click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham

Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, KG was an English nobleman known as the namesake of Buckingham's rebellion, a failed but significant collection of uprisings in England and parts of Wales against Richard III of England in October 1483. He is one of the primary suspects in the disappearance of the Princes in the Tower; the only son of Humphrey Stafford, Earl of Stafford, Buckingham became Earl of Stafford in 1458 upon his father's death, was made a ward of King Edward IV of England. He became the Duke of Buckingham at age 4 in 1460 following the death at the Battle of Northampton of his grandfather, Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham. In February 1466, at age 10, he was married to Catherine Woodville, sister of Edward IV's queen, Elizabeth Woodville, daughter to Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers. Buckingham and his wife had four children: Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham Elizabeth Stafford, Countess of Sussex Henry Stafford, 3rd Earl of Wiltshire Anne Stafford, Countess of Huntingdon Upon the death of Edward IV in 1483, Buckingham allied himself to the king's younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, helping him succeed to the throne as Richard III in lieu of Edward's living sons.

Becoming disaffected with Richard, Buckingham joined with Henry Tudor and Tudor's mother, Margaret Beaufort, leading an unsuccessful rebellion in his name. Buckingham was executed for treason by Richard on 2 November 1483: he was beheaded in the courtyard between the Blue Boar Inn and the Saracen's Head Inn in Salisbury market-place, he is believed to have been buried in St Peter's Church in Britford in Wiltshire. Buckingham's precise motivation has been called "obscure"; the traditional naming of the rebellion after him has been labelled a misnomer, with John Morton and Reginald Bray more plausible leaders. As Richard III's ally, the plausibility of Buckingham as a suspect depends on the princes having been dead by the time Stafford was executed in November 1483, it has been suggested. As a descendant of Edward III, through John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester on his father's side, as well as through John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster through John Beaufort, son of John of Gaunt on his mother's side, Buckingham may have hoped to accede to the throne himself in due course.

Some, notably Paul Murray Kendall, regard Buckingham as the likeliest suspect: his execution, after he had rebelled against Richard in October 1483, might signify that he and the king had fallen out. A contemporary Portuguese document suggests Buckingham as the guilty party, stating "...and after the passing away of king Edward in the year of 83, another one of his brothers, the Duke of Gloucester, had in his power the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York, the young sons of the said king his brother, turned them to the Duke of Buckingham, under whose custody the said Princes were starved to death." A document dated some decades after the disappearance was found within the archives of the College of Arms in London in 1980. This led Michael Bennett to suggest that some of Richard's prominent supporters and Tyrell, murdered the princes on their own initiative without waiting for Richard's orders. Bennett noted in support of this theory: "After the King's departure Buckingham was in effective command in the capital, it is known that when the two men met a month there was an unholy row between them."Buckingham is the only person to be named as responsible in a contemporary chronicle other than Richard himself.

However, for two reasons he is unlikely to have acted alone. First of all, if he were guilty of acting without Richard's orders it is surprising that Richard did not lay the blame for the princes' murder on Buckingham after Buckingham was disgraced and executed as Richard could have cleared his own name by doing so. Secondly, it is he would have required Richard's help to gain access to the princes, under close guard in the Tower of London, although Kendall argued as Constable of England, he might have been exempt from this ruling; as a result, although it is possible that he was implicated in the decision to murder them, the hypothesis that he acted without Richard's knowledge is not accepted by historians. While Jeremy Potter suggested that Richard would have kept silent had Buckingham been guilty because nobody would have believed Richard was not party to the crime, he further notes that "Historians are agreed that Buckingham would never have dared to act without Richard's complicity, or at least, connivance".

