Francis, Duke of Teck
Francis, Duke of Teck GCB GCVO, known as Count Francis von Hohenstein until 1863, was an Austrian-born nobleman who married into the British royal family. He was the father of Queen Mary, thus a great-grandfather of the current British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. Francis held the Austrian title of Count of Hohenstein, the German titles of Prince and Duke of Teck, was given the style of Serene Highness in 1863, he was granted the British style of Highness in 1887. Francis was born on 28 August 1837 in Esseg and christened Franz Paul Karl Ludwig Alexander, his father was Duke Alexander of the son of Duke Louis of Württemberg. His mother was Countess Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde; the marriage was morganatic, meaning that Francis had no succession rights to the Kingdom of Württemberg. His title at birth was Count Francis von Hohenstein, after his mother was created Countess von Hohenstein in her own right by Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria, he was educated at the Imperial Austrian Academy of Engineers from 1849 to 1853 and joined the Imperial Austrian Army as a lieutenant in the 1st Lancers in 1854.
He transferred to the Guard Squadron in 1858 and became a Captain in the 7th Hussars. He served as Orderly Officer under Count von Wimpffen in Italy during the Austro-Sardinian War and was awarded the gold medal for distinguished service at the Battle of Solferino and the bronze war medal, 1859. In 1863, Francis was created Prince of Teck, with the style of Serene Highness, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, he served during the Austro-Prussian War and retired from the Austrian Army when he married and moved to England in 1866. As the product of a morganatic marriage, without succession rights to the throne, Francis was not acceptable as a husband for princesses in most of the European royal houses, he further had little income in comparison with other European princes. He thus married into a richer family, by marrying his father's third cousin Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, the younger daughter of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, a granddaughter of George III, known as'Fat Mary' because of her wide girth.
The couple married on 12 June 1866 at Kew, in Surrey. They had three sons: Princess Victoria Mary of Teck. Prince Adolphus of Teck. Prince Francis of Teck. Prince Alexander of Teck, he was created Duke of Teck by the King of Württemberg in 1871. Teck was made Honorary Colonel of the 1st City of London Artillery in 1867 and Honorary Colonel of 49th Middlesex Rifle Volunteers on 16 August 1876, he was attached to the staff of British General Sir Garnet Wolseley during the Egyptian campaign of 1882. He received the silver medal for the Battle of Tel-el-Kebir, the Khedive's Star, the Order of Osmanieh, first class. On his return from Egypt he was gazetted a Colonel in the British Army; the Duke of Teck was made Colonel à la suite of the 25th Dragoons "Queen Olga" on 6 March 1889, a Generalmajor in the German Army on 18 October 1891. He was made a supernumerary Major-General in the British Army in July 1893 and a Generalleutnant in the German Army on 18 April 1895; because Francis had no inheritance, the couple lived on Mary Adelaide's Parliamentary allowance of £5,000 per annum, supplemented by income from her mother, the Duchess of Cambridge.
Mary Adelaide's requests to her cousin, Queen Victoria, for more funds were met with refusal. The Duke and Duchess lived beyond their means. In 1883, the Tecks fled the UK to continental Europe, where they stayed with relatives in Florence and Germany, they returned to the UK in 1885. With an Order in Council on 1 July 1887, Queen Victoria granted Francis the style of Highness, as a gift to celebrate her Golden Jubilee. Despite this, the Tecks were still seen with little status or wealth, their fortunes improved when their only daughter, Princess Victoria Mary of Teck became engaged to the second-in-line to the British throne, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence. There was initial opposition to the match from the Duke of Clarence's parents, the Prince and Princess of Wales: Arthur Balfour wrote to Lord Salisbury in 1890 that "he Teck girl they won't have because they hate Teck and because the vision of Princess Mary haunting Marlborough House makes the Prince of Wales ill." The Queen gave her official consent to the engagement on 12 December 1891.
