George R. Crook was a career United States Army officer, most noted for his distinguished service during the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. During the 1880s, the Apache nicknamed Crook Nantan Lupan, which means "Chief Wolf." Crook was born to Thomas and Elizabeth Matthews Crook on a farm near Taylorsville, Montgomery County, Ohio. Nominated to the United States Military Academy by Congressman Robert Schenck, he graduated in 1852, ranking near the bottom of his class, he was assigned to the 4th U. S. infantry as brevet second lieutenant, serving in California, 1852–61. He served in Oregon and northern California, alternately protecting or fighting against several Native American tribes, he commanded the Pitt River Expedition of 1857 and, in one of several engagements, was wounded by an Indian arrow. He established a fort in Northeast California, named in his honor. During his years of service in California and Oregon, Crook extended his prowess in hunting and wilderness skills accompanying and learning from Indians whose languages he learned.
These wilderness skills led one of his aides to liken him to Daniel Boone, more provided a strong foundation for his abilities to understand and use Civil War landscapes to Union advantage. Crook was promoted to first lieutenant in 1856, to captain in 1860, he was ordered east and in 1861, with the beginning of the American Civil War, was made colonel of the 36th Ohio Volunteer Infantry. He married Mary Tapscott Dailey, from Virginia; when the Civil War broke out, Crook accepted a commission as Colonel of the 36th Ohio Infantry and led it on duty in western Virginia. He was in command of the 3rd Brigade in the District of the Kanawha where he was wounded in a small fight at Lewisburg. Crook returned to command of his regiment during the Northern Virginia Campaign, he and his regiment were part of John Pope's headquarters escort at the Second Battle of Bull Run. After the Union Army's defeat at Second Bull Run and his regiment were attached to the Kanawha Division at the start of the Maryland Campaign.
On September 12 Crook's brigade commander, Augustus Moor, was captured and Crook assumed command of the 2nd Brigade, Kanawha Division, attached to the IX Corps. Crook led his brigade at the Battle of South Mountain and near Burnside's Bridge at the Battle of Antietam, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general on September 7, 1862. During these early battles he developed a lifelong friendship with one of his subordinates, Col. Rutherford B. Hayes of the 23rd Ohio Infantry. Following Antietam, General Crook assumed command of the Kanawha Division, his division was detached from the IX Corps for duty in the Department of the Ohio. Before long Crook was assigned to command an infantry brigade in the Army of the Cumberland; this brigade became the 3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XIV Corps, which he led at the Battle of Hoover's Gap. In July he assumed command of Cavalry Corps in the Army of the Cumberland, he fought at the battle of Chickamauga and was in pursuit of Joseph Wheeler during the Chattanooga Campaign.
In February 1864, Crook returned to command the Kanawha Division, now designated the 3rd Division of the Department of West Virginia. To open the spring campaign of 1864, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant ordered a Union advance on all fronts, minor as well as major. Grant sent for Brigadier General Crook, in winter quarters at Charleston, West Virginia, ordered him to attack the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, Richmond's primary link to Knoxville and the southwest, to destroy the Confederate salt works at Saltville, Virginia; the 35-year-old Crook reported to army headquarters at City Point, where the commanding general explained the mission in person. Grant instructed Crook to march his force, the Kanawha Division, against the railroad at Dublin, Virginia, 140 miles south of Charleston. At Dublin he would destroy Confederate military property, he was to destroy the railroad bridge over New River, a few miles to the east. When these actions were accomplished, along with the destruction of the salt works, Crook was to march east and join forces with Major General Franz Sigel, who meanwhile was to be driving south up the Shenandoah Valley.