However, Potter hypothesised that Buckingham was fantasising about seizing the crown himself at this point and saw the murder of the princes as a first step to achieving this goal. This theory formed the basis of The Sunne in Splendour. Buckingham is among the major characters featured in William Shakespeare's play Richard III, which portrays him as a man allying with Richard III in his schemes—until he is ordered to kill the Princes in the Tower. Buckingham is depicted as a supporting character in Philippa Gregory's 2009 historical novel The White Queen, he is depicted as the murderer of the Princes in the Tower in Sharon Penman's 1982 debut

Festival Te Deum

The Festival Te Deum is the popular name for an 1872 composition by Arthur Sullivan, written to celebrate the recovery of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales from typhoid fever. The prince's father, Prince Albert, had died of typhoid fever in 1861, so the prince's recovery was especial cause for celebration; the Festival Te Deum was first performed on 1 May 1872 at The Crystal Palace in a special "Thanksgiving Day" concert organised by the Prince's brother, Duke of Edinburgh, a friend of Sullivan's and commissioned the piece. Sullivan was allowed to dedicate the work to Queen Victoria: an unusual honour; the soloist was Therese Titiens, the soprano soloist in Sullivan's earlier The Prodigal Son. The libretto uses an English translation of the traditional Te Deum, in praise of God, with the addition of a "Domine salvum fac", divided up into seven self-contained sections. There are multiple choral fugues throughout, the score calls for instrumentation on a grand scale, including the addition of a full military band to the orchestra and organ in the final section.

At the original performance, the London contingent of the Handel Festival Choir of 2,000 performers constituted the chorus, the audience numbered 26,000. The Times wrote, "we are glad to be able to speak in terms of unqualified praise, it is not only, in our opinion, the most finished composition for which we are indebted to pen but an honour to English art." Sullivan was "uproariously cheered" at the premiere. The first section begins with a reference to the hymn tune St. Anne, repeated in the final section, suggesting that divine intervention played a part in the recovery of the Prince. Handel's influence is heard throughout the piece, including in the fugues, Sullivan uses key selection to emphasize sacred and secular sections of the piece. Soprano solo or choral sections alternate in a broad dynamic range to illustrate the text; the piece, in keeping with the spirit of the occasion, is upbeat exuberant in places. While Sullivan was writing the Festival Te Deum, his first opera with W. S. Gilbert, was still being performed.

Sullivan was busy composing The Light of the World, a cantata for the opening of a London exhibition. The BBC broadcast the piece in 1988 and the recording was released on CD; the complete text of the Festival Te Deum is as follows, ignoring the repetitions: 1. Chorus We praise thee, O God: we acknowledge thee to be the Lord. All the earth doth worship thee: the Father everlasting. To thee all Angels cry aloud: the Heavens and all the powers therein.2. Solo and Chorus To thee Cherubim and Seraphim: continually do cry, Holy, Holy: Lord God of Sabaoth. Chorus The glorious company of the Apostles: praise thee; the goodly fellowship of the Prophets: praise thee. The noble army of Martyrs: praise thee; the holy Church throughout all the world: doth acknowledge thee. Thou art the King of Glory: O Christ. Thou art the everlasting Son: of the Father.4. Solo When Thou tookest upon Thee to deliver man: thou didst not abhor the Virgin's womb; when thou hadst overcome the sharpness of death: thou didst open the Kingdom of Heaven to all believers.

Thou sittest at the right hand of God: in the Glory of the Father.5. Chorus We believe. We therefore pray help Thy servants: whom Thou hast redeemed with Thy precious blood. Make them to be numbered with Thy Saints: in glory everlasting.6. Solo and Chorus O Lord, save Thy people: and bless Thine heritage. Govern them: and lift them up for ever. Day by day: we magnify thee. Chorus Vouchsafe, O Lord: to keep us this day without sin. O Lord, have mercy upon us: have mercy upon us. O Lord, let Thy mercy lighten upon us:. O Lord, in thee have I trusted: let me never be confounded. O Lord, save the Queen: and mercifully hear us. Amen. Ainger, Michael. Gilbert and Sullivan – A Dual Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514769-3. Jacobs, Arthur. Arthur Sullivan: A Victorian Musician. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-282033-8; the Vocal Score, at Wikimedia Commons Text and MIDI files Detailed analysis of the piece Review in The Times, 2 May 1872 Analysis and comparison of several Sullivan pieces, including the Festival Te Deum Description of the Festival Te Deum New York Times description of a performance in Brooklyn in 1894

