Oliver St. John Gogarty
Oliver Joseph St John Gogarty was an Irish poet, otolaryngologist, athlete and well-known conversationalist. He served as the inspiration for Buck Mulligan in James Joyces novel Ulysses, Gogarty was born 17 August 1878 in Rutland Square, the eldest child of Henry Gogarty, a well-to-do Dublin physician, and Margaret Gogarty, the daughter of a Galway mill owner. In 1887 Gogartys father died of a burst appendix, and Gogarty was sent to Mungret College, a boarding school near Limerick. He was unhappy in his new school, and the year he transferred to Stonyhurst College in Lancashire, England. Gogarty returned to Ireland in 1896 and boarded at Clongowes Wood College while studying for examinations with the Royal University of Ireland. He was an athlete, in England he had briefly played for the Preston North End FC Reserve. He played on Clongowess soccer and cricket elevens, as one of Dublins medicos, Gogarty was known to be fond of public pranks and midnight carousing in the Kips, Dublins red-light district.
He had a talent for humorous and bawdy verse, which made the rounds through the city. He enjoyed a highly successful cycling career before being banned from the tracks in 1901 for bad language and he became interested in Irish nationalism after meeting Arthur Griffith in 1899, and contributed propaganda pieces to The United Irishman over subsequent years. A serious interest in poetry and literature began to manifest itself during his years at Trinity. In 1900 he made the acquaintance of W. B, yeats and of George Moore and began to frequent Dublin literary circles. He formed friendships with other up-and-coming young poets, such as Seamus OSullivan. In 1904 he spent two terms at Oxford to compete for the Newdigate Prize, but lost to G. K. A, the future Bishop of Chichester, who became a friend and frequent correspondent over the next few years. Upon returning to Dublin in the summer of 1904, Gogarty made arrangements to rent the famous Martello Tower in Sandycove, the primary goal of this scheme, as described by Gogarty in a letter to G. K. A.
Bell, was to house the Bard, who was without money, the two friends quarrelled in August and Joyce either failed to move in or left shortly after doing so. Joyce briefly took up residence in the Tower the following month, together with Gogarty and his Oxford friend Samuel Chenevix Trench, forty years in America, Gogarty would attribute Joyces abrupt departure to his and S. C. Trenchs midnight antics with a loaded revolver, Gogarty made use of the Martello Tower during the following year as a writing retreat and party venue, and officially held the lease until 1925. In 1904 and 1905 Gogarty published several poems in the London publication The Venture
Consuelo Vanderbilt Balsan was a member of the prominent American Vanderbilt family. Her marriage to His Grace Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough became an emblem of the socially advantageous. Consuelo and her friends were the inspiration for Edith Whartons unfinished novel The Buccaneers, Consuelo Vanderbilt was largely dominated by her mother, who was determined that her daughter would make a great marriage like that of her famous namesake. In her autobiography, Consuelo Vanderbilt described how she was required to wear a steel rod and she was educated entirely at home by governesses and tutors and learned foreign languages at an early age. Her mother was a disciplinarian and whipped her with a riding crop for minor infractions. When, as a teenager, Consuelo objected to the clothing her mother had selected for her, Alva told her that I do the thinking, like her godmother, Consuelo Vanderbilt attracted numerous title-bearing suitors anxious to trade social position for cash.
Her mother reportedly received at least five proposals for her hand, Consuelo was allowed to consider the proposal of just one of the men, Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg, but she developed an instant aversion to him. None of the others, was enough for Alva Vanderbilt. She came to embody the slim, tight look that was in vogue during the Edwardian era, lady Paget, always short of money, soon became a sort of international marital agent, introducing eligible American heiresses to British noblemen. Unfortunately Consuelo Vanderbilt had no interest in the duke, being engaged to an American. Her mother cajoled, wheedled and then, Alva made an astonishing recovery from her entirely phantom illness, and when the wedding took place, Consuelo stood at the altar reportedly weeping behind her veil. The duke, for his part, gave up the woman he loved back in England. Consuelos father built a mansion for her in London, Sunderland House in Curzon Street, Consuelo Vanderbilt was married at St. Thomas Episcopal Church, New York City, on 6 November 1895, to Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough.
