Body painting is a form of body art where artwork is painted directly onto the human skin. Unlike tattoos and other forms of body art, body painting is temporary, lasting several hours or sometimes up to a few weeks. Body painting, limited to the face is known as "face painting". Body painting is referred to as "temporary tattoo". Large scale or full-body painting is more referred to as body painting, while smaller or more detailed work can sometimes be referred to as temporary tattoos. Body painting with a grey or white paint made from natural pigments including clay, chalk and cattle dung is traditional in many tribal cultures. Worn during cultural ceremonies, it is believed to assist with the moderation of body heat and the use of striped patterns may reduce the incidence of biting insects, it still survives in this ancient form among Indigenous Australians and in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia, as well as in New Zealand and the Pacific islands. A semi-permanent form of body painting known as Mehndi, using dyes made of henna leaves, is practiced in India on brides.
Since the late 1990s, Mehndi has become popular amongst young women in the Western world. Many indigenous peoples of Central and South America paint jagua tattoos, or designs with Genipa americana juice on their bodies. Indigenous peoples of South America traditionally use annatto, huito, or wet charcoal to decorate their faces and bodies. Huito is semi-permanent, it takes weeks for this black dye to fade. Body painting is not always large pieces on nude bodies, but can involve smaller pieces on displayed areas of otherwise clothed bodies. There has been a revival of body painting in Western society since the 1960s, in part prompted by the liberalization of social mores regarding nudity and comes in sensationalist or exhibitionist forms. Today there is a constant debate about the legitimacy of body painting as an art form; the current modern revival could be said to date back to the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago when Max Factor, Sr. and his model Sally Rand were arrested for causing a public disturbance when he body-painted her with his new make-up formulated for Hollywood films.
Body art today evolves to the works more directed towards personal mythologies, as Jana Sterbak, Rebecca Horn, Youri Messen-Jaschin, Jacob Alexander Figueroa or Javier Perez. Body painting is sometimes used as a method of gaining attention in political protests, for instance those by PETA against Burberry. Body painting led to a minor alternative art movement in the 1950s and 1960s, which involved covering a model in paint and having the model touch or roll on a canvas or other medium to transfer the paint. French artist Yves Klein is the most famous for this, with his series of paintings "Anthropometries"; the effect produced by this technique creates an image-transfer from the model's body to the medium. This includes all the curves of the model's body being reflected in the outline of the image; this technique was not monotone. Joanne Gair is a body paint artist whose work appeared for the tenth consecutive year in the 2008 Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, she came to prominence with an August 1992 Vanity Fair Demi's Birthday Suit cover of Demi Moore.
Her Disappearing Model was part of an episode of Ripley's Believe It or Not!. Body painting festivals happen annually across the world, bringing together professional body painters and keen amateurs. Body painting can be seen at some football matches, at rave parties, at certain festivals; the World Bodypainting Festival is a three-day festival which originated in 1998 and, held in Klagenfurt, Austria since 2017. Participants attend from over fifty countries and the event has more than 20,000 visitors. Body painting festivals that take place in North America include the North American Body Painting Championship and Body Art International Convention in Orlando, Bodygras Body Painting Competition in Nanaimo, BC and the Face Painting and Body Art Convention in Las Vegas, Nevada. Australia has a number of body painting festivals, most notably the annual Australian Body Art Festival in Eumundi and the Australian Body Art Awards. In Italy, the Rabarama Skin Art Festival, is a different event focused on the artistic side of body painting, highlighting the emotional impact of the painted body in a live performance more than the decorative and technical aspects of it.
This particular form of creative art is known as "Skin Art". The 1960s supermodel. Images of her in the book Transfigurations by photographer Holger Trulzsch have been emulated. Other well-known works include Serge Diakonoff's books A Fleur de Peau and Diakonoff and Joanne Gair's Paint a licious. More Dutch art photographer Karl Hammer has taken center stage with his combinations of body painting and narrative art. Following the established trend in Western-Europe, body painting has become more accepted in the United States since the early 1990s. In 2006 the first gallery dedicated to fine art body painting was opened in New Orleans by World Bodypainting Festival Champion and Judge, Craig Tracy; the Painted Alive Gallery is on Royal Street in the French Quarter. In 2009, a popular late night talk show Last Call with Carson Daly on NBC network, featured a New York-based artist Danny Setiawan who creates reproductions of masterpieces by famous artists such as
Charles Benedict Davenport was a prominent American eugenicist and biologist. He was one of the leaders of the American eugenics movement. Davenport was born in Stamford, Connecticut, to Amzi Benedict Davenport, an abolitionist of Puritan stock, his wife Jane Joralemon Dimon, his mother’s strong beliefs tended to rub off onto Charles and he followed the example of his mother. During the summer months and his family lived in Brooklyn due to his father’s job. Due to Davenport's father's strong belief in Protestantism, as a young boy Charles was tutored at home; this came about in order for Charles to learn the values of hard education. When he was not studying, Charles worked as a errand boy for his father's business, he attended Harvard University, earning a Ph. D in biology in 1892 and married Gertrude Crotty, a zoology graduate, in 1894. Charles Davenport's quote was'This is clever they've created a system to cheat.' On, Davenport became a professor of zoology at Harvard. He became one of the most prominent American biologists of his time, pioneering new quantitative standards of taxonomy.