Nuriye G├╝lmen

Nuriye Gülmen is a Turkish academician and activist. While working for Selçuk University within the scope of the Faculty Member Training Program, Gülmen was appointed to the Eskişehir Osmangazi University. There, she was a research assistant at the Department of Comparative Literature, she won a lawsuit filed against the university's management for not renewing her contract and started to work at Selçuk University. One day after her appointment, she was expelled from the university following the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, after which a state of emergency was declared; as a result Gülmen faced allegations and was accused of being a member of the "Fethullahçı Terrorist Organization / Parallel State Structure". On 9 November 2016, in front of the Human Rights Monument on Yüksel Street in Ankara, she started a movement with the motto'I Want My Job Back' to return to her lost job. Gülmen was detained dozens of times during the protests, she went on a hunger strike with her fellow teacher Semih Özakça.

During this period, Gülmen's weight fell from 59 kilos to 34 kilos and she ended the hunger strike on 26 January 2018 after the OHAL Commission rejected the objection regarding the issuance of the Decree Law. CNN International named Nuriye Gülmen among the eight leading women of 2016. On 22 June 2017, Nuriye Gülmen and Semih Özakça applied to the Constitutional Court of Turkey with the request for lifting their detention, as they had started to suffer from health issues due to the hunger strike. On 28 June, the Constitutional Court unanimously rejected the application by Özakça. In its response, the Court stated that "there was no situation requiring an immediate injunction to terminate the applicants' detention as there was not any threat available to pose a danger to their lives, their material or moral integrity". In addition, Gülmen and Özakça's health conditions since the day they were brought to prison was monitored b physicians, attempts to refer to them to a hospital for further control was rejected by Gülmen and Özakça, yet measures were taken for emergencies and treatment at the prison's hospital.

At the sixth hearing of the case, Nuriye Gülmen was sentenced to six years and three months in prison for "membership of an armed terrorist organization", but was subsequently released from prison. Gülmen, together with Semih Özakça, applied to the European Court of Human Rights on 29 June 2017, demanding that they be released due to their health problems as a result of a hunger strike and adding that detention conditions worsened their health. On 2 August 2017, the European Court of Human Rights dismissed the application, submitted as a precautionary measure by Gülmen and Özakça's lawyers; the ECHR ruled in its rejection that "in the light of the medical reports and other information submitted to the court, the fact that Özakça and Gülmen were detained at the Sincan State Hospital did not constitute a real and immediate danger to the applicants' life." The court invited Gülmen and Özakça to end the hunger strike.Şebnem Korur Fincancı, who participated in the examination and medical documentation process as a single physician and presented a 32-page report, reacted by explaining what happened during the examination and certification process on her twitter account and criticized the lack of reference to this medical document in making the decision: "All doctors say there is a life-threatening need for care, but they respond they can be kept unattended in the prison hospital.

On top of that, lawyers call on people who are mentally competent to end the hunger strike and they say, "The state takes good care of you". There is a lot of detail, but so I think it can show how the whole process is loaded with human rights violations. There is no single reference to a total of 32-page examination, medical documentation, scientific opinions with many scientifically tortured diagnoses." Following the decree law numbered 679 was issued as a result of the state of emergency declared after the July 15 coup attempt, Nuriye Gülmen started a protest in front of the Human Rights Monument on Yüksel Street in Ankara, demanding the following: End the state of emergency. Let the revolutionary democratic public laborers, who were fired and dismissed, be returned to work. Arbitrary and unlawful dismissal should be stopped. Restore the staff assurance for 13 thousand ÖYP research assistants. Science cannot be made without job security, we want job security for all education and science workers.

