing them into violent confrontation with other members of the nobility such as Donald McDonald, 2nd Lord of the Isles. During the reign of their infirm father as King Robert II, Robert Stewart and his older brother Lord Carrick functioned as regents of Scotland, kings in all but name, with Albany serving as High Chamberlain of Scotland, he led several military expeditions and raids into the Kingdom of England. In 1389, the Earl of Carrick became incapacitated in an accident and, though he acceded to the throne as King Robert III in 1390, this "sickness of the body" caused control of the kingdom to devolve in 1399 to his son and heir apparent, David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, who held the first dukedom created in the Scottish Peerage.
Although in 1398 Robert was himself appointed Duke of Albany, bringing him still greater power and wealth, power had begun to shift away from Albany and towards his nephew. However, the English soon invaded Scotland, serious differences emerged between Albany and Rothesay. In 1401, Rothesay was accused of unjustifiably appropriating sums from the customs of the burghs on the east coast and confiscating the revenues of the temporalities of the vacant bishopric of St Andrews. Rothesay had in conjunction with his uncle, Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, confronted Albany's influence in central Scotland—as soon his lieutenancy expired in 1402 Albany acted swiftly and ruthlessly. Rothesay was arrested and imprisoned in Albany's Falkland Castle where he died in March 1402. Rothesay's death lay with Albany and Douglas who would have looked upon the possibility of the young prince acceding to the throne with great apprehension. Albany fell under suspicion but he was cleared of all blame by a general council, which found that'by divine providence and not otherwise, it is discerned that he departed from this life.'
However though Albany was exonerated from blame, suspicions of foul play persisted, suspicions which never left Rothesay's younger brother the future James I of Scotland, which would lead to the downfall of the Albany Stewarts. John Debrett, writing in 1805, was in no doubt of Duke Robert's motives and guilt: "This Robert, Duke of Albany, having obtained the entire government from his brother, King Robert, he caused the Duke of Rothesay to be murdered, thinking to bring the Crown into his own family". After Rothesay's death, the King began to fear for his second son James, who fled Scotland for his own safety. Debrett continues: "to avoid the like fate, King Robert resolved to send his younger son James, to France about nine years old, who being sea-sick, forced to land on the English coast...was detained a captive in England eighteen years. At these misfortunes King Robert died of grief in 1406." After the death of his brother King Robert III, Albany ruled Scotland as regent. His young nephew, the future James I of Scotland, would remain in exile and imprisonment in England for 18 years.
The border between England and Scotland runs for 96 miles between Marshall Meadows Bay on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. It is Scotland's only land border with another country, one of England's two; the Firth of Forth was the border between the Picto-Gaelic Kingdom of Alba and the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria in the early 10th century. It became the first Anglo-Scottish border with the annexation of Northumbria by Anglo-Saxon England in the mid 10th century. In 973, King of Scots attended the English king, Edgar the Peaceful, at his council in Chester. After Kenneth had done homage, Edgar rewarded Kenneth by granting him Lothian. Despite this transaction, the control of Lothian was not settled and the region was taken by the Scots at the Battle of Carham in 1018 and the River Tweed became the de facto Anglo-Scottish border; the Solway–Tweed line was established in 1237 by the Treaty of York between England and Scotland. It remains the border today, with the exception of the Debatable Lands, north of Carlisle, a small area around Berwick-upon-Tweed, taken by England in 1482.
It is thus one of the oldest extant borders in the world, although Berwick was not annexed into England until 1746, by the Wales and Berwick Act 1746. For centuries until the Union of the Crowns the region on either side of the boundary was a lawless territory suffering from the repeated raids in each direction of the Border Reivers. Following the Treaty of Union 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united Scotland with England and Wales to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Border continues to form the boundary of two distinct legal jurisdictions as the treaty between the two countries guaranteed the continued separation of English law and Scots law; the age of legal capacity under Scots law is 16, while it was 18 under English law. The border settlements of Gretna Green to the west, Coldstream and Lamberton to the east, were convenient for elopers from England who wanted to marry under Scottish laws, marry without publicity; the marine boundary was adjusted by the Scottish Adjacent Waters Boundaries Order 1999 so that the boundary within the territorial waters is 0.09-kilometre north of the boundary for oil installations established by the Civil Jurisdiction Order 1987.