The death of the Duke of Clarence only six weeks looked like a cruel blow. However, Princess May consented when the Duke of Clarence's brother, Prince George, Duke of York, proposed to her instead. In 1897, the Duchess of Teck died, he continued to live at White Lodge, but did not carry out any Royal duties. In Who's Who, the Duke of Teck listed his recreations as "a little of all", he was President of the Royal Botanic Society and a member of numerous clubs, including White's, the Marlborough Club, the Bachelors' Club, the Army and Navy Club, the United Service Club, the Cavalry Club, the Naval and Military Club, the Travellers' Club, the St George's Club, the Hurling
Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria
Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria was the only son and third child of Emperor Franz Joseph I and Elisabeth of Bavaria. He was heir apparent to the throne of Austria-Hungary from birth. In 1889, he died in a suicide pact with his mistress, Baroness Mary Vetsera, at the Mayerling hunting lodge; the ensuing scandal made international headlines. He was named after the first Habsburg King of Germany, Rudolf I, who assumed the throne in 1273. Rudolf was born at Schloss Laxenburg, a castle near Vienna, as the son of Emperor Franz Joseph I and Empress Elisabeth. Influenced by his tutor Ferdinand von Hochstetter, Rudolf became interested in natural sciences, starting a mineral collection at an early age. After his death, large portions of his mineral collection came into the possession of the University for Agriculture in Vienna. In 1877 the Count of Bombelles was master of the young prince. Bombelles was the former custodian of his aunt Empress Charlotte of Mexico. Rudolf was raised together with his older sister Gisela and the two were close.
At the age of six, Rudolf was separated from his sister as he began his education to become a future emperor. This did not change their relationship and Gisela remained close to him until she left Vienna upon her marriage to Prince Leopold of Bavaria. In contrast with his conservative father, Rudolf held liberal views, that were closer to those of his mother, his relationship with her was, at times, strained. In Vienna, on 10 May 1881, Rudolf married Princess Stéphanie of Belgium, a daughter of King Leopold II of the Belgians, at the Augustinian's Church in Vienna. Although their marriage was a happy one, by the time their only child, the Archduchess Elisabeth, was born on 2 September 1883, the couple had drifted apart, he found solace in drink and other female companionship. Rudolf started having many affairs, wanted to write to Pope Leo XIII about the possibility of annulling his marriage to Stéphanie, but the Emperor forbade it. Stephanie was unable to have other children due to being infected with syphilis.
In 1886, Rudolf bought Mayerling. In late 1888, the 30-year-old crown prince met the 17-year-old Baroness Marie Vetsera, known by the more fashionable Anglophile name Mary, began an affair with her. On 30 January 1889, he and Vetsera were discovered dead in the lodge as a result of an apparent murder–suicide; as suicide would prevent him from being given a church burial, Rudolf was declared to have been in a state of "mental unbalance", he was buried in the Imperial Crypt of the Capuchin Church in Vienna. Mary's body was smuggled out of Mayerling in the middle of the night and secretly buried in the village cemetery at Heiligenkreuz; the Emperor had Mayerling converted into a penitential convent of Carmelite nuns and endowed a chantry. Prayers are still said daily by the nuns for the repose of Rudolf's soul; the current Archduke Rudolf, son of Archduke Carl Ludwig of Austria, has disputed this version of events, asserting that Rudolf was in fact assassinated by Freemasons. However, Vetsera's private letters were discovered in a safe deposit box in an Austrian bank in 2015, they revealed that she was preparing to commit suicide alongside Rudolf, out of "love".
Rudolf's death plunged his mother into despair. She wore black or pearl grey, the colours of mourning, for the rest of her life and spent more and more time away from the imperial court in Vienna. Empress Elisabeth was murdered while abroad in Geneva, Switzerland in 1898 by an Italian anarchist, Luigi Lucheni. Politically, Rudolf's death left Franz Joseph without a direct male heir. Franz-Joseph's younger brother, Archduke Karl Ludwig, was next in line to the Austro-Hungarian throne, though it was falsely reported that he had renounced his succession rights. In any case, his death in 1896 from typhoid made his eldest son, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the new heir presumptive. In 1914, Franz Ferdinand's assassination precipitated World War I. Emperor Franz-Joseph was succeeded by his grandnephew, Karl; the demands of American President Wilson forced Emperor Karl to renounce involvement in state affairs in Vienna in early November 1918. As a result, the empire ceased to exist and a republic came into being without revolution.