They had two sons, John Albert William Spencer-Churchill, Marquess of Blandford and Lord Ivor Spencer-Churchill, the new duchess was adored by the poor and less fortunate tenants on her husbands estate, whom she visited and to whom she provided assistance. She became involved with philanthropic projects and was particularly interested in those that affected mothers. She was a success with royalty and the aristocracy of Britain. However, given the match between the duke and his wife, it was only a matter of time before their marriage was in name only. The Marlboroughs separated in 1906, divorced in 1921, and the marriage was annulled, at the dukes request and with Consuelos assent, I forced my daughter to marry the duke, Alva Belmont told an investigator, adding, I have always had absolute power over my daughter
Thomas Westropp Bennett
Thomas William Westropp Bennett was an Irish politician and public figure in Irish agriculture. One of his brothers, George C. Bennett was Cumann na Gaedhael/Fine Gael TD for Limerick County. The Bennetts were an old Limerick family of Protestant gentry who had been resident in Limerick since the 1670s and his father was a Church of Ireland member, but the children followed the Catholic faith of their mother. An ancestor, Hugh Massy, 2nd Lord Massy of Duntrileague, had sat in Henry Grattans Irish Parliament in the 1780s in both the Irish House of Commons and, the House of Lords. The family had been active at a county level, including a Lord Mayor of Limerick, several Freemen of Limerick. Westropp Bennett was educated at Kilkenny College and the Queens Service Academy in Dublin but, did not attend Trinity College, Dublin where many of his ancestors had studied. On completion of his education, he returned to the Bennett familys extensive landholdings in Limerick and he was a member of the District Council for Kilmallock.
A noted agricultural expert, he was on the board of the Irish Agricultural Organisation Society from 1912 where he remained until 1927 with the noted reformer Sir Horace Plunkett. He was elected to the Irish Free State Seanad in 1922 for Cumann na nGaedheal, Bennett, a Teachta Dála in Fine Gael and Senator. He played a significant role internationally, leading trade delegations to Berlin, Istanbul, de Valera shunned the British link, so Westropp Bennetts role was very important in promoting Ireland as the sole holder of high office in Ireland to appear at these events. Always active in Cumann na nGaedheal/Fine Gael, he was instrumental in chairing talks between Eoin ODuffy and W. T. Cosgrave in the summer of 1933 in Dublin which led to the founding of Fine Gael. He became Chairman of the Irish Agricultural Wholesale Society in 1945 remaining at its helm until his death in February 1962, a keen huntsman, he remained active in the Country Limerick Foxhounds all his life, and enjoyed shooting, the cinema, horse racing and the Irish language.
He married twice, his first wife, Esther Moreton Macdonald, was a Scottish aristocrat and her family home was in the baronial Largie Castle in Argyll where her father were the local lairds. She was a debutante in 1892 when she was presented at the Royal Court to Queen Victoria and they married in 1898 when her dowry was £1200 a year, which helped finance his campaigns. In April 1923, he married Miss Lila Hapell, daughter of William Alexander Happell and she had been governess to his niece. His son, Liam Westropp Bennett, stood as a Fine Gael candidate in 1954 and his obituary in The Irish Times said that he was from a prominent and popular family in the south of Ireland who had rendered much service during the turbulent early years of the Irish State. Dictionary of Irish Biography – entry on Thomas Westropp Bennett http, //dib. cambridge. org/viewReadPage. do. articleId=a9225
Alva Belmont, née Alva Erskine Smith, and known as Alva Vanderbilt from 1875 to 1896, was a prominent multi-millionaire American socialite and a major figure in the womens suffrage movement. Known for having an aristocratic manner that many people, she was noted for her energy, strong opinions. She was married first to William Kissam Vanderbilt, with whom she had three children, and secondly to Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont. Alva Erskine Smith was born on January 17,1853 at 201 Government Street in Mobile, Alabama to Murray Forbes Smith, a commission merchant, Murray Smith was the son of George Smith and Delia Forbes of Dumfries, Virginia. Phoebe Desha was the daughter of US Representative Robert Desha and Eleanor Shelby, Alva was one of six children. Two of her sisters and Eleanor, both died as children before she was born and her brother, Murray Forbes Smith, Jr. died in 1857 and was buried in Magnolia Cemetery in Mobile. Two other sisters, Armide Vogel Smith and Mary Virginia Jennie Smith, were her siblings to survive into adulthood.