The border country known as the Scottish Marches, is the area either side of the Anglo-Scottish border including parts of the modern council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and the Scottish Borders, parts of the English counties of Cumbria and Northumberland. It is a hilly area, with the Scottish Southern Uplands to the north, the Cheviot Hills forming the border between the two countries to the south. From the Norman conquest of England until the reign of James VI of Scotland, who in the course of his reign became James I of England while retaining the more northerly realm, border clashes were common and the monarchs of both countries relied on Scottish Earls of March and Lord Warden of the Marches to defend and control the frontier region. In 1333, during the Second War of Scottish Independence, Scotland was defeated at the Battle of Halidon Hill. Thereafter, Edward Balliol, the titular King of Scots, made formal his promises to the English king, Edward III and yielded a considerable portion of southern Scotland to England at the 1334 Treaty of Newcastle.
A 16th-century Act of the Scottish Parliament talks about the chiefs of the border clans, a late 17th-century statement by the Lord Advocate uses the terms "clan" and "family" interchangeably. Although Lowland aristocrats may have liked to refer to themselves as "families", the idea that the term "clan" should be used of Highland families alone is a 19th-century convention. Historic Border clans include the following: Armstrong, Bannatyne, Briar, Elliot, Hedley of Redesdale, Home or Hume, Jardine, Kerr, Moffat, Ogilvy, Routledge, Tweedie. During late medieval and early modern eras—from the late 13th century, with the creation by Edward I of England of the first Lord Warden of the Marches to the early 17th century and the creation of the Middle Shires, promulgated after the personal union of England and Scotland under James VI of Scotland —the area around the border was known as the Scottish Marches. For centuries the Marches on either side of the boundary was an area of mixed allegiances, where families or clans switched which country or side they supported as suited their family interests at that time, lawlessness abounded.
Before the personal union of the two kingdoms under James, the border clans would switch allegiance between the Scottish and English crowns depending on what was most favourable for the members of the clan. For a time a powerful local clan dominated a region on the border between Scotland, it was known as the Debatable Lands and neither monarch's writ was heeded. Following the 1603 Union of the Crowns, King James VI & I decreed that the Borders should be renamed'the Middle Shires'. In the same year the King placed George Home, 1st Earl of Dunbar in charge of pacification of the borders. Courts were known reivers were arrested; the more troublesome and lower classes were executed without trial. Mass hanging soon became a common occurrence. In 1605 he established a joint commission of ten members, drawn from Scotland and England, to bring law and order to the region; this was aided by statutes in 1606 and 1609, first to repeal hostile laws on both sides of the border, an
First Battle of St Albans
The First Battle of St Albans, fought on 22 May 1455 at St Albans, 22 miles north of London, traditionally marks the beginning of the Wars of the Roses in England. Richard, Duke of York, his allies, the Neville earls of Salisbury and Warwick, defeated a royal army commanded by Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, killed. With King Henry VI captured, a subsequent parliament appointed Richard of York Lord Protector; the incapacitation of Henry VI by mental illness in 1454 had led to the recall to court of Richard of York, his closest adult relative. Back in 1447, York had been assigned as Lieutenant of Ireland in exile away from England, while his long time rival, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, favorite of the king, had been given the charge of the Lieutenancy of France. After Somerset's own failure in France, York unexpectedly returned to London with significant support not only from the nobility, most of whom saw the incompetence of Somerset's efforts in France, but from the public, he presented himself as a champion of the law and urged the King to have Somerset tried and held accountable for his failures.
He wished to be recognised as heir presumptive to the English throne while Henry VI was childless. York formed an armed force to force the issue in 1452, after meeting with the council of war and the King, who wanted to avoid a conflict, York's demands were agreed on. York was soon arrested and held prisoner for three months. An execution was avoided. York was only released after he agreed to swear an oath at St. Paul's Cathedral that he would never again take up arms against the King. After the English army led by Sir John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, was routed in the Battle of Castillion, Henry VI suffered a complete mental breakdown and was unable to perform his royal duties. Somerset had sought to make himself Lord Protector. However, Somerset underestimated the Duke of York's influence and popularity, as many nobles on the council were on York's side, and so York was given the appointment to govern England as Lord Protector and First Councillor of the realm while the king remained unfit.