Karl and his family went into exile in Switzerland after spending a short time at Castle Eckarstau. Mayerling, a film directed by Anatole Litvak, with Charles Boyer and Danielle Darrieux, based on a novel by Claude Anet. Sarajevo, a film directed; the musical Marinka, with book by George Marion Jr. and Karl Farkas, lyrics by George Marion, Jr. music by Emmerich Kalman. Rudolf appears in the Austrian film Der Engel mit der Posaune and in the British remake of that film, The Angel with the Trumpet. Mayerling, a 1968 film, starring Omar Sharif as Crown Prince Rudolf, Catherine Deneuve as Mary with James Mason as Kaiser Franz Josef and Ava Gardner as Empress Elisabeth. Japanese Takarazuka Revue's "Utakata no Koi"/"Ephemeral Love", based on the 1968 film. Requiem for a Crown Prince, one-hour episode of the British documentary/drama series Fall of Eagles, directed by James Furman and written by David Turner, tracks in detail the events of 30 January 1889 and the following few days at Mayerling. Miklós Jancsó's 1975 film Vizi Privati, Publiche Virtù, a reinterpretation in which the lovers and their friends are murdered by imperial authorities for treason and immorality.
Kenneth MacMillan's Mayerling. Rudolf appears as a character in the musical Elisabeth Rudolf appears as a character
Royal Warrant of Appointment (United Kingdom)
Royal warrants of appointment have been issued since the 15th century to those who supply goods or services to a royal court or certain royal personages. The warrant enables the supplier to advertise the fact that they supply to the royal family, so lending prestige to the brand and/or supplier. In the United Kingdom, grants are made by the three most senior members of the British royal family to companies or tradesmen who supply goods and services to individuals in the family. Suppliers continue to charge for their goods and services – a warrant does not imply that they provide goods and services free of charge; the warrant is advertised on billboards, letter-heads and products by displaying the coat of arms or the heraldic badge of the royal personage as appropriate. Underneath the coat of arms will appear the phrase "By Appointment to..." followed by the title and name of the royal customer, what goods are provided. No other details of what is supplied may be given; the granting of royal patronage or royal charter was practised across Europe from the early Medieval period.
However, royal patronage was granted to those working in the arts. Royal charters began to replace royal patronage in around the 12th century; the earliest charters were granted to the trade guilds, with the first recorded British royal charter being granted to the Weavers’ Company in 1155 by Henry II of England. By the 15th century, the Royal Warrant of Appointment replaced the Royal Charter in England, providing a more formalised system of recognition. Under a Royal Warrant, the Lord Chamberlain appointed tradespeople as suppliers to the Royal household; the printer William Caxton was one of the first recipients of a Royal Warrant when he became the King's printer in 1476. One of the early monarchs to grant a warrant was King Charles II of England. A Royal warrant sent a strong public signal that the holder supplied goods of a quality acceptable for use in the Royal household, by inference, inspired the confidence of the general public. At a time when product quality was a public issue, a royal warrant imbued suppliers with an independent sign of value.
By the 18th century, mass market manufacturers such as Josiah Wedgwood and Matthew Boulton, recognised the value of supplying royalty at prices well below cost, for the sake of the publicity and kudos it generated. Royal Warrants became keenly sought-after and manufacturers began displaying the royal arms on their premises and labelling. By 1840, the rules surrounding the display of royal arms were tightened to prevent fraudulent claims. By the early 19th century, during the reign of Queen Victoria, the number of Royal Warrants granted rose with the granting of 2,000 warrants. Since 1885, an annual list of warrant holders has been published in the London Gazette. Food and drink manufacturers have been some of the most important warrant holder suppliers to the palace. High profile food and beverage suppliers with a Royal Warrant include Cadbury. Non-food suppliers with Royal Warrants include: Aston Martin. Warrants are granted for the Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh and the Prince of Wales. Warrants issued by the Queen Mother automatically expired no than 2007, five years after her death.