After long dreary months of garrison duty, the men were ready for action. Crook did not reveal the nature or objective of their mission, but everyone sensed that something important was brewing. "All things point to early action", the commander of the second brigade, Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes, noted in his diary. On April 29, 1864, the Kanawha Division headed south. Crook sent a force under Brigadier General William W. Averell westward towards Saltville pushed on towards Dublin with nine infantry regiments, seven cavalry regiments, 15 artillery pieces, a force of about 6,500 men organized into three brigades; the West Virginia countryside was beautiful that spring, but the mountainous terrain made the march a difficult undertaking. The way was narrow and steep, spring rains slowed the march as tramping feet churned the roads into mud. In places, Crook's engineers had to build bridges across wash-outs; the column reached Fayette on May 2, passed through Raleigh Court House and Princeton. On the night of May 8, the division camped at Virginia, 10 miles north of Dublin.
The Confederates at Dublin soon learned. Their commander, Colonel John McCausland, prepared to evacuate his 1100 men, but before transportation could arrive, a courier from Brigadie
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D. C. Founded in 1789 as Georgetown College, the university has grown to comprise nine undergraduate and graduate schools, among which are the School of Foreign Service, School of Business, Medical School, Law School. Located on a hill above the Potomac River, the school's main campus is identifiable by its flagship Healy Hall, a National Historic Landmark. Georgetown offers degree programs in forty-eight disciplines, enrolling an average of 7,500 undergraduate and 10,000 post-graduate students from more than 130 countries. Georgetown is the oldest Catholic and Jesuit-affiliated institution of higher education in the United States; the Jesuits have participated in the university's academic life, both as scholars and as administrators, since 1805. The majority of Georgetown students are not Catholic. Georgetown's notable alumni include U. S. President Bill Clinton, U. S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, CIA Director George Tenet, King Felipe of Spain, as well as the royalty and heads of state of more than a dozen countries.
In 2015, Georgetown had 1190 alumni working as diplomats for the U. S. Foreign Service, more than any other university. In 2014, Georgetown ranked second in the nation by the average number of graduates serving in the U. S. Congress. Georgetown is a top feeder school for careers in consulting and investment banking on Wall Street. Georgetown is home to the country's largest student-run business, largest student-run financial institution, the oldest continuously running student theatre troupe, one of the oldest debating societies in the United States; the school's athletic teams are nicknamed the Hoyas and include a men's basketball team that has won a record-tying seven Big East championships, appeared in five Final Fours, won a national championship in 1984. The university has a co-ed sailing team that holds thirteen national championships and one world championship title. Jesuit settlers from England founded the Province of Maryland in 1634. However, the 1646 defeat of the Royalists in the English Civil War led to stringent laws against Roman Catholic education and the extradition of known Jesuits from the colony, including missionary Andrew White, the destruction of their school at Calverton Manor.
During most of the remainder of Maryland's colonial period, Jesuits conducted Catholic schools clandestinely. It was not until after the end of the American Revolution that plans to establish a permanent Catholic institution for education in the United States were realized; because of Benjamin Franklin's recommendation, Pope Pius VI appointed former Jesuit John Carroll as the first head of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States though the papal suppression of the Jesuit order was still in effect. Carroll began meetings of local clergy in 1783 near Annapolis, where they orchestrated the development of a new university. On January 23, 1789, Carroll finalized the purchase of the property in Georgetown on which Dahlgren Quadrangle was built. Future Congressman William Gaston was enrolled as the school's first student on November 22, 1791, instruction began on January 2, 1792. During its early years, Georgetown College suffered from considerable financial strain; the Maryland Society of Jesus began its restoration in 1805, Jesuit affiliation, in the form of teachers and administrators, bolstered confidence in the college.
The school relied on private sources of funding and the limited profits from local lands, donated to the Jesuits. To raise money for Georgetown and other schools in 1838, Maryland Jesuits conducted a mass sale of some 272 slaves to two Deep South plantations in Maringouin, Louisiana from their six in Maryland, ending their slaveholding. President James Madison signed into law Georgetown's congressional charter on March 1, 1815, creating the first federal university charter, which allowed it to confer degrees, with the first bachelor's degrees being awarded two years later. In 1844, the school received a corporate charter, under the name "The President and Directors of Georgetown College", affording the growing school additional legal rights. In response to the demand for a local option for Roman Catholic students, the Medical School was founded in 1851; the U. S. Civil War affected Georgetown as 1,141 students and alumni enlisted in one army or the other, the Union Army commandeered university buildings.