He used this position to move against his chief rival and express the bitterness which had accumulated over the years, thus the Duke of Somerset was imprisoned. It was during this 14 months that the sides were forming. There was conflict beyond that between the Dukes of Somerset; the Percys were, still are to this day, the Earls of Northumberland. The Nevilles were related to the Duke of York by marriage, as the Duchess of York was Cecily Neville, the sister of the Earl of Salisbury. Much of the fighting was over land and money, but both were choosing sides, the Percys for Somerset and the Nevilles for York. By Christmas of 1454, King Henry had recovered from his illness, removing the basis for York's authority. Somerset was restored to his former position of power. Having reconvened the court at Westminster by mid-April 1455, Henry and a select council of nobles decided to hold a great council at Leicester. York and his closest allies anticipated that Somerset would bring charges against them at this assembly.
They gathered an armed retinue and marched to stop the royal party from reaching Leicester, intercepting them at St Albans. The Lancastrian army of 2,000 troops arrived at St Albans first, with Humphrey Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, in command, proceeded to defend it by placing troops along the Tonman Ditch and at the bars in Sopwell Lane and Shropshire Lane; the reassignment of Buckingham from Somerset as Commander of the Army had been a last minute decision by Henry VI, whether by fear of Somerset's past failures, or of animosity of the Duke of York. The 7,000-strong Yorkist army camped in Keyfield to the east. Lengthy negotiations ensued with heralds moving forth between the rival commanders. After a few hours, it was believed in the Yorkist camp that King Henry VI knew nothing of the letters of negotiation; the Duke of York had made his intentions clear: he wanted Somerset punished and executed. In a message to Henry VI he states: "... surrender to us such as we will accuse, not to resist til we have him which deserves death."
This was dangerous territory that York was playing on, as he was demanding much from the King and setting the rules himself. The act of displaying such an aggressive front to the King was treasonous, but his popularity kept York confident and supported. In a fit of uncharacteristic regency, Henry refused, replying: "By the faith that I owe to St. Edward and the crown of England I shall destroy every mother's son and they shall be hanged, drawn and quartered." After several hours, despairing of a peaceful solution, decided to attack. Although his army might have been unwilling to attack King Henry, the Royal Standard was not visible and might have been negligently propped against a wall by the royal standard-bearer, the Earl of Wiltshire; the bulk of Henry's forces were surprised by the suddenness of Richard's attack. However, two Yorkist frontal assaults down the narrow streets against the barr
Battle of Shrewsbury
The Battle of Shrewsbury was a battle fought on 21 July 1403, waged between an army led by the Lancastrian King Henry IV and a rebel army led by Henry "Harry Hotspur" Percy from Northumberland. The battle, the first in which English archers fought each other on English soil, reaffirmed the effectiveness of the longbow and ended the Percy challenge to King Henry IV of England. Part of the fighting is believed to have taken place at what is now Battlefield, England, three miles north of the centre of Shrewsbury, it is marked today by Battlefield Heritage Park. The Percys had supported Henry IV in a war against King Richard II of England, which ended when Henry IV took the throne in 1399; the Percys subsequently supported Henry IV in Wales, early in the rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr, in Scotland, in both negotiations and conflict against the Scots. King Henry IV had been supported by a number of wealthy landowners to whom he had promised land and royal favour in return for their continued support.
When the war ended, lands in and around Cumberland promised to the Percys were instead given to a rival. The promised money never materialised, so the Percys revolted. Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland and Thomas Percy, 1st Earl of Worcester publicly renounced their allegiance to King Henry IV, they charged him with perjury because he claimed the throne in addition to his old lands and titles, taxed the clergy despite his promise not to without the consent of Parliament and murdered King Richard II, did not allow a free Parliamentary election, refused to pay a just ransom to Owain Glyndŵr, holding Edmund Mortimer. The King retained custody of the Scottish nobles captured at Homildon Hill as prisoners of war rather than permitting the Percys to release them for ransom. Henry Percy, nicknamed "Hotspur," raised a group of about 200 retainers in early July 1403, started the long march south to meet his uncle, Thomas Percy; some nobles joined him, such as Lord Bardolf, but he recruited most of his army in Cheshire, an area hostile to Henry IV, which provided many experienced soldiers, notably its Cheshire archers, some of whom had served as Richard II's bodyguard.