Royal Warrants are only awarded to tradesmen, such as carpenters, cabinet makers, dry-cleaners chimney sweeps. Some are well-known companies; the professions, employment agencies, party planners, the media, government departments, "places of refreshment or entertainment" do not qualify. Today, some 850 individuals and companies, including a few non-UK companies, hold more than 1,100 warrants to the British Royal Family; the Royal Warrant signifies there is a satisfactory trade relation in place between the grantor and the company and that the goods nominated are suitable for supply to the Royal household. Within the company, there is a nominated person called the grantee; that person is in all respects responsible for all aspects of the Royal Warrant. It takes at least five years of supplying goods or services to the member of the Royal Family before a company is eligible to have its application considered for recommendation; that application is presented to the Royal Household and goes to the buyer who makes its recommendation for inclusion.
It goes in front of the Royal Household Warrants Committee, chaired by the Lord Chamberlain, which decides whether to accept the recommendation. It goes to the grantor, who signs it; the grantor is empowered to reverse the Committee's decision, therefore the final decision to accept or withhold a grant is a personal one. Some Royal Warrants have been held for more than a hundred years. Goods need not be for the use of the grantor. For example, cigarettes were only bought for the use of guests of the Royal Family, but these Warrants were cancelled in 1999 as a matter of public policy. For business, the granting of a Royal Warrant is a huge boost, because royal approval may be displayed in public with the coat of royal arms of the grantor, indicating that their services or products are of high quality. Most Warrant holders are members of the Royal Warrant Holders Association, which liaises with the palace, its secretary, Richard Peck, is a former submarine commander. Royal warrant of appointment, warrant to tradespeople who supply goods or services to a royal court Royal charter, a formal document issued by a monarch to es
Amadeo I of Spain
Amadeo I, was an Italian prince who reigned as King of Spain from 1870 to 1873. The only King of Spain from the House of Savoy, he was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta, but was appointed King of Spain from 1870 to 1873, he was elected by the Cortes as Spain's monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabella II, was sworn in the following year. Amadeo's reign was fraught with growing republicanism, Carlist rebellions in the north, the Cuban independence movement, he abdicated and returned to Italy in 1873, the First Spanish Republic was declared as a result. Granted the hereditary title of Duke of Aosta in the year of his birth, he founded the Aosta branch of Italy's royal House of Savoy, junior in agnatic descent to the branch descended from King Umberto I that reigned in Italy until 1900, but senior to the branch of the Dukes of Genoa. Prince Amedeo of Savoy was born in Turin, he was of Archduchess Adelaide of Austria.
He was styled the Duke of Aosta from birth. Entering the army as captain in 1859 he fought through the Third Italian War of Independence in 1866 with the rank of major-general, leading his brigade into action at the Battle of Custoza and being wounded at Monte Torre. In 1868, after his marriage, he was created vice admiral of the Italian navy, but this position ended when he ascended the Spanish throne. In 1867 his father yielded to the entreaties of parliamentary deputy Francisco Cassins, on 30 May of that year, Amedeo was married to Donna Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo; the King opposed the match on the grounds that her family was of insufficient rank, as well as his hopes for his son's marriage to a German princess. Despite her princely title, Donna Maria Vittoria was not of royal birth, belonging rather to the Piedmontese nobility, she was, the sole heir of her father's vast fortune, which subsequent Dukes of Aosta inherited, thereby obtaining wealth independent of their dynastic appanage and allowances from Italy's kings.