Davenport had a tremendous respect for the biometric approach to evolution pioneered by Francis Galton and Karl Pearson, was involved in Pearson's journal, Biometrika. However, after the re-discovery of Gregor Mendel's laws of heredity, he moved on to become a prominent supporter of Mendelian inheritance. In 1904, Davenport became director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where he founded the Eugenics Record Office in 1910. During his time at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Davenport began a series of investigations into aspects of the inheritance of human personality and mental traits, over the years he generated hundreds of papers and several books on the genetics of alcoholism, criminality, seafaringness, bad temper, manic depression, the biological effects of race crossing. Before Charles Davenport came across eugenics, he studied math, he came to know these subjects through Professors Karl Pearson and gentleman amateur Francis Galton. He met them in London. Upon meeting them, he fell in love with the subject matter.
In 1901, Biometrika, a journal, which Charles Davenport was a co editor of, gave him the opportunity to use the skills that he has learned. Davenport became an advocate of the biometrical approach for the rest of his life, he began to study human heredity, much of his effort was turned to promoting eugenics. His 1911 book, Heredity in Relation to Eugenics, was used as a college textbook for many years; the year after it was published Davenport was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Davenport's work with eugenics caused much controversy among scientists. Although his writings were about eugenics, their findings were simplistic and out of touch with the findings from genetics; this caused class bias. Only his most ardent admirers regarded it as scientific work. During Davenport's tenure at Cold Spring Harbor, several reorganizations took place there. In 1918 the Carnegie Institution of Washington took over funding of the ERO with an additional handsome endowment from Mary Harriman. In 1921 he was elected as a Fellow of the American Statistical Association.
Davenport founded the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations in 1925, with Eugen Fischer as chairman of the Commission on Bastardization and Miscegenation. Davenport aspired to found a World Institute for Miscegenations, "was working on a'world map' of the'mixed-race areas, which he introduced for the first time at a meeting of the IFEO in Munich in 1928."Together with his assistant Morris Steggerda, Davenport attempted to develop a comprehensive quantitative approach to human miscegenation. The results of their research was presented in the book Race Crossing in Jamaica, which attempted to provide statistical evidence for biological and cultural degradation following interbreeding between white and black populations. Today it is considered a work of scientific racism, was criticized in its time for drawing conclusions which stretched far beyond the data it presented. Caustic was the review of the book published by Karl Pearson at Nature, where he considered that "the only thing, apparent in the whole of this lengthy treatise is that the samples are too small and drawn from too heterogeneous a population to provide any trustworthy conclusions at all".
The entire eugenics movement was criticized for being based on racist and classist assumptions set out to prove the unfitness of wide sections of the American population which Davenport and his followers considered "degenerate", using methods criticized by British eugenicists as unscientific. In 1907 and 1910 Charles Davenport and his wife wrote four essays that pertained to human hereditary genes; these essays included hair color, eye color, skin pigmentation. These essays helped pave the way for eugenics to be taught in class. Many of the topics and discussions belonged to Dr. and Mrs. Charles Davenport but the information for one essay in particular came from friends of theirs involved in the same topic. Many problems occurred; as Davenport and other eugenicist professors and experts began to and continued to study more in-depth eugenics, they had to start to come up with original idea so as not to conflict with past ideas. After Adolf Hitler's rise to power in Germany, Davenport maintained connections with various Nazi institutions and publications, both before and during World War II.
