Funerals in Islam follow specific rites, though they are subject to regional interpretation and variation in custom. In all cases, sharia calls for burial of the body as soon as possible, preceded by a simple ritual involving bathing and shrouding the body, followed by salah. Burial is within 24 hours of death to protect the living from any sanitary issues, except in the case of a person killed in battle or when foul play is suspected. Cremation of the body is forbidden in Islam. Burial rituals should take place as soon as possible and include: Collective bathing of the dead body, except in extraordinary circumstances as in battle of Uhud. Enshrouding dead body in a white cotton or linen cloth. Funeral prayer. Burial of the dead body in a grave. Positioning the deceased so that the head is faced towards Mecca; the corpse is washed, with the purpose to physically cleanse the deceased. The exact manner: the method and accessories used for bathing the corpse may vary by locale and temporal position, except that it is to be done with heated water.
Bathing the dead body is an essential ritual of the Sunnah of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, therefore a part of the Islamic Sharia. This should occur preferably within hours. Orthodox practice is to wash the body an odd number of times with a cloth covering its awrah; the "washers" are adult members of the immediate family, who are of the same gender as the deceased. In cases of violent deaths or accidents, where the deceased has suffered trauma or mutilation, morgue facilities mend the body and wrap it in a shroud to minimise fluid leakage prior to surrendering it to mourners for washing; the corpse is wrapped in a simple plain cloth. This is done to respect the privacy of the deceased with the family sometimes present; the specifics of this ritual, including the material and colour of the cloth, may vary between regions. However, the shroud should be modest, it is for this reason that Muslims have preferred to use white cotton cloth to serve as the shroud. Men may use only three pieces of cloth and women five pieces of cloth.
The body may be kept in this state for several hours, allowing well-wishers to pass on their respects and condolences. The Muslims of the community gather to offer their collective prayers for the forgiveness of the dead; this prayer has been termed as the Salat al-Janazah. The Janazah prayer is as follows: like Eid prayer, the Janazah prayer incorporates an additional Takbirs, the Arabic name for the phrase Allah Akbar, but there is no Ruku' and Sujud. Supplication for the deceased and mankind is recited. In extraordinary circumstances, the prayer can be postponed and prayed at a time as was done in the Battle of Uhud, it is required for every Muslim adult male to perform the funeral prayer upon the death of any Muslim, but conventionally and in practice the Janazah is performed by few people so it alleviates that obligation for all. The body is taken for burial; the exact manner and style of the grave, the burial and so forth may vary by regional custom. The grave should be perpendicular to the direction of the Qibla so that the body, placed in the grave without a coffin lying on its right side, faces the Qibla.
Grave markers should be raised, not more than about 30 centimetres above the ground, so that the grave will neither be walked nor sat on. Grave markers are simple. Graves are marked only with a simple wreath, if at all. However, it is becoming more common for family members to erect grave monuments. In Middle Eastern Muslim cultures, women are discouraged from participating in the funeral procession; the reason for this is that in pre-Islamic Arabia it was customary in Arabia for grieving women to wail loudly. Wealthy families even hired'wailers' to attend the funerals of their deceased relative. Wailing at funerals is not permitted according to the Sahih Bukhari. Women are allowed to attend or be present if they do not wail or cry or hit themselves in grief in an exaggerated excessive manner as in pre-Islamic Arabia. Three fist-sized spheres of hand-packed soil prepared beforehand by the gravediggers are used as props, one under the head, one under the chin and one under the shoulder; the lowering of the corpse and positioning of the soil-balls is done by the next of kin.
In the case of a deceased husband, a male brother or brother-in-law performs this task. In the case of a deceased wife, the husband undertakes this. If the husband is elderly the eldest son is responsible for lowering and propping the deceased. Orthodoxy expects those present to symbolically pour three handfuls of soil into the grave while reciting a quranic verse meaning, "We created you from it, return you into it, from it we will raise you a second time". More prayers are said, asking for forgiveness of the deceased, reminding the dead of their profession of faith; the corpse is fully buried by the gravediggers, who may stamp or pat down the grave to shape. The eldest male will supervise. After the burial the Muslims who have gathered to pay their respects to the dead collectively pray for the forgiveness of the dead; this collective prayer is the last formal collective prayer for the dead. In some
A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer and cider. It is a relaxed, social drinking establishment and a prominent part of British, Breton, New Zealand, South African and Australian cultures. In many places in villages, a pub is the focal point of the community. In his 17th-century diary Samuel Pepys described the pub as "the heart of England". Pubs can be traced back to Roman taverns, through the Anglo-Saxon alehouse to the development of the tied house system in the 19th century. In 1393, King Richard II of England introduced legislation that pubs had to display a sign outdoors to make them visible for passing ale tasters, who would assess the quality of ale sold. Most pubs focus on offering beers and similar drinks; as well, pubs sell wines and soft drinks and snacks. The owner, tenant or manager is known as the pub landlord or landlady, or publican. Referred to as their "local" by regulars, pubs are chosen for their proximity to home or work, the availability of a particular beer or ale or a good selection, good food, a social atmosphere, the presence of friends and acquaintances, the availability of recreational activities such as a darts team, a skittles team, a pool or snooker table.