The wedding day of Prince Amedeo and Donna Maria Vittoria was marred by the death of a stationmaster, crushed under the wheels of the honeymoon train. In March 1870, the Duchess appealed to the King to remonstrate with his son for marital infidelities that caused her hurt and embarrassment, but the King wrote in reply that, while understanding her feelings, he considered that she had no right to dictate her husband's behaviour and that her jealousy was unbecoming. After the Spanish revolution deposed Isabella II, the new Cortes decided to reinstate the monarchy under a new dynasty; the Duke of Aosta was elected King as Amadeus on 16 November 1870. He swore to uphold the constitution in Madrid on 2 January 1871; the election of the new King coincided with the assassination of his main backer. After that, Amadeo had to deal with difficult situations, with unstable Spanish politics, republican conspiracies, Carlist uprisings, separatism in Cuba, same-party disputes, fugitive governments and assassination attempts.
He could count on the support of only the progressive party, whose leaders were trading off in the government thanks to parliamentary majority and electoral fraud. The progressives divided into monarchists and constitutionalists, which made the instability worse, in 1872 a violent outburst of interparty conflicts hit a peak. There was a Carlist uprising in the Basque and Catalan regions, after that, republican uprisings happened in cities across the country; the artillery corps of the army went on strike, the government instructed the King to discipline them. Though warned of a plot against his life on 18 August 1872, he refused to take precautions, while returning from Buen Retiro Park to Madrid in company with the queen, was shot at in Via Avenal; the royal carriage was struck by several revolver and rifle bullets, the horses wounded, but its occupants escaped unhurt. A period of calm followed the event. With the possibility of reigning without popular support, Amadeus issued an order against the artillery corps and immediately abdicated from the Spanish throne on 11 February 1873.
At ten o'clock that same night, Spain was proclaimed a republic, at which time Amadeo made an appearance before the Cortes, proclaiming the Spanish people ungovernable. Disgusted, the ex-monarch left Spain and returned to Italy, where he resumed the title of Duke of Aosta; the First Spanish Republic lasted less than two years, in November 1874 Alfonso XII, the son of Isabella II, was proclaimed king, with Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, Spanish intermittent prime minister from 1873 until his assassination in 1897 serving as regent. After the death of his first wife, Amadeo married his French niece, Princess Maria Letizia Bonaparte, daughter of his sister Maria Clotilde and of Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, a nephew of Napoleon I, they had one child, who died of the flu during the First World War. Amadeo remained in Turin, Italy until his death on 18 January 1890, less than two years after marrying his second wife, his friend Puccini composed the famous elegy for string quartet Crisantemi in his memory.
Lake Amadeus in central Australia is named after him, as is the Philippine municipality of Amadeo, Cavite. By Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo: Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta Marshal of Italy married to Princess Hélène of Orléans and had issue. Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin died un
Umberto I of Italy
Umberto I, nicknamed the Good, was the King of Italy from 9 January 1878 until his assassination on 29 July 1900. Umberto's reign saw Italy attempt colonial expansion into the Horn of Africa gaining Eritrea and Somalia despite being defeated by Abyssinia at the Battle of Adowa in 1896. In 1882, he approved the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary, he was loathed in leftist circles because of his conservatism and support of the Bava-Beccaris massacre in Milan. He was hated by anarchists, who attempted an assassination on him during the first year of his reign, he was killed by Gaetano Bresci, two years after the Bava-Beccaris massacre. The son of Victor Emmanuel II and Archduchess Adelaide of Austria, Umberto was born in Turin, capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia, on 14 March 1844, his father's 24th birthday, his education was entrusted to, among others, Massimo Taparelli, marquis d'Azeglio and Pasquale Stanislao Mancini. As Crown Prince, Umberto was distrusted by his father, who gave him no training in politics or constitutional government, he was brought up with no affection or love.