He held editorial positions at two influential German journ
Otis is a town in Berkshire County, United States. Lower partial hedge of Pittsfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 1,612 at the 2010 census. For geographic and demographic information on East Otis, part of the town of Otis, see East Otis, Massachusetts; the numbers reported in. Incorporated in 1810, the town was created when the unincorporated town of Loudon annexed the adjacent District of Bethlehem in 1809, it was named after Harrison Gray Otis, an influential lawyer and politician in revolutionary Massachusetts. General Henry Knox passed through the town in January 1776, bringing cannons from Fort Ticonderoga in New York to aid in ending the Siege of Boston, a route now known as the Knox Trail; the town was a farming community, with several small mill industries growing along the waterways, today is rural with some tourism. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 38.0 square miles, of which 35.6 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles, or 6.55%, is water.
Otis lies along the eastern border of Berkshire County with Hampden County, bordered by Becket to the north, Blandford to the east, Tolland to the southeast, Sandisfield to the south, Monterey and Tyringham to the west. Otis is 23 miles southeast of Pittsfield, 30 miles west-northwest of Springfield, 116 miles west of Boston. Otis lies in the southern end of the Berkshire Mountains, is dotted by several hills; the West Branch of the Farmington River rises in the town, heading southward towards the Connecticut River. The southeastern part of town is dominated by the Otis Reservoir and Big Pond, as well as portions of Tolland State Forest and Otis State Forest; the highest points in the town are to the north, with Church Hill to the east and Kingsbury Mountain to the west. Much of the land around the brooks of town is marshy. Just west of the town center is Otis Ridge Ski Area. Most of the population is around the center of town. Otis lies at the intersection of Massachusetts Route 8 and Route 23.
Route 8 was once part of the New England interstate system, as the Stratford-Waterbury-North Adams Route. Route 23 is known as the Knox Trail, with a historical marker along the route in the eastern part of town. Interstate 90 passes with the nearest exit being in Lee. There is no bus or air service in town, with the nearest being in Pittsfield and Westfield; the nearest national air service is at Bradley International Airport in Connecticut. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,365 people, 567 households, 386 families residing in the town. By population, Otis ranks 19th out of the 32 cities and towns in Berkshire County, 312th out of 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts; the population density was 38.1 people per square mile, which ranks it 18th in the county and 312th in the Commonwealth. There were 1,572 housing units at an average density of 43.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.56% White, 0.59% African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.88% Asian, 0.37% from other races, 1.32% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.29% of the population. There were 567 households out of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.1% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.9% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.90. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 30.3% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 111.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $51,488, the median income for a family was $55,455. Males had a median income of $41,065 versus $30,179 for females; the per capita income for the town was $25,029. About 4.6% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 4.2% of those age 65 or over.
Otis uses the open town meeting form of government, is led by a board of selectmen and an administrative assistant. The current Board of Selectmen consists of Bill Hiller, Donald Hawley, Gary Thomas. All four of the town's main offices, including the town hall and fire departments and the town library, are located at the center of town, as is the central post office. A second post office is located in East Otis; the library is a part of the regional library systems. The nearest hospital, Noble Hospital, is 20 miles away in Westfield. On the state level, Otis is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives by the Fourth Berkshire district, which covers southern Berkshire County, as well as the westernmost towns in Hampden County. In the Massachusetts Senate, the town is represented by the Berkshire and Franklin district, which includes all of Berkshire County and western Hampshire and Franklin counties; the town is patrolled by the Otis Police Department, as well as the First Station of Barracks "B" of the Massachusetts State Police.
Roberta Sarnacki serves as the Chief of Director of Emergency Management for the town. G. Sandy Pinkham serves as the Fire Chief. On the national level, Otis is represented in the United States House of Representatives as part of Massachusetts's 1st congressional district, has been rep
Streaking is the act of running naked through a public place as a prank, a dare, for publicity or an act of protest. It is associated with sporting events but can occur in more secluded areas, it involves running which reflects the original meaning of the word before it became associated with nudity. Streakers are pursued by sporting officials or by the police. In some instances, streakers are not nude, instead wearing minimal clothing. Male streakers are completely nude, whereas female streakers are only topless. Historical forerunners of modern-day streakers include the neo-Adamites who ran naked through towns and villages in medieval Europe, the 17th-century Quaker Solomon Eccles who went nude through the City of London with a burning brazier on his head. At 7:00 PM on 5 July 1799, a man was arrested at the Mansion House and sent to the Poultry Compter, he confirmed. The first recorded incident of streaking by a college student in the United States occurred in 1804 at Washington College when senior George William Crump was arrested for running naked through Lexington, where the university is located.