Henry Percy may have hoped for reinforcements from Wales under the self-proclaimed Prince of Wales, Owain Glyndŵr, but he was disappointed. Glyndŵr, at the time fighting in Carmarthenshire, was unaware; some Welsh forces from the Cheshire borders may have joined him. The rebels marched towards Shrewsbury, the defended county town in Shropshire. King Henry IV only became aware of the Percy forces on 12 July while he was marching an army north to assist the Percys against the Scots, receiving the news at Burton-on-Trent, he may have anticipated the Percys' change of heart, but altered his plans to meet the immediate threat posed by the Percys. He changed direction and marched west towards Shrewsbury with his army, arriving before the Percys could capture the town. Both forces arrived in the Shrewsbury area on 20 July 1403 and set up camp to the north and south of the Severn River, which loops around the town. Hotspur based himself at the house of William Betton, his army camping close to the town.
The next day the King's forces crossed the River Severn at Uffington, about a mile to the east of Shrewsbury to cut off Percy's line of retreat to Chester. They failed and the armies took up position in a field, variously named: "Haytleyfield", "Husefeld", "Berwykfeld", "Bolefeld"; the battle commenced in the manor of Harlescott about a mile south west of where Battlefield Church now stands.. The battle took place in a large field of peas. Estimates of the sizes of the two armies vary and the medieval chronicles are subject to exaggeration. Annales Henrici Quarti states 14,000 Royal troops, far fewer than Waurin's estimate of 60,000. Although Henry's army is agreed to have been larger, John Capgrave writing in the Chronicle of England quotes Percy's army as 14,000. For much of the morning of Saturday 21 July, the two forces parleyed. Thomas Prestbury, the Abbot of Shrewsbury and the Abbot of Haughmond presented the King's terms. Hotspur declined Thomas Percy spoke to the King, trading insults. Henry Percy was somewhat inclined toward accepting the King's position, while his uncle Thomas Percy was not.
Negotiations ended near noon, the two forces advanced closer for the fight. One rebel pardoned, went over to the royal army and the king knighted several of his followers. About two hours before dusk, King Henry IV raised his sword; the battle opened with a massive archery barrage, arrows killing or wounding many men before they could meet hand to hand in the field. Percy's Cheshire bowmen proved superior. Thomas Walsingham recorded how the King's men "fell like leaves in Autumn, every one struck a mortal man". According to the Dieulacres Chronicle the King's right wing under the command of the Earl of Stafford fled from the field. Far more than this wing may have fled as well, as there is evidence that some baggage was looted and after the battle the Cheshire rebels were "prosecuted" for taking some 7,000 horses with them. Prince Henry, Prince of Wales was hit in the face with an arrow during the fighting, sustaining a terrible wound, he recovered due to the skilled treatment of the Physician General John Bradmore, who used honey, alcohol and a specially designed surgical instrument to extract the arrowhead.
He was left with a permanent scar. Enough of the King's men remained on the field on the left wing, under the command of the Prince of Wales. Perhap
Richard II of England
Richard II known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Richard's father, Edward the Black Prince, died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent to King Edward III. Upon the death of his grandfather Edward III, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne. During Richard's first years as king, government was in the hands of a series of regency councils, influenced by Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. A major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, the young king played a central part in the successful suppression of this crisis. Less warlike than either his father or grandfather, he sought to bring an end to the Hundred Years' War. A firm believer in the royal prerogative, Richard restrained the power of the aristocracy and relied on a private retinue for military protection instead. In contrast to his grandfather, Richard cultivated a refined atmosphere at court, in which the king was an elevated figure, with art and culture at its centre.
The king's dependence on a small number of courtiers caused discontent among the influential, in 1387 control of government was taken over by a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant. By 1389 Richard had regained control, for the next eight years governed in relative harmony with his former opponents. In 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were exiled; the next two years have been described by historians as Richard's "tyranny". In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned king. Richard is thought to have been starved to death in captivity, although questions remain regarding his final fate. Richard's posthumous reputation has been shaped to a large extent by William Shakespeare, whose play Richard II portrayed Richard's misrule and his deposition by Bolingbroke as responsible for the 15th-century Wars of the Roses.