Instead, Umberto was taught to be loyal. The fact that Umberto had to kiss his father's hand before allowed to speak to him both in public and in private right up to his father's death contributed much to the tension between the two. From March 1858, he had a military career in the Sardinian army, beginning with the rank of captain. Umberto took part in the Italian Wars of Independence: he was present at the battle of Solferino in 1859, in 1866 commanded the XVI Division at the Villafranca battle that followed the Italian defeat at Custoza; because of the upheaval the Savoys caused to a number of other royal houses in 1859–60, only a minority of royal families in the 1860s were willing to establish relations with the newly founded Italian royal family. It proved difficult to find any royal bride for either of the sons of king Victor Emmanuel II, their conflict with the papacy did not help these matters. Not many eligible Catholic royal brides were available for young Umberto. At first, Umberto was to marry Archduchess Mathilde of Austria, a scion of a remote sideline of the Austrian imperial house.
On 21 April 1868, Umberto married Margherita Teresa Giovanna, Princess of Savoy. Their only son was prince of Naples. While Umberto was to be described by a modern historian as "a colorless and physically unimpressive man, of limited intellect" Margherita's appearance, cultural interests and strong personality were to enhance the popularity of the monarchy. Umberto kept many mistresses on the side, his favorite mistress, the wife of Duke Litta Visconti-Arese, lived with him at his court as his common-law wife as he forced Queen Margherita to accept her as a lady-in-waiting. In 1876, when the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Salisbury, visited Rome, he reported to London that King Victor Emmanuel II and Crown Prince Umberto were "at war with each other". Upon taking the Crown, Umberto dimissed all of his father's friends from the court, sold off his father's racing horse collection which numbered 1, 000 horses and cut down on extravagances to pay down the debts Victor Emmanuel II had run up; the British historian Denis Mack Smith commented that it was sign of the great wealth of the House of Savoy that Umberto was able to pay off his father's debts without having to ask parliament for assistance.
Like his father, Umberto was a poorly educated man without no intellectual or artistic interests, never read any books, preferred to dictate rather than write letters as he found writing to be too mentally taxing. After meeting him, Queen Victoria described Umberto as having his father's "gruff, abrupt manner of speaking", but without his "rough speech and manners". In contrast, Queen Margherita was read in all the classics of European literature, kept up a salon of intellectuals, despite the fact that French was her first language was praised for her beautiful Italian in her letters and when speaking. Ascending the throne on the death of his father, Umberto adopted the title "Umberto I of Italy" rather than "Umberto IV", consented that the remains of his father should be interred at Rome in the Pantheon, rather than the royal mausoleum of Basilica of Superga. While on a tour of the kingdom, accompanied by Queen Margherita and the Prime Minister Benedetto Cairoli, he was attacked with a dagger by an anarchist, Giovanni Passannante, during a parade in Naples on 17 November 1878.
The King warded off the blow with his sabre, but Cairoli, in attempting to defend him, was wounded in the thigh. The would-be assassin was condemned to death though the law only allowed the death penalty if the King was killed; the King commuted the sentence to one of penal servitude for life, served in a cell only 1.4 meters high, without sanitation and with 18 kilograms of chains. Passanante would die in a psychiatric institution. In foreign policy Umberto I approved the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Germany visiting Vienna and Berlin. Many in Italy, viewed with hostility an alliance with their forme
Sandringham House is a country house in the parish of Sandringham, England. It is the private home of Elizabeth II, whose father, George VI, grandfather, George V, both died there; the house stands in a 20,000-acre estate in the Norfolk Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The house is listed as Grade II* along with its landscaped gardens and woodlands; the site has been occupied since Elizabethan times. This was replaced in 1771 by a Georgian mansion for the Hoste Henleys. In 1836, Sandringham was bought by John Motteux, a London merchant, who owned property in Norfolk and Surrey. Motteux had no direct heir, on his death in 1843, his entire estate was left to Charles Spencer Cowper, the son of Motteux's close friend Emily Temple, Viscountess Palmerston. Cowper sold the Surrey estates and embarked on rebuilding at Sandringham, he led an extravagant life, by the early 1860s, the estate was mortgaged and he and his wife spent most of their time on the Continent. In 1862, Sandringham and just under 8,000 acres of land were purchased for Albert Edward, Prince of Wales Edward VII, as a country home for him and his fiancée, Princess Alexandra of Denmark.