By the time of President Abraham Lincoln's May 1861 visit to campus, 1,400 troops were living in temporary quarters there. Due to the number of lives lost in the war, enrollment levels remained low until well after the war. Only seven students graduated in 1869, down from over 300 in the previous decade; when the Georgetown College Boat Club, the school's rowing team, was founded in 1876 it adopted two colors: blue, used for Union uniforms, gray, used for Confederate uniforms. These colors signified the peaceful unity among students. Subsequently, the school adopted these as its official colors. Enrollment did not recover until during the presidency of Patrick Francis Healy from 1873 to 1881. Born in Georgia as a slave by law and mixed-race by ancestry, Healy was the first head of a predominantly white American university of acknowledged African descent, he identified as Irish Catholic, like his father, was educated in Catholic schools in the United States and France. He is credited with reforming the undergraduate curriculum, lengthening the medical and law programs, creating the Alumni Association.
One of his largest undertakings was the construction of a major new building, subsequently named Healy Hall in his honor. For his work, Healy is known as the school's "second fo
Bismarck, North Dakota
Bismarck is the capital of the U. S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second-most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo; the city's population was estimated in 2017 at 72,865, while its metropolitan population was 132,142. In 2017, Forbes magazine ranked Bismarck as the seventh fastest-growing small city in the United States. Bismarck was founded by European Americans in 1872 on the east bank of the Missouri River, it has been North Dakota's capital city since 1889, when the state was created from the Dakota Territory and admitted to the Union. Bismarck is across the river from Mandan, named after a historic Native American tribe of the area; the two cities make up the core of the Bismarck-Mandan Metropolitan Statistical Area. The North Dakota State Capitol, the tallest building in the state, is in central Bismarck; the state government employs more than 4,600 in the city. As a hub of retail and health care, Bismarck is the economic center of south-central North Dakota and north-central South Dakota.
For thousands of years, present-day central North Dakota was inhabited by indigenous peoples, who created successive cultures. The historic Mandan Native American tribe occupied the area; the Hidatsa name for Bismarck is mirahacii arumaaguash. In 1872 European Americans founded a settlement at what was called Missouri Crossing, so named because the Lewis and Clark Expedition crossed the river there on their exploration of the Louisiana Purchase in 1804-1806, it had been an area of Mandan settlement. The new town was called Edwinton, after Edwin Ferry Johnson, engineer-in-chief for the Northern Pacific Railway, its construction of railroads in the territory attracted settlers. In 1873, the Northern Pacific Railway renamed the city as Bismarck, in honor of German chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Railroad officials hoped to attract German immigrant settlers to the area and German investment in the railroad; the discovery of gold in the nearby Black Hills of South Dakota the following year was a greater impetus for growth.
Thousands of miners came to the area, encroaching on what the Lakota considered sacred territory and leading to heightened tensions with the Native Americans. Bismarck became a freight-shipping center on the "Custer Route" from the Black Hills. In 1883 Bismarck was designated as the capital of the Dakota Territory, in 1889 as the state capital of the new state of North Dakota. Bismarck is located at 46°48′48″N 100°46′44″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 31.23 square miles, of which, 30.85 square miles is land and 0.38 square miles is water. The city has developed around the center of historic development, it is distinctive because the city's major shopping center, Kirkwood Mall, is in the center city rather than in the suburbs. Several other major retail stores are in the vicinity of Kirkwood Mall, developed near the Bismarck Civic Center; the two Bismarck hospitals, St. Alexius Medical Center and Sanford Health are both downtown; the streets are lined with small restaurants, providing numerous amenities.