The pub quiz was established in the UK in the 1970s. The inhabitants of the British Isles have been drinking ale since the Bronze Age, but it was with the arrival of the Roman Empire on its shores in the 1st century, the construction of the Roman road networks that the first inns, called tabernae, in which travellers could obtain refreshment, began to appear. After the departure of Roman authority in the 5th century and the fall of the Romano-British kingdoms, the Anglo-Saxons established alehouses that grew out of domestic dwellings; the Anglo-Saxon alewife would put a green bush up on a pole to let. These alehouses evolved into meeting houses for the folk to congregate and arrange mutual help within their communities. Herein lies "pub" as it is colloquially called in England, they spread across the kingdom, becoming so commonplace that in 965 King Edgar decreed that there should be no more than one alehouse per village. A traveller in the early Middle Ages could obtain overnight accommodation in monasteries, but a demand for hostelries grew with the popularity of pilgrimages and travel.
The Hostellers of London were granted guild status in 1446 and in 1514 the guild became the Worshipful Company of Innholders. A survey in 1577 of drinking establishment in England and Wales for taxation purposes recorded 14,202 alehouses, 1,631 inns, 329 taverns, representing one pub for every 187 people. Inns are buildings where travellers can seek lodging and food and drink, they are located in the country or along a highway. In Europe, they first sprang up when the Romans built a system of roads two millennia ago; some inns in Europe are several centuries old. In addition to providing for the needs of travellers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. In Europe, it is the provision of accommodation, if anything, that now distinguishes inns from taverns and pubs; the latter tend to provide alcohol, but less accommodation. Inns tend to be older and grander establishments: they provided not only food and lodging, but stabling and fodder for the traveller's horse and on some roads fresh horses for the mail coach.
Famous London inns include The George and The Tabard. There is, other kinds of establishment. Many pubs use "Inn" in their name, either because they are long established former coaching inns, or to summon up a particular kind of image, or in many cases as a pun on the word "in", as in "The Welcome Inn", the name of many pubs in Scotland; the original services of an inn are now available at other establishments, such as hotels and motels, which focus more on lodging customers than on other services, although they provide meals. In North America, the lodging aspect of the word "inn" lives on in hotel brand names like Holiday Inn, in some state laws that refer to lodging operators as innkeepers; the Inns of Court and Inns of Chancery in London started as ordinary inns where barristers met to do business, but became institutions of the legal profession in England and Wales. The 18th century saw a huge growth in the number of drinking establishments due to the introduction of gin. Brought to England by the Dutch after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, gin became popular after the government created a market for "cuckoo grain" or "cuckoo malt" by allowing unlicensed gin and beer production while imposing a heavy duty on all imported spirits.
As thousands of gin-shops sprang up all over England, brewers fought back by increasing the number of alehouses. By 1740 the production of gin had increased to six times that of beer and, because of its cheapness, it became popular with the poor, leading to the so-called Gin Craze. Over half of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London were gin shops; the drunkenness and lawlessness created by gin was seen to lead to the ruination and degradation of the working classes. The different effects of beer and gin were illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane; the Gin Act 1736 imposed high taxes on retailers and led to riots in the streets
Project Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". It is the oldest digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books; the project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on any computer. As of 23 June 2018, Project Gutenberg reached 57,000 items in its collection of free eBooks; the releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, Plucker. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional and language-specific works. Project Gutenberg is closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders, an Internet-based community for proofreading scanned texts. Project Gutenberg was started by Michael Hart in 1971 with the digitization of the United States Declaration of Independence.
Hart, a student at the University of Illinois, obtained access to a Xerox Sigma V mainframe computer in the university's Materials Research Lab. Through friendly operators, he received an account with a unlimited amount of computer time. Hart has said he wanted to "give back" this gift by doing something that could be considered to be of great value, his initial goal was to make the 10,000 most consulted books available to the public at little or no charge, to do so by the end of the 20th century. This particular computer was one of the 15 nodes on ARPANET, the computer network that would become the Internet. Hart believed that computers would one day be accessible to the general public and decided to make works of literature available in electronic form for free, he used a copy of the United States Declaration of Independence in his backpack, this became the first Project Gutenberg e-text. He named the project after Johannes Gutenberg, the fifteenth century German printer who propelled the movable type printing press revolution.