On 25 May 2017, Interior Minister Süleyman Soylu claimed that Nuriye Gülmen and Semih Özakça were "members of the DHKP-C terrorist organization" and that their actions were supported by this organization and that they had a direct link to DHKP-C. Following Soylu's claim, lawyer Selçuk Kozağaçlı published Nuriye Gülmen and Semih Özakça's criminal record which showed that they had no connection to any terrorist organizations. On top of that, the Ministry of Interior Research and Studies Center published a 54-page booklet titled "The Unending Scenario of a Terrorist Organization, Nuriye Gülmen and Semih Özakça Truth"; the booklet claimed that 12 lawsuits were filed against Nuriye Gülmen, all of these cases were related to the terrorist organization, one of them resulted in conviction and was pending the Supreme Court's decision. The Cumhuriyet newspaper claimed that the booklet had contained evidence for other cases that had not yet been finalized and were still pending before the Supreme Court.

Nuriye Gülmen Direniyor

Five Live Yardbirds

Five Live Yardbirds is the live debut album by English rock band the Yardbirds. It features the group's interpretations of ten American blues and rhythm and blues songs, including their most popular live number, Howlin' Wolf's "Smokestack Lightning"; the album contains some of the earliest recordings with guitarist Eric Clapton. Recorded at the Marquee Club in London on 20 March 1964, it was released in the United Kingdom by Columbia Records nine months later. Despite several favourable retrospective reviews, the album did not reach the UK album charts, it was not issued in the United States. In October 1963, the Yardbirds took over the Rolling Stones' position at the Crawdaddy Club and had signed a management contract with club owner Giorgio Gomelsky. After touring with Sonny Boy Williamson II, the band signed a contract with Columbia Records. In 1964, they recorded two singles, "I Wish You Would" and "Good Morning Little Schoolgirl"; these had limited success and Gomelsky was able to persuade Columbia to release a live album as the Yardbirds' debut album.

The Yardbirds were a popular live attraction at music clubs. Much of their reputation was built on their use of a "rave up" musical arrangement, an instrumental interlude that builds to a climax. Clapton credits the rave up to bassist Paul Samwell-Smith and explains: "While most other bands were playing three-minute songs, we were taking three-minute numbers and stretching them out to five or six minutes, during which time the audience would go crazy", it was at such performances that Clapton broke a guitar string. While he was putting on a new one, the audience would clap their hands; this led manager Gomelsky to nickname him "Eric'Slowhand' Clapton". Five Live Yardbirds was recorded at the Marquee Club in London. Yardbirds' biographer Gregg Russo describes the conditions and equipment for recording at the club was less than ideal, but they were able to capitalise on their greater popularity there than at the Crawdaddy, he adds: The recording date for the album has been listed as Tuesday, March 10, 1964, but Gomelsky distinctly remembers the show taking place at Wardour Street.

On March 10, the club was still at Oxford Street, combined with the fact that the Yardbirds played on Fridays at the Wardour Street location, the March 20, 1964 recording date seems much more likely. All of the songs that appear on Five Live Yardbirds were written by American blues and rhythm and blues artists and several of the original recordings appeared on the American record charts; the band's early material reflects the repertoires of the early British rhythm and blues groups, such as the Rolling Stones and the Animals. Clapton biographer David Bowling described the album as "a lot of straight electric blues, but at times they come close to a rock sound." Their version of Chuck Berry's "Too Much Monkey Business", the album opener, is the most rock-oriented song on the album. Several songs feature extended instrumental improvisation. Bo Diddley's "Here'Tis" and the Isley Brothers' "Respectable" are high-energy tunes, which represent the use of double-time feature of the rave up for the entire songs.

AllMusic critic Matthew Greenwald describes "Here'Tis" as "driven by a furious "Bo Diddley" beat and rhythm... Clapton's interplay with bassist Paul Samwell-Smith is one of the great moments in the band's recorded history"; the instrumental spotlight was shared with singer and blues harmonica player Keith Relf. Clapton and Relf trading riffs is one of the highlights of "Smokestack Lightning"; the Howlin' Wolf song was a regular in their sets. Performances of the song could last up to 30 minutes. Howlin' Wolf referred to the group's 5:35 album version as "the definitive version of his song"; the slow blues standard, "Five Long Years", features extended guitar soloing by Clapton in a style he further developed with John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers. Clapton and Samwell-Smith share the lead vocals on "Good Morning Little Schoolgirl", based on the version by the American R&B duo Don and Bob. Bo Diddley's "I'm a Man" and songs by Slim Harpo and John Lee Hooker round out the album. Clapton biographer Christopher Sandford notes, "When Five Live Yardbirds was released that winter, to favourable reviews it, failed to materially benefit the group."