Between 1870 and 1900, the house was completely rebuilt in a style described by Pevsner as "frenetic Jacobean". Edward developed the estate, creating one of the finest shoots in England. Following his death in 1910, the estate passed to Edward's son and heir, George V, who described the house as "dear old Sandringham, the place I love better than anywhere else in the world", it was the setting for the first Christmas broadcast in 1932. George died at the house on 20 January 1936; the estate passed to his son Edward VIII. George was as devoted to the house as his father, writing to his mother Queen Mary, "I have always been so happy here and I love the place", he died at Sandringham on 6 February 1952. On the King's death, Sandringham passed to his daughter Elizabeth II; the Queen spends most of the winter at the house, including the anniversary of her father's death and of her own accession. In 1957 she broadcast her first televised Christmas message from Sandringham. In the 1960s, plans were drawn up to demolish the house and replace it with a modern building, but these were not carried out.
In 1977, for her Silver Jubilee, the Queen opened the house and grounds to the public for the first time. Unlike the royal palaces, such as Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle and Balmoral Castle are the Queen's private homes. Sandringham is recorded in the Domesday Book as "sant-Dersingham" and the land was awarded to a Norman knight, Robert Fitz-Corbun after the Conquest; the local antiquarian Claude Messent, in his study The Architecture on the Royal Estate of Sandringham, records the discovery of evidence of the pavements of a Roman villa. In the Elizabethan era a manor was built on the site of the present house, which, by the 18th century, came into the possession of the Hoste Henley family, descendants of Dutch refugees. In 1771 Cornish Henley cleared the site to build Sandringham Hall. In 1834, Henry Hoste Henley died without issue, the estate was bought at auction by John Motteux, a London merchant. Motteux was without heirs and bequeathed Sandringham, together with another Norfolk estate and a property in Surrey, to the third son of his close friend, Emily Lamb, the wife of Lord Palmerston.
At the time of his inheritance in 1843, Charles Spencer Cowper was a bachelor diplomat, resident in Paris. On succeeding to Motteux's estates, he based himself at Sandringham, he undertook extensions to the hall, employing Samuel Sanders Teulon to add an elaborate porch and conservatory. Cowper's style of living was extravagant—he and his wife spent much of their time on the Continent—and within 10 years the estate was mortgaged for £89,000; the death of their only child, Mary Harriette, from cholera in 1854 led the couple to spend more time abroad in Paris, by the early 1860s Cowper was keen to sell the estate. In 1861 Queen Victoria's eldest son and heir, Albert Edward, was approaching his twenty-first birthday. Edward's dissipated lifestyle had been disappointing to his parents, his father, Prince Albert, thought that marriage and the purchase of a suitable establishment were necessary to ground the Prince in country life and pursuits and lessen the influence of the "Marlborough House set" with which he was involved.
Albert had his staff investigate eighteen possible country estates that might be suitable, including Newstead Abbey in Nottinghamshire and Houghton Hall in Norfolk. The need to act was reinforced by the Nellie Clifden affair, when Edward's fellow officers smuggled the actress into his quarters; the possibility of a scandal was concerning to his parents. Sandringham Hall was on the list of the estates considered, a personal recommendation to the Prince Consort from the Prime Minister Lord Palmerston, stepfather to the owner, swayed Prince Albert. Negotiations were only delayed by Albert's death in December 1861—his widow declared, "His wishes – his plans – about everything are to be my law"; the Prince visited in February 1862, a sale was agreed for the house and just under 8,000 acres of land, finalised that October. Queen Victoria only twice visited the house. Over the course of the next forty years, with considerable expenditure, Edward was to create a house and country estate that his friend Charles Carington called "the most comfortable in England".