Jennie first married the brother of Alvas childhood best friend, Consuelo Yznaga, following a divorce from Fernando Yznaga in 1886, Jennie remarried to William George Tiffany. As a child, Alva summered with her parents in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1859 the Smiths left Mobile and relocated to New York City, where they briefly settled in Madison Square. When Murray went to Liverpool, England, to conduct his business, her mother, Phoebe Smith, after the Civil War, the Smith family returned to New York, where her mother died in 1869. At a party for one of William Henry Vanderbilts daughters, Smiths best friend, Consuelo Yznaga introduced her to William Kissam Vanderbilt, on April 20,1875, William and Alva were married at Calvary Church in New York City. The couple would have three children, Consuelo Vanderbilt was born on March 2,1877, followed by William Kissam Vanderbilt II on March 2,1878, and Harold Stirling Vanderbilt on July 6,1884. Alva would maneuver Consuelo into marrying Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough on November 6,1895, the marriage would be annulled much later, at the Dukes request and Consuelos assent, in May 1921.
The annulment was fully supported by Alva, who testified that she had forced Consuelo into the marriage, by this time Consuelo and her mother enjoyed a closer, easier relationship. Consuelo went on to marry Jacques Balsan, a French aeronautics pioneer, William Kissam II would become president of the New York Central Railroad Company on his fathers death in 1920. Harold Stirling graduated from Harvard Law School in 1910, joined his father at the New York Central Railroad Company. He remained the only representative of the Vanderbilt family in the New York Central Railroad after his brothers death, serving as a director. Supposedly, this forced Astor to come calling, in order to secure an invitation to the ball for her daughter, the chief effect of the ball was to raise the bar on society entertainments in New York to heights of extravagance and expense that had not been previously seen
Parliament of the United Kingdom
It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and its territories. Its head is the Sovereign of the United Kingdom and its seat is the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the boroughs of the British capital, the parliament is bicameral, consisting of an upper house and a lower house. The Sovereign forms the third component of the legislature, prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords performed a judicial role through the Law Lords. The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections held at least every five years. The two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster in London, most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
The UK parliament and its institutions have set the pattern for many throughout the world. However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it with reference to a rather than a parliament. In theory, the UKs supreme legislative power is vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown normally acts on the advice of the Prime Minister, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created in 1801, by the merger of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union. The principle of responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century—the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice. Members of the House of Commons were elected in an electoral system. Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, many small constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, were controlled by members of the House of Lords, who could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters. During the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, No longer dependent on the Lords for their seats, MPs grew more assertive.
The supremacy of the British House of Commons was established in the early 20th century, in 1909, the Commons passed the so-called Peoples Budget, which made numerous changes to the taxation system which were detrimental to wealthy landowners. The House of Lords, which consisted mostly of powerful landowners, on the basis of the Budgets popularity and the Lords consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament Bill, in the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill. However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, the Government of Ireland Act 1920 created the parliaments of Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland and reduced the representation of both parts at Westminster
General Sir Bryan Thomas Mahon KCB KCVO PC DSO was an Irish born general of the British Army and Senator of the Irish Free State. Mahon was born at Belleville, County Galway on 2 April 1862 and he became a lieutenant in the 8th Hussars in 1883. He served in Sudan in the Dongola Expedition in 1896 as Staff officer to Sir Herbert Kitchener, and was present at the Battle of Ferkeh and the operations at Hafir. During the Second Boer War Colonel Mahon led a flying column 2,000 strong, and consisting mainly of South African volunteers from Kimberley, the town, which had been under siege for seven months by Boer forces, was facing starvation. Mahon was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath for his services during the operations and he was briefly Governor of Khartoum in 1903. During the First World War he commanded the 2nd Cavalry Brigade, the 10th Division landed at Suvla Bay on the night of 6–7 August 1915. In September he moved with the Division to be head of the British Salonika Army to support Serbia at the onset of the Macedonian campaign, in 1916 General Mahon took up command of the Western Frontier Force in the Egyptian Expeditionary Force.