Much recent commercial and residential growth has taken place in the city's northern section because of expanding retail centers. Among the shopping centers in northern Bismarck are Gateway Fashion Mall, Northbrook Mall, Arrowhead Plaza, the Pinehurst Square "power center" mall; the North Dakota State Capitol complex is just north of downtown Bismarck. The 19-story Art Deco capitol is the tallest building in the city and the state, at a height of 241.75 feet. The capitol building towers over the city's center and is seen from 20 miles away on a clear day. Completed during the Great Depression in 1934, it replaced a capitol building that burned to the ground in 1930; the capitol grounds house the North Dakota Heritage Center, the North Dakota State Library, the North Dakota Governor's Residence, the State Office Building, the Liberty Memorial Building. The North Dakota State Penitentiary is in eastern Bismarck; the Cathedral District, named after the art deco Cathedral of the Holy Spirit, is an historic neighborhood near downtown Bismarck.
Some homes in this neighborhood date to the 1880s, although many were built in the first decades of the 20th century. At times, the city has proposed widening the streets in the neighborhood to improve traffic flow. Many residents object because such a project would require the removal of many of the towering American elms which line the streets; these have escaped the elm disease. After the completion of Garrison Dam in 1953 by the Army Corps of Engineers, which improved flood control, the floodplain of the Missouri River became a more practical place for development. Significant residential and commercial building has taken place in this area on the south side of the city; the Upper Missouri River is still subject to seasonal flooding. Situated in the middle of the Great Plains, between the geographic centers of the United States and Canada, Bismarck displays a variable four-season humid continental climate. Bismarck's climate is characterized by cold, somewhat snowy and windy winters, hot humid summers.
Thunderstorms occur in spring and summer. The warmest month in Bismarck is July, with a daily mean of 71.1 °F, with wide variations between day and night. The coldest month is January, with a 24-hour average of 12.8 °F. Precipitation peaks from May to September and is rather sparse in the w
Little Bighorn River
The Little Bighorn River is a 138-mile-long tributary of the Bighorn River in the United States in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The Battle of the Little Bighorn known as the Battle of the Greasy Grass, was fought on its banks on June 25th and 26th, 1876, as well as the Battle of Crow Agency in 1887; the Little Bighorn rises in northern Wyoming, deep in the Bighorn Mountains, under Duncum Mountain and Burnt Mountain. The main stream flows through a deep canyon until it issues onto the plains, just at the Montana-Wyoming border. In Little Bighorn Canyon in Wyoming, the Little Bighorn receives other mountain streams as tributaries including the Dry Fork, the West Fork of the Little Bighorn. After issuing from its canyon at the Montana-Wyoming line the Little Bighorn flows northward across the Crow Indian Reservation; the river flows past the towns of Wyola, Lodge Grass and Crow Agency, joins the Bighorn River near the town of Hardin. At Wyola, the Little Bighorn receives the flow of Pass Creek flowing north from the Bighorn Mountains.
At Lodge Grass the Little Bighorn receives the waters of two tributaries, the largest being Lodge Grass Creek which flows west out of its own canyon system in the Bighorn Mountains, Owl Creek flowing east and north from the Wolf Mountains. A few miles Before reaching Crow Agency, the Little Horn receives the flow of Reno Creek from the Wolf Mountains to the east; the famous Little Bighorn battle site is five miles south of Crow Agency, on the eastern side of the river and is now the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument. In 1859, William F. Reynolds led a government expedition up the Big Horn River to the mouth of Big Horn Canyon, southeast along the base of the Big Horn mountains. En route to the Big Horn Canyon, about 40 miles down the Big Horn River, he camped just below the mouth of the Little Bighorn on September 6, 1859, he noted in his journal for that day that the Indian name of the Big Horn river, into which the Little Bighorn empties, is Ets-pot-agie, or Mountain Sheep River, this generates the name of the Little Big Horn, Ets-pot-agie-cate, or Little Mountain Sheep river.