The price paid for Sandringham, £220,000, has been described as "exorbitant". This is questioned
Black tie is a semi-formal Western dress code for evening events, originating in British and American conventions for attire in the 19th century. In British English, the dress code is referred to synecdochically by its principal element for men, the dinner suit or dinner jacket. In American English, the equivalent term, tuxedo, is common; the dinner suit is a black, midnight blue or white two- or three-piece suit, distinguished by satin or grosgrain jacket lapels and similar stripes along the outseam of the trousers. It is worn with a white dress shirt with standing or turndown collar and link cuffs, a black bow tie an evening waist coat or a cummerbund, black patent leather dress shoes or court pumps. Accessories may include bowler, or boater hat. For women, an evening gown or other fashionable evening attire may be worn; the dinner jacket evolved in late 19th century out of the smoking jacket – 19th century informal evening wear without tails designated for more comfortable tobacco smoking – following the first documented example in 1865 of the Prince of Wales King Edward VII.
Thus in many non-English languages, it is known as a "smoking". In American English, its synonym "tuxedo" was derived from the town of Tuxedo Park in New York State, where it was first introduced in 1886 following the example of Europeans. Traditionally worn only for events after 6 p.m. black tie is less formal than white tie but more formal than informal or business dress. As semi-formal, black tie are worn for dinner parties and sometimes to balls and weddings, although etiquette experts discourage wearing of black tie for weddings. Traditional semi-formal day wear. Supplementary semi-formal alternatives may be accepted for black tie: military uniform, religious clothing, folk costumes, etc. Dinner jacket in the context of menswear first appeared in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland around 1887 and in the United States of America around 1889. In the 1960s it became associated in the United States with colored jackets specifically. Tuxedo in the context of menswear originated in the US around 1888.
It was named after Tuxedo Park, a Hudson Valley enclave for New York's social elite where it was seen in its early years. The term was capitalized until the 1930s and traditionally referred only to a white jacket; when the jacket was paired with its own unique trousers and accessories in the 1900s the term began to be associated with the entire suit. In French, Catalan, German, Russian, Spanish and other European languages the style is referred to with the pseudo-anglicism smoking; this generic colloquialism is a false friend deriving from its similarity with the 19th century smoking jacket. In French the dress code may be called "cravate noire," a term, sometimes adopted directly into English; the suit with accompanying accessories is sometimes nicknamed a monkey suit and, since 1918, soup and fish - a term derived from the sort of food thought to be served at black tie dinners. In the 1860s, the increasing popularity of outdoor activities among the middle and upper classes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland led to a corresponding increase in the popularity of the casual lounge suit as a country alternative to the more formal day wear frock coat, traditionally worn in town.
Men sought a similar alternative to the formal evening tailcoat worn every evening. The earliest record of a tailless coat being worn with evening wear is a 1865 midnight blue smoking jacket in silk with matching trousers ordered by the Prince of Wales from Savile Row tailors Henry Poole & Co; the smoking jacket was tailored for use at the Prince's informal country estate. Henry Poole never saw his design become known as a dinner jacket or cross the Atlantic and be called a tuxedo over there. Other accounts of the Prince's experimentation appear around 1885 variously referring to "a garment of many colours, such as was worn by our ancestors" and "short garments coming down to the waist and made on the model of the military men's jackets"; the garment as we know it was first described around the same time and associated with Cowes, a seaside resort in southern England and centre of British yachting, associated with the Prince. It was intended for warm weather use but soon spread to informal or stag winter occasions.
As it was an evening tailcoat substitute, it was worn with all the same accoutrements as the tailcoat, including the trousers. As such, in these early days, black tie was considered informal wear. In the following decades of the Victorian era, the style became known as a dinner jacket: a fashionable, formal alternative for the tailcoat which men of the upper classes wore every evening, thus it was worn with the standard accompaniments for the evening tailcoat at the time: matching trousers, white or black waistcoat, white bow tie, white detachable wing-collar formal shirt and black formal shoes. Lapels were faced or edged in silk or satin in varying widths. In comparison with full dress, etiquette guides declared dinner jacket inappropriate for wear in mixed company, meaning together with ladies. During the Edwardian era, the practice of wearing a black waistcoat and black bow tie with a dinner jacket became the convention, esta