By the mid-1990s, Hart was running Project Gutenberg from Illinois Benedictine College. More volunteers had joined the effort. All of the text was entered manually until 1989 when image scanners and optical character recognition software improved and became more available, which made book scanning more feasible. Hart came to an arrangement with Carnegie Mellon University, which agreed to administer Project Gutenberg's finances; as the volume of e-texts increased, volunteers began to take over the project's day-to-day operations that Hart had run. Starting in 2004, an improved online catalog made Project Gutenberg content easier to browse and hyperlink. Project Gutenberg is now hosted by ibiblio at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Italian volunteer Pietro Di Miceli developed and administered the first Project Gutenberg website and started the development of the Project online Catalog. In his ten years in this role, the Project web pages won a number of awards being featured in "best of the Web" listings, contributing to the project's popularity.
Hart died on 6 September 2011 at his home in Urbana, Illinois at the age of 64. In 2000, a non-profit corporation, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, Inc. was chartered in Mississippi, United States to handle the project's legal needs. Donations to it are tax-deductible. Long-time Project Gutenberg volunteer Gregory Newby became the foundation's first CEO. In 2000, Charles Franks founded Distributed Proofreaders, which allowed the proofreading of scanned texts to be distributed among many volunteers over the Internet; this effort increased the number and variety of texts being added to Project Gutenberg, as well as making it easier for new volunteers to start contributing. DP became affiliated with Project Gutenberg in 2002; as of 2018, the 36,000+ DP-contributed books comprised two-thirds of the nearly 57,000 books in Project Gutenberg. In August 2003, Project Gutenberg created a CD containing 600 of the "best" e-books from the collection; the CD is available for download as an ISO image.
When users are unable to download the CD, they can request to have a copy sent to them, free of charge. In December 2003, a DVD was created containing nearly 10,000 items. At the time, this represented the entire collection. In early 2004, the DVD became available by mail. In July 2007, a new edition of the DVD was released containing over 17,000 books, in April 2010, a dual-layer DVD was released, containing nearly 30,000 items; the majority of the DVDs, all of the CDs mailed by the project, were recorded on recordable media by volunteers. However, the new dual layer DVDs were manufactured, as it proved more economical than having volunteers burn them; as of October 2010, the project has mailed 40,000 discs. As of 2017, the delivery of free CDs has been discontinued, though the ISO image is still available for download; as of August 2015, Project Gutenberg claimed over 57,000 items in its collection, with an average of over 50 new e-books being added each week. These are works of literature from the Western cultural tradition.
In addition to literature such as novels, short stories and drama, Project Gutenberg has cookbooks, reference works and issues of periodicals. The Project Gutenberg collection has a few non-text items such as audio files and music-notation files. Most releases are in English, but there are significant numbers in many other languages; as of April 2016, the non-English languages most represented are: Fren
Age of Discovery
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration, is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and, the beginning of globalization. It marks the rise of the period of widespread adoption in Europe of colonialism and mercantilism as national policies. Many lands unknown to Europeans were discovered by them during this period, though most were inhabited. From the perspective of many non-Europeans, the Age of Discovery marked the arrival of invaders from unknown continents. Global exploration started with the Portuguese discoveries of the Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores in 1419 and 1427, the coast of Africa after 1434 and the sea route to India in 1498; these discoveries led to numerous naval expeditions across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, land expeditions in the Americas, Asia and Australia that continued into the late 19th century, ended with the exploration of the polar regions in the 20th century.
European overseas exploration led to the rise of global trade and the European colonial empires, with the contact between the Old World and the New World producing the Columbian Exchange, a wide transfer of plants, food, human populations, communicable diseases and culture between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. This represented one of the most significant global events concerning ecology and culture in history; the Age of Discovery and European exploration allowed the global mapping of the world, resulting in a new worldview and distant civilizations coming into contact, but led to the propagation of diseases that decimated populations not in contact with Eurasia and Africa and to the enslavement, military conquest and economic dominance by Europe and its colonies over native populations. It allowed for the expansion of Christianity throughout the world: with the spread of missionary activity, it became the world's largest religion; the Portuguese began systematically exploring the Atlantic coast of Africa from 1418, under the sponsorship of Prince Henry.
Under the direction of Henry the Navigator, the Portuguese developed a new, much lighter ship, the caravel, which could sail further and faster, above all, was manoeuvrable and could sail much nearer the wind, or into the wind. In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias reached the Indian Ocean by this route. In 1492 the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon funded Christopher Columbus's plan to sail west to reach the Indies by crossing the Atlantic, he seen as a new world, the Americas. To prevent conflict between Portugal and Castile, the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed dividing the world into two regions of exploration, where each had exclusive rights to claim newly discovered lands. In 1498, a Portuguese expedition commanded by Vasco da Gama reached India by sailing around Africa, opening up direct trade with Asia. While other exploratory fleets were sent from Portugal to northern North America, in the following years Portuguese India Armadas extended this Eastern oceanic route, touching sometimes South America and by this way opening a circuit from the New World to Asia, explored islands in the South Atlantic and Southern Indian Oceans.