The trappers who came to the Big Horn Mountains in the fur trapping era continued the usage of the English translation of the Indian names, the names for both rivers have come down through history. Captain Reynolds had Jim Bridger as a guide and interpreter, so the information about the source of the name was confirmed by Reynolds from Indian sources through Bridger. According to the USGS, the Little Bighorn River has three other official variants of the name, including Little Horn River, Custer River and Great Horn River. Local people who live in the valley and along the tributaries use the shortened version—Little Horn—instead of the more cumbersome name, Little Bighorn. A historical variant name for the Little Bighorn is the Greasy Grass. From the 1500s to the 1800s, the indigenous Crow people knew the river as the Greasy Grass. Crow tribal historian Joe Medicine Crow explained in a 2012 YouTube interview that this name was used by the Crows for the river system because in the river bottoms in the upper reaches of the Little Bighorn and its major tributaries there was abundant grass that would gather heavy dew in the morning which, in turn, would wet moccasins and leggings of Indian people, the bellies and legs of horses, cause them to look greasy.
On the main stream, the name Greasy Grass gave way to the name Little Bighorn. For one major tributary of the Little Bighorn, the Lodge Grass Creek retained the name "Greasy Grass Creek", but as Joe Medicine Crow explained in the 2012 video, this name morphed from "Greasy Grass" to "Lodge Grass" due to the error of an interpreter since the Crow word for "greasy" is Tah-shay, the Crow word for "lodge" is Ah-shay; the Lakota Sioux, who began to contest control of this area with the Crow in the 1840s to 1860s as they pushed westward, continued to call the river the "Greasy Grass". Native Americans called the river the Greasy Grass before the Battle of the Little Big Horn in 1876, Lakota people still refer to the Battle of the Little Bighorn as the Battle of the Greasy Grass. In historical references in Wikipedia articles, the Battle of the Little Bighorn is referred to as the Battle of the Greasy Grass, as it is in the discussions of the battle by the History Channel; the alternative name usage in the 1800s by the Sioux and Crow of "Greasy Grass" for the "Little Bighorn" is reflected in current day nomenclature at the Little Bighorn battlefield.
A prominent ridge on the Little Bighorn Battlefield that overlooks the eastern banks of the Little Bighorn River has retained the name of Greasy Grass Ridge, is the site of critical events of the battle. In Lakota, the Little Bighorn River is called Pȟežísla Wakpá. Upstream from the point where the Little Bighorn issues from the Little Horn Canyon, the stream flow is in Wyoming. For the first two miles a rough road goes upstream. All along this road, all along the stream in this stretch, the land is owned and a sign at the entrance to the canyon provides notice of this fact. Wyoming stream access laws are not liberal and trespass laws are construed. In this two mile stretch a fisher person would have to trespass on private lands to leave the road or to fish the banks of the river. After two miles of road travel upstream, the road reaches the Bighorn National Forest Service boundary where a parking area is maintained by the Wyoming Fish and Game Department, but signage prohibits overnight camping.
Upstream above this point fishing is permitted on the National Forest, but the first river mile of this stretc
George Armstrong Custer
George Armstrong Custer was a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars. Custer graduated from West Point in 1861, bottom of his class, but as the Civil War was just starting, trained officers were in immediate demand, he worked with General McClellan and the future General Pleasonton, who both recognised his qualities as a cavalry leader, he was brevetted brigadier general of Volunteers at age 23. At Gettysburg, he commanded the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, defeated Jeb Stuart’s assault on Cemetery Ridge, while outnumbered. In 1864, Custer served in the Overland Campaign and in Sheridan’s army in the Shenandoah Valley, defeating Jubal Early at Cedar Creek, his division blocked Lee's final retreat and received the first flag of truce from the Confederates, Custer being present at Lee’s surrender to U. S. Grant at Appomattox. After the war, Custer was appointed a lieutenant colonel in the Regular Army, sent west to fight in the Indian Wars.