Robert E. Lee sanctioned streaking as a rite of passage for young Washington and Lee gentlemen. Crump was suspended for the academic session, but went on to become a U. S. Congressman. Streaking seems to have been well-established on some college campuses by the mid-1960s; the magazine of Carleton College described the phenomenon in negative terms associating it with rock culture and destruction. At that time, streaking was a tradition on the Northfield, Minnesota campus during January and February when temperatures hovered around zero degrees Fahrenheit. In 1973, what the press called a "streaking epidemic" hit Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, with streakers being seen in residence halls, at football games and at various other on-campus locations and events, including Spring graduation; the trend continued until spring 1974, when Ralph W. Steen, University president, hoping to end the streaking fad, designated a day to streak the length of East College Street, a tradition that – with a few breaks – has continued to this day.
The "epidemic" was covered by all of the major media outlets and became the first time streaking received concentrated national press coverage, including an article in Paris Match covering the phenomenon. Time magazine, in December 1973, called streaking "a growing Los Angeles-area fad", "catching on among college students and other groups." A letter writer responded, "Let it be known that streakers have plagued the campus police at Notre Dame for the past decade", pointing out that a group of University of Notre Dame students sponsored a "Streakers' Olympics" in 1972. There was a streaker at the real Olympics in Montreal, Canada, in 1976. Fines of between £10 and £50 were imposed on streakers by British and Irish magistrates in the early 1970s; the offences used for prosecution were minor, such as the violation of park regulations. The chief law in force against streaking in England and Wales at that time remained the 16th-century vagrancy law, for which the punishment in 1550 had been whipping.
The word has been used in its modern sense only since the 1960s. Before that, to streak in English since 1768 meant "to go to rush, to run at full speed", was a re-spelling of streek: "to go quickly"; the term "streaking" was popularized by a reporter for a local Washington, D. C. news station as he watched a "mass nude run" take place at the University of Maryland in 1973. That nude run had 533 participants; as the collected mass of nude students exited Bel Air dorm, the reporter, whose voice was broadcast live over the station via a pay phone connection exclaimed... "they are streaking past me right now. It's an incredible sight!" The next day it had nationwide coverage. Streaking is distinct from naturism or nudism in that streakers intend to be noticed and may choose a place with a large audience for their act, regardless of the risk of arrest, whereas naturists and nudists prefer to be left in peace, it is distinct from "flashing", in that the intent is not to shock or traumatize a victim.
Streakers may streak only once or a few times as a result of a dare, or may streak so it can be considered a hobby. The most public form of streaking is running naked before huge crowds at sporting events. However, many streakers seek quieter venues, such as a neighborhood at night after most people have gone to bed; some have found it satisfying to streak on rural highways in the early hours of the morning, when there are not many commuters on the road. A number of streakers do not intend to expose themselves to others, but find it thrilling to do it in places that have people present, but do not at the time of their streak. Streaking may be a group activity, it is not uncommon for videos of some of the more daring streaks to find popularity on the internet. Of note is that since its heyday in the 1970s, being caught streaking in the United States now involves a risk of being charged with indecent exposure and the title of "sex offender" upon conviction. Many jurisdictions have precedents, establishing that public nudity if offensive, may not rise to the level of indecent exposure unless it is sexually motivated.
Naked hiking known as naked walking or freehiking, is a sub-category of the modern form of social nudity, involves the undertaking of walking activities while naked. In the United Kingdom, Stephen Gough, known as The Naked Rambler, received much media coverage for walking naked from Land's End to John o' Groats in 2003–2004 and again in 2005–2006, he was arrested and released several times during both his walks while in England, was imprisoned in Scotland. Conversely to Gough's experiences, in 2005 and 2006 the European Alps were crossed naked during a one-week hiking tour, there was little media coverage. No one was arrested or troubled, there was no police involvement. Most naked hikers report friendly reactions from people; some jurisdictions have regulations formally prohibiting this activity, can impose fines or other punishments. A local bylaw to this effect was adopted, for example, by the 2009 General Meeting of the residents of the Swiss canton Appenzell Innerrhoden. In nearby Appenzell Ausserrhoden, the court of second instance "Obergericht" reinforced an unpaid fine of 100 Swiss francs for naked hiking and added the court's cost of another 3330 Swiss Francs.
Barefoot park List of places where social nudity is practised Nudity in sport Naturism APNEL World Naked Bike Ride UK naked walking group Home of the World's Largest Gay Outdoors Club Song on the theme of naked hiking: Hanging low swinging free
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
American Red Cross
The American Red Cross known as The American National Red Cross, is a humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief, disaster preparedness education in the United States. It is the designated US affiliate of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the United States movement to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement; the organization offers services and development programs. ARC was established in Washington, D. C. on May 21, 1881, by Clara Barton. She became its first president. Barton organized a meeting on May 12 of that year at the home of Senator Omar D. Conger. Fifteen people were present at this first meeting, including Barton and Representative William Lawrence; the first local chapter was established in 1881 at the English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Dansville, New York. Jane Delano founded the American Red Cross Nursing Service on January 20, 1910. Clara Barton founded the American chapter after learning of the Red Cross in Switzerland.