Soon, the Portuguese sailed further eastward, to the valuable Spice Islands in 1512, landing in China one year later. In 1513, Spanish Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached the "other sea" from the New World. Thus, Europe first received news of the eastern and western Pacific within a one-year span around 1512. East and west exploration overlapped in 1522, when a Castilian expedition, led by Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan and by Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano, sailing westward, completed the first circumnavigation of the world, while Spanish conquistadors explored the interior of the Americas, some of the South Pacific islands. Since 1495, the French and English and, much the Dutch entered the race of exploration after learning of these exploits, defying the Iberian monopoly on maritime trade by searching for new routes, first to the western coasts of North and South America, through the first English and French expeditions, into the Pacific Ocean around South America, but by following the Portuguese around Africa into the Indian Ocean.
Meanwhile, from the 1580s to the 1640s, Russians explored and conquered the whole of Siberia, Alaska in the 1730s. Between the 12th and 15th centuries the European economy was transformed by the interconnecting of river and sea trade routes, causing Europe to become one of the world's most prosperous trading networks. Before the 12th century the main obstacle to trade east of the Strait of Gibraltar was lack of commercial incentive rather than inadequate ship design. Economic growth of Spain followed the reconquest of the siege of Lisbon; the decline of Fatimid Caliphate naval strength that started
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Baron Stanley of Alderley
Baron Stanley of Alderley, in the County of Chester, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1839 for landowner Sir John Stanley, 7th Baronet. Upon his death in 1850, he was succeeded as 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley and 8th Baronet of Alderley Hall by his son Edward, a prominent Liberal politician and notably served as President of the Board of Trade, Postmaster General and had in 1848 been created Baron Eddisbury, of Winnington in the County Palatine of Chester, in his own right, his wife Henrietta was a prominent campaigner for women's education. After his death, the Stanley of Alderley and Eddisbury baronies remained united; the 3rd Baron Stanley of Alderley had a career in the Diplomatic Service. He was Liberal Member of Parliament for Oldham. In 1909, the 4th Baron Stanley of Alderley acquired a further title when he succeeded his first cousin once removed, the Earl of Sheffield, according to a special remainder and thus inherited the title of 4th Baron Sheffield.
After his death the titles passed to the 5th Baron Stanley of Alderley. He was Liberal Member of Parliament for Eddisbury and served as Governor of Victoria, his eldest son, the 6th Baron Stanley of Alderley, sold the family seat of Alderley Hall in 1938. He was married the second time to Sylvia Ashley. On his death the titles passed to his younger brother, he only held the titles for three months. As of 2013 the titles are held by the latter's cousin, the 9th Baron Stanley of Alderley, who succeeded his father in that year, he is youngest son of the 4th Baron. The Stanley Baronetcy, of Alderley Hall in the County of Chester, was created in the Baronetage of England in 1660 for the barrister Thomas Stanley, he was a descendant of the Hon. Sir John Stanley, third son of Thomas Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley, he was succeeded by the second Baronet. He was High Sheriff of Cheshire in 1678, his great-grandson, the sixth Baronet, was a Gentleman of the Privy Chamber. His eldest son was the seventh Baronet, elevated to the peerage in 1839.
See above for further succession. As a descendant of the first Baron Stanley, the holders of the barony of Stanley of Alderley are in remainder to this peerage, held by their kinsmen the Earls of Derby; the Right Reverend Edward Stanley, second son of the sixth Baronet, was Bishop of Norwich. The Hon. Venetia Stanley was the youngest daughter of the fourth Baron; the traditional burial place of the Lords Stanley of Alderley was the Stanley Mausoleum in the churchyard of St Mary, Nether Alderley, built in 1909. The building now belongs to the parish council; the London house of the Stanley family at 40 Dover Street was purchased by The Arts Club, a club for gentlemen interested in the arts, in 1896. It remains there to this day; the family seat now is Rectory Farm, near Oxfordshire. Sir Thomas Stanley, 1st Baronet Sir Peter Stanley, 2nd Baronet Sir Thomas Stanley, 3rd Baronet Sir James Stanley, 4th Baronet Sir Edward Stanley, 5th Baronet Sir John Thomas Stanley, 6th Baronet Sir John Thomas Stanley, 7th Baronet John Thomas Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley of Alderley Edward John Stanley, 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley Henry Edward John Stanley, 