On June 25, 1876, while leading the 7th Cavalry at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana Territory against a coalition of Native American tribes, he was killed along with over one third of his command during an action romanticized as "Custer's Last Stand". His dramatic end was as controversial as the rest of his career, his legacy remains divided, his bold leadership in battle is unquestioned, but his legend was of his own fabrication, through his extensive journalism, more through his wife’s energetic lobbying throughout her long widowhood. Custer's paternal immigrant ancestors and Gertrude Küster, emigrated to the North American English colonies around 1693 from the Rhineland in Germany among thousands of Palatine refugees whose passage was arranged by the English government to gain settlers in New York and Pennsylvania. According to family letters, Custer was named after George Armstrong, a minister, in his devout mother's hope that her son might join the clergy. Custer was born in New Rumley, Ohio, to Emanuel Henry Custer, a farmer and blacksmith, his second wife, Marie Ward Kirkpatrick, of English and Scots-Irish descent.
He had two younger brothers and Boston. His other full siblings were the family's youngest child, Margaret Custer, Nevin Custer, who suffered from asthma and rheumatism. Custer had three older half-siblings. Custer and his brothers acquired their life-long love of practical jokes, which they played out among the close family members. Emanuel Custer was an outspoken Democrat who taught his children politics and toughness at an early age. In a February 3, 1887 letter to his son's widow, Libby, he related an incident "when Autie was about four years old, he had to have a tooth drawn, he was much afraid of blood. When I took him to the doctor to have the tooth pulled, it was in the night and I told him if it bled well it would get well right away, he must be a good soldier; when he got to the doctor he took his seat, the pulling began. The forceps slipped off and he had to make a second trial, he pulled it out, Autie never scrunched. Going home, I led him by the arm, he jumped and skipped, said'Father you and me can whip all the Whigs in Michigan.'
I thought, saying a good deal but I did not contradict him." In order to attend school, Custer lived with an older half-sister and her husband in Monroe, Michigan. Before entering the United States Military Academy, Custer attended the McNeely Normal School known as Hopedale Normal College, in Hopedale, Ohio, it was to train teachers for elementary schools. While attending Hopedale and classmate William Enos Emery were known to have carried coal to help pay for their room and board. After graduating from McNeely Normal School in 1856, Custer taught school in Ohio, his first sweetheart was Mary Jane Holland. Custer entered West Point as a cadet on July 1, 1857, as a member of the class of 1862, his class numbered seventy-nine cadets embarking on a five-year course of study. With the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, the course was shortened to four years, Custer and his class graduated on June 24, 1861, he was 34th in a class of 34 graduates: 23 classmates had dropped out for academic reasons while 22 classmates had resigned to join the Confederacy.
Throughout his life, Custer tested rules. In his four years at West Point, he amassed a record-total of 726 demerits, one of the worst conduct records in the history of the academy. A fellow cadet recalled Custer as declaring there were only two places in a class, the head and the foot, since he had no desire to be the head, he aspired to be the foot. A roommate noted, "It was alright with George Custer. Under ordinary national conditions, Custer's low class rank would result in an obscure posting, but Custer had the "fortune" to graduate as the Civil War broke out. All officers were needed. Like the other graduates, Custer was commissioned as a second lieutenant. S. Cavalry Regiment and tasked with drilling volunteers in Washington, D. C. On July 21, 1861, he was with his regiment at the First Battle of Bull Run during the Manassas Campaign, where Army commander Winfield Scott detailed him to carry messages to Major General Irvin McDowell. After the battle, Custer continued participating in the defenses of Washington D.
C. until October, when he became ill. He was absent from his unit until February 1862. In March, he participated with the 2nd Cavalry in the Peninsula Campaign in Virginia until April 4. On April 5, Custer s
Columbia Hospital for Women
The Columbia Hospital for Women was a hospital located in Washington, D. C. Opening in 1866 as a health-care facility for wives and widows of Civil War soldiers, it moved in 1870 from Thomas Circle to its location at 2425 L Street, NW in the West End neighborhood; the Columbia became a private, non-profit hospital when President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed legislation transferring it to a board of directors in 1953; the facility closed in 2002 and the building was converted into a condominium, The Columbia Residences. Among the more than 250,000 people born at Columbia Hospital for Women were Duke Ellington, Marion Christopher Barry, Al Gore, Katherine Heigl and Michael Dominic