The album did not appear in British record charts and subsequently was not issued in the US. Critics have given favourable reviews. AllMusic's Eder awarded it four and a half out of five stars and described it as "the first important – indeed, essential – live album to come out of the 1960s British rock & roll boom. In terms of the performance captured and the recording quality, it was the best such live record of the entire middle of the decade". In a separate review for AllMusic, Rick Clark noted "Smokestack Lightning" were open-ended improvisations that helped lay the groundwork for groups like Cream and the Jimi Hendrix Experience." Bowling calls the material "raw and powerful" and Russo adds it is "a faithful reproduction" of the group's early shows. "Ultimate Classic Rock" listed the album in its list of "Top 100 Live Albums", calling it an "explosive document of a British blues band fueling a decidedly American music with power and amped-up resourcefulness". Aerosmith's Joe Perry described himself as "a huge fan of Clapton's work on Five Live Yardbirds.

Their version of Chuck Berry's'Too Much Monkey Business' was such a blueprint for a lot of what Aerosmith tried to do. The'Ra

Noah Robertson

Noah "Shark" Robertson is an American drummer and writer. He is most notable for being one of the founding members of The Browning, he was the drummer of Motograter from 2013 to 2017. Robertson is the drummer for Jeffrey Nothing, former vocalist and founding member of Mushroomhead. In July 2011, he founded Swimming With Sharks Records; the label roster includes Eye of Hellbent, among other acts from around the world. Past artists include Mouth Of The Serpent, Laconic and Led To the Woods, among others. On August 29, 2016 Robertson launched Zombie Shark Records and announced his first signings as Keychain from Montreal and Darkc3ll from Australia; the Zombie Shark Records roster has included Dirty Machine, Darkcell, Lethal Injektion, NoSelf, The Black Crown, 10/31, Natas Lived, JUNK, The Rift, Promidal and more. In August 2016, Thom Hazaert brought Robertson on as Marketing Director of EMP Label Group, the new record label from David Ellefson of Megadeth fame. Thom is serving as Director of Operations and Head of A&R at EMP and has served as a consultant for Zombie Shark Records.

In 2018, Robertson began his stand-up comedy career. He made his Comedy Store debut in Hollywood, California on June 4, 2018. In September 2018 it was announced that Robertson joined forces with Jeffrey Nothing and Thomas Church following their departure from Mushroomhead

Richmond Town Hall (New Hampshire)

Richmond Town Hall is the town hall of Richmond, New Hampshire, United States. Built in 1780, used for both civic and religious purposes, it is one of the oldest meeting houses in the state; the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. Richmond Town Hall is located north of the village center of Richmond, on the east side of New Hampshire Route 32, about 0.6 miles north of its junction with New Hampshire Route 119. It is a plain white clapboarded structure measuring 40 feet long, it is a tall single story in height, with much of its interior occupied by a large auditorium with galleries. Its frame consists of large square-hewn timbers tapering from two feet square at the top to one foot at the base; these massive timbers support the king-post trusses. The building was constructed in 1780 to house Richmond's First Baptist Church, a congregation established in 1768 and one of the first Baptist congregations in the state, it was first used for town functions in 1782.

The church became notable in the early history of Christian universalism, because Hosea Ballou, son of its first settled minister, became one of the leading proponents of that doctrine. The First Baptist Church congregation was merged with another in 1830, ending its association with the building, its religious trappings were removed in 1884, at which time the rear gallery space was adapted to house town offices, a stage was added to the auditorium in place of the pulpit. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cheshire County, New Hampshire