He was appointed as the Commander-in-Chief, Ireland in 1916 in the lead up to the Anglo-Irish war and he retired from the British Army at the end of August 1921. After his retirement he was elected as a council member of the short-lived Senate of Southern Ireland. He was appointed to Seanad Éireann by the President of the Executive Council, William T. Cosgrave and he was elected to the Seanad in 1928, and served until his death in 1930. Mahon was appointed a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society in May 1902, photograph of Mahon The Relief of Mafeking by Filson Young at Project Gutenberg, by Filson Young at The Project Gutenberg
Marquess of Lansdowne
Marquess of Lansdowne is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain created in 1784, and held by the head of the Petty-FitzMaurice family. The first Marquess served as Prime Minister of Great Britain, in 1751 he succeeded to the estates of his maternal uncle Henry Petty-FitzMaurice, Earl of Shelburne, and assumed by Act of Parliament the surname of Petty in addition to FitzMaurice. The same year he was created Baron Dunkeron and Viscount FitzMaurice in the Peerage of Ireland, in 1753 the earldom held by his uncle was revived when he was made Earl of Shelburne, in the County of Wexford, in the Peerage of Ireland. He represented Wycombe in the House of Commons as a Whig, in 1760 he was created Baron Wycombe, of Chepping Wycombe in the County of Buckingham, in the Peerage of Great Britain, which gave him an automatic seat in the British House of Lords. The Earl of Shelburne was succeeded by his eldest son William Petty-FitzMaurice and he was a prominent statesman and served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1782 to 1783.
The Prime Ministers brother, The Hon. Thomas FitzMaurice of Cliveden, was a fellow Member of Parliament and it was reported in 2012 that Thomas FitzMaurices direct descendants included brothers Lieut. However, he is known to history under his former title of Earl of Shelburne. He sat as Whig Member of Parliament for Wycombe between 1786 and 1805 and he was succeeded by his son from his first marriage to Lady Sophia Carteret, the second Marquess. His son, John Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 2nd Marquess of Lansdowne, died childless and was succeeded by his half-brother and he was the son of the first Marquesss second marriage to Lady Louisa FitzPatrick. Known as Lord Henry Petty from 1784 to 1809, he was one of the most influential Whig politicians of the first half of the 19th century and he twice declined to become Prime Minister and refused the offer of a dukedom from Queen Victoria in 1857. In 1818 Lord Lansdowne succeeded his cousin as fourth Earl of Kerry and his eldest son William Petty FitzMaurice, Earl of Kerry, was Member of Parliament for Calne but predeceased his father, without male issue.
Lord Lansdowne was therefore succeeded by his son, the fourth Marquess. He was succeeded by his eldest son from his second marriage, like his grandfather, he was a prominent statesman and had an equally long ministerial career. In 1895 he succeeded his mother as ninth Lord Nairne and his eldest son, the sixth Marquess, sat as Unionist Member of Parliament for West Derbyshire from 1908 to 1918 and was a Senator of the Irish Free State in 1922. On his death in 1936 he was succeeded by his second but eldest surviving son, the seventh Marquess, who was killed in action in 1944 during the Second World War, unmarried. As the third and youngest brother, Lord Edward Norman Petty-Fitzmaurice, had killed in action only a week before. Lord Lansdowne was survived in the titles by his first cousin. He was the son of Major Lord Charles George Francis Mercer Nairne Petty-Fitzmaurice, born George John Charles Mercer Nairne, he assumed by Decree of the Lord Lyon the additional surnames of Petty-Fitzmaurice in 1947
James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn
Born at Seymour Place, Abercorn was the son of James Hamilton, Viscount Hamilton, himself the eldest son of John Hamilton, 1st Marquess of Abercorn. His mother, was the daughter of the Hon. John Douglas, himself the son of James Douglas. His father died when Abercorn was only three, in 1818, aged seven, he succeeded his grandfather in his titles and estates. He was educated at Harrow School and Christ Church, Oxford, in 1856, he received an Honorary Doctorate of Civil Laws from the University of Oxford. On 12 December 1844, Lord Abercorn was made a Knight of the Garter at the young age of 33, becoming on 13 November of same year Lord Lieutenant of Donegal. On 25 February 1846 he was appointed a Privy Counsellor and Groom of the Stole to Prince Albert, and remained a prominent figure in the royal court for the next two decades. In 1866, he was appointed Viceroy of Ireland, and two was created Marquess of Hamilton and Duke of Abercorn, resigning shortly after Gladstone won the 1868 general election.
He was reappointed to the post in 1874, and the Duke served as Viceroy until his resignation in 1876, in 1874, he was chosen Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, a post he held until his death. Abercorn was Envoy-Extraordinary for the investiture of King Umberto I of Italy with the Order of the Garter on 2 March 1878 and he was elected Chancellor of the University of Ireland in 1881, and died four years at his home of Baronscourt, County Tyrone. He is buried in the cemetery at Baronscourt Parish Church, the burial place of the Dukes of Abercorn. Abercorn married Lady Louisa, second daughter of John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford and they had fourteen children, thirteen of whom survived infancy, Lady Harriet Georgiana Louisa Hamilton, married in 1855 to Thomas George Anson, 2nd Earl of Lichfield. They had eight sons and five daughters, the marriage was annulled in 1883. The Duchess of Abercorn died in March 1905, aged 92, through his son, the 2nd Duke, Abercorn is a great-great-great grandfather of Diana, Princess of Wales.