In 1869, she went to Europe and became involved in the work of the International Red Cross during the Franco-Prussian War. She was determined to bring the organization to America. Barton became President of the American branch of the society, known as the American National Red Cross in May 1881 in Washington; the first chapters opened in upstate New York. John D. Rockefeller and four others donated money to help create a national headquarters near the White House. Frederick Douglass, famed abolitionist and friend of Clara Barton offered advice and support as Barton sought to establish the American chapter or the global Red Cross network; as Register of Deeds for the District of Columbia, Douglass signed the original Articles of Incorporation for the American Red Cross. Barton led one of the group's first major relief efforts, a response to the September 4–6, 1881 Great Fire of 1881 in the Thumb region of Michigan. Over 5,000 people were left homeless; the next major disaster was the Johnstown Flood, which occurred on May 31, 1889.
Over 2,209 people died and thousands more were injured in or near Johnstown, Pennsylvania in one of the worst disasters in United States history. Barton was unable to build up a staff she trusted and her fundraising was lackluster, she was forced out in 1904. Professional social work experts took control and made the group a model of Progressive Era scientific reform. New leader Mabel Thorp Boardman consulted with senior government officials, military officers, social workers, financiers. William Howard Taft was influential, they imposed an ethos of "managerialism", transforming the agency from Barton's cult of personality to an "organizational humanitarianism" ready for expansion. ARC is a nationwide network of 36 blood service regions. 166,000 Red Cross volunteers, including FemaCorps and AmeriCorps members, 30,000 employees annually mobilize relief to people affected by more than 67,000 disasters, train 4 million people in necessary medical skills and exchange more than a million emergency messages for U.
S. military service personnel and their family members. ARC is the largest supplier of blood products in the US, supplying 2,600 hospitals; the charity assists victims of international disasters and conflicts worldwide, connecting separated family members. In 2006, the organization had over $6 billion in total revenues, though revenues have fallen since Katrina. At that time, revenue from blood and blood products alone was over $2 billion - biological services represents about 63% of total operating expenses, though the unit operates at a deficit; the American Red Cross is divided into five divisions: Disaster Services, Blood Services, Training Services, International Services, Service to the Armed Forces. William K. Van Reypen 1905–06 Robert Maitland O'Reilly 1906 George Whitefield Davis 1906–15 William Howard Taft 1915–19 Livingston Farrand 1919–21 John Barton Payne 1921–35 Cary T. Grayson 1935–38 Norman Davis 1938–44 Basil O'Connor 1944–47, title changed to President, 1947–49 George Marshall 1949–1950 E. Roland Harriman 1950–1953, title changed to Chairman, 1954–73 Frank Stanton 1973–79 Jerome H. Holland 1979–85 George F.
Moody 1985–92 Norman Ralph Augustine 1992–2001 David T. McLaughlin 2001–04 Bonnie McElveen-Hunter 2004–present Recent presidents and CEOs include Gail McGovern, Elizabeth Dole, Bernadine Healy, Mary S. Elcano, Mark W. Everson and John F. McGuire. In 2007, U. S. legislation clarified the role for the Board of Governors and that of the senior management in the wake of difficulties following Hurricane Katrina. As of November 2017, the American Red Cross scores three out of four stars in Charity Navigator and B+ at CharityWatch. In 1996, the Chronicle of Philanthropy, an industry magazine, released the results of the largest study of charitable and non-profit organization popularity and credibility; the study showed that ARC was ranked as the third "most popular charity/non-profit in America" of over 100 charities researched with 48% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing "Love", "Like A lot" to describe the Red Cross. Cora L. Abbott, organizer of Turlock Red Cross Chapter Minnie C. Benson, American Red Cross Reserve alist Inez Mee Boren, organizing chairwoman of the Lindsay Strathmore Branch of the American Red Cross Emily M. Bruen, member of Committee for Red Cross Emilie Henry Burcham, treasurer Spokane Chapter American Red Cross Euna Pearl Burke, member of Board of Directors of Red Cross Emma P. Chadwick, member Executive Board of Red Cross Louise Keller Cherry, on