Modern historians do not accept this interpretation, while not exonerating Richard from responsibility for his own deposition. While not insane, as historians of the 19th and 20th centuries believed, he may have had a personality disorder manifesting itself towards the end of his reign. Most authorities agree that his policies were not unrealistic or entirely unprecedented, but that the way in which he carried them out was unacceptable to the political establishment, leading to his downfall. Richard of Bordeaux was the younger son of Joan of Kent. Edward, eldest son of Edward III and heir apparent to the throne of England, had distinguished himself as a military commander in the early phases of the Hundred Years' War in the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. After further military adventures, however, he contracted dysentery in Spain in 1370, he never recovered and had to return to England the next year. Richard was born at the Archbishop's Palace, Bordeaux, in the English principality of Aquitaine, on 6 January 1367.
According to contemporary sources, three kings – "the King of Castille, the King of Navarre and the King of Portugal" – were present at his birth. This anecdote, the fact that his birth fell on the feast of Epiphany, was used in the religious imagery of the Wilton Diptych, where Richard is one of three kings paying homage to the Virgin and Child, his elder brother, Edward of Angoulême, died near his sixth birthday in 1371. The Black Prince succumbed to his long illness in June 1376; the Commons in parliament genuinely feared that Richard's uncle, John of Gaunt, would usurp the throne. For this reason, the prince was invested with the princedom of Wales and his father's other titles. On 21 June the next year, Richard's grandfather Edward III, for some years frail and decrepit died, after a 50-year-long reign; this resulted in the 10-year-old Richard succeeding to the throne. He was crowned king on 16 July 1377 at Westminster Abbey. Again, fears of John of Gaunt's ambitions influenced political decisions, a regency led by the King's uncles was avoided.
Instead, the king was nominally to exercise kingship with the help of a series of "continual councils", from which John of Gaunt was excluded. Gaunt, together with his younger brother Thomas of Woodstock, Earl of Buckingham, still held great informal influence over the business of government, but the king's councillors and friends Sir Simon de Burley and Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland gained control of royal affairs. In a matter of three years, these councillors earned the mistrust of the Commons to the point that the councils were discontinued in 1380. Contributing to discontent was an heavy burden of taxation levied through three poll taxes between 1377 and 1381 that were spent on unsuccessful military expeditions on the continent. By 1381, there was a deep-felt resentment against the governing classes in the lower levels of English society. Whereas the poll tax of 1381 was the spark of the Peasants' Revolt, the root of the conflict lay in tensions between peasants and landowners precipitated by the economic and demographic consequences of the Black Death and subsequent outbreaks of the plague.
The rebellion started in Kent and Essex in late May, on 12 June, bands of peasants gathered at Blackheath near London under the leaders Wat Tyler, John Ball, Jack Straw. John of Gaunt's Savoy Palace was burnt down; the Archbishop of Canterbury, Simon Sudbury, Lord Chancellor, the king's Lord High Treasurer, Rober
Berwick Castle is a ruined castle in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England. The castle was founded in the 12th century by the Scottish King David I. In 1296–8, the English King Edward I had the castle rebuilt and the town fortified, before it was returned to Scotland. In November 1292, King Edward announced in the great hall before the full parliament of England and many of the nobility of Scotland his adjudication in favour of John Balliol of the dispute between him, Robert the Bruce and the count of Holland for the Crown of Scotland. 1330 "Domino Roberto de Lawedre" of the Bass, described as Custodian or Keeper of the Marches and the Castle of Berwick-upon-Tweed, received upon the termination of his employment there, £33.6s.8d, plus a similar amount, from the Scottish Exchequer. The town and castle changed hands several times during the English-Scottish conflicts. In 1464 the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland record that Robert Lauder of Edrington was paid £20 for repairs made to Berwick Castle. In the 16th century, during the reign of Elizabeth I, the walls were strengthened with the addition of two semi-circular artillery flanking towers, one at the river's edge and the other on the angle of the curtain wall.
The castle's location in the hotly disputed border country between England and Scotland made it one of the most important strongholds in the British Isles, it had an eventful history. As a major tactical objective in the region, the castle was captured by both the English and Scots on a number of occasions and sustained substantial damage; the castle changed hands in less violent circumstances when the English King Richard I sold the castle to the Scots, to help fund the Third Crusade. The castle fell into English hands in the last week of August 1482. After invading Scotland following a pact with the Duke of Albany, Duke of Gloucester captured the castle from Patrick Hepburn, Lord Hailes; the construction of modern ramparts around Berwick in the sixteenth century rendered the castle obsolete and its history is one of steady decline. Large parts of the structure were used as a quarry, while in the nineteenth century, the great hall and much of what remained was demolished to make way for Berwick-upon-Tweed railway station.
The railway platforms now stand where King Edward took oaths of allegiance from Scottish nobility in 1296, marked by a large notice to that effect. The principal surviving part of the structure is the late thirteenth century White Wall and the steep and long flight of steps known as the Breakneck Stairs, it is now administered by English Heritage. Sir William Douglas, 1294–1296 surrendered to Edward I of England following the Massacre of Berwick Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley, English governor c.1314 Edmond de Caillou, Gascon governor for the English, Killed at the Battle of Skaithmuir 1316. Sir Robert de Lawedre of the Bass, 1330-3. Patrick de Dunbar, 5th Earl of March, Jan-July 1333. Robert de Lawedre of Edrington, 1461/2–1474. David, Earl of Crawford, 1474–1478. Sir Robert Lauder of The Bass, Knt. 1478–1482. Sir Patrick Hepburn, 1st Lord Hailes, 1482. Sir William Drury, Marshal of Berwick-upon-Tweed, before 1564. Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford, appointed 1564 Sir George Bowes of Streatlam, County Durham, Marshal of Berwick.
In 1568 he escorted Queen of Scots, from Carlisle to Bolton Castle. His sister Margery married John Knox. Images of Berwick upon Tweed Castle Berwick Castle The David & Charles Book of Castles, by Plantagenet Somerset Fry, David & Charles, 1980. ISBN 0-7153-7976-3 The History of Scotland, by John Hill Burton, Edinburgh, 1874: vols: iv. p. 364–5, v. pps: 68, 71, 73, 115, 120, 257, 365, for Sir William Drury John Knox, by Lord Eustace Percy, London, 1937, p.165
Hertfordshire is one of the home counties in the south east of England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, Buckinghamshire to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region. In 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 in an area of 634 square miles; the four towns that have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents are Hemel Hempstead, Watford and St Albans. Hertford, once the main market town for the medieval agricultural county, derives its name from a hart and a ford, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and flag. Elevations are high for the region in the west; these reach over 800 feet in the western projection around Tring, in the Chilterns. The county's borders are the watersheds of the Colne and Lea. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is agricultural and much is protected by green belt; the county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, to Leavesden Film Studios.
The volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved conservation areas in St Albans which includes some remains of Verulamium, the town where in the 3rd century an early recorded British martyrdom took place. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire is well-served with railways, providing good access to London; the largest sector of the economy of the county is in services. Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from meaning deer crossing; the name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems. There is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period, it was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age.
This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, the aboriginal Catuvellauni submitted and adapted to the Roman life. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire as the yellow field to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire. With the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom; this short lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire to the control of the West Anglians of Mercia. The region became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms. A century William of Normandy received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at Berkhamsted, resulting in a new Anglicised title of William the Conqueror before embarking on an uncontested entry into London and his coronation at Westminster.
Hertfordshire was used for some of the new Norman castles at Bishop's Stortford, at King's Langley, a staging post between London and the royal residence of Berkhamsted. The Domesday Book recorded the county as having nine hundreds. Tring and Danais became one—Dacorum—from Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a Viking not Saxon past; the other seven were Braughing, Cashio, Hertford and Odsey. The first shooting-down of a zeppelin over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley; as London grew, Hertfordshire became conveniently close to the English capital. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire came during the Industrial Revolution, after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903, Letchworth became the world's first garden city and Stevenage became the first town to redevelop under the New Towns Act 1946. From the 1920s until the late 1980s, the town of Borehamwood was home to one of the major British film studio complexes, including the MGM-British Studios. Many well-known films were made here including the first three Star Wars movies.
The studios used the name of Elstree. American director Stanley Kubrick not only used to shoot in those studios but lived in the area until his death. Big Brother UK and Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? have been filmed there. EastEnders is filmed at Elstree. Hertfordshire has seen development at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden. On 17 October 2000, the Hatfield rail crash killed four people with over 70 injured; the crash exposed the shortcomings of Railtrack, which saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people.