Through his daughter, Lady Louisa, Abercorn is a great-grandfather of HRH Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, dictionary of National Biography Cooper, Thompson. The Official Baronage of England 1066-1885, Longmans, and Co.1886. Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Abercorn Portraits of James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn at the National Portrait Gallery, London
Republic of Ireland
Ireland, known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland.
The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%
Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry
The Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry was a light infantry regiment of the British Army that existed from 1881 until 1958, serving in the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II. The former numerical titles of the battalions remained in unofficial usage, 1st Battalion The 43rd Foot was based in Burma when it became the 1st Battalion. In 1882 the unit moved to Bangalore, India, in 1887 the battalion returned home, being based in Parkhurst, England. It moved to Kinsale, Ireland in 1893 and, having based in other parts of Ireland. In December 1899 the Second Boer War began and the 1st Battalion arrived in Southern Africa to take part in it. It saw extensive service in the conflict, including in the relief of the besieged British garrison at Kimberley, the war raged on for a further two years, the regiment saw extensive service for the duration of the conflict. The Oxfordshires returned to the UK in 1902 with the conclusion of the war and it moved to India the following year where it was based until the outbreak of World War I in 1914.
2nd Battalion The 52nd Light Infantry was based in Oxford and this was the 52nd of Waterloo fame who, under the command of Colonel Sir John Colborne, broke a battalion of the Chasseurs of the Imperial Guard. In 1886 it was based in India, where it would remain into the 20th century, in 1903 the battalion returned home and was initially based in Chatham and in 1907 moved to Tidworth, Wiltshire. The battalion was stationed at Albuhera barracks, when World War I commenced, during the war, the Ox and Bucks raised 12 battalions, six of which fought on the Western Front, two in Italy, two in Macedonia and one in Mesopotamia. The regiment won 59 battle honours and four theatre honours,5,878 officers and men of the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry lost their lives during the First World War. The battalion took part in the first British battle of the war, at Mons, where the British defeated the German forces that they had encountered on 23 August. The 2nd Ox and Bucks took part in all the battles of the First Battle of Ypres that saw the heart ripped out of the old Regular Army.
In the First Battle of Ypres the 2nd Ox and Bucks first engagement with the enemy was on 20 October in an attack on the Passchendaele ridge, the battalion had heavy casualties,4 officers killed and 5 wounded and 143 other ranks killed or wounded. On 11 November the Germans made another attempt to capture Ypres, First Ypres was the last major battle of 1914. In 1915 trench warfare commenced with both sides developing impregnable defences, leading to casualties in return for minimal gains. The 2nd Ox and Bucks were involved in fighting at Richebourg lAvoue on 15–16 May. The 2nd Ox and Bucks and other battalions of the regiment saw action at the Battle of Loos, 2nd Ox, the 2nd Battalion took part in the subsequent attack against the Hohenzollern Redoubt
Normandy is one of the regions of France, roughly corresponding to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Administratively, Normandy is divided into five departments, Eure, Orne and it covers 30,627 km², forming roughly 5% of the territory of France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France, Normans is the name given to the inhabitants of Normandy, and the region is the homeland of the Norman language. The historical region of Normandy comprised the region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the départements, or departments of Mayenne. For a century and a following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman. Archaeological finds, such as paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times. Celts invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC, when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy was achieved by the methods, Roman roads.
Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy, in the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates, Christianity began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east, while the Saxons subjugated the Norman coast, the Roman Emperor withdrew from most of Normandy. As early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis, the Vikings started to raid the Seine Valley during the middle of the 9th century. As early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, after attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagnes empire to take northern France. The fiefdom of Normandy was created for the Norwegian Viking leader Hrólfr Ragnvaldsson, Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte.
In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo legally gained the territory which he, the name Normandy reflects Rollos Viking origins. The descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and they became the Normans – a Norman-speaking mixture of Saxons and indigenous Franks and Celts. Besides the Norman conquest of England and the subsequent conquests of Wales and Ireland, Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville, Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the Norman conquest of southern Italy and Crusades. They carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states of Asia Minor, the 14th century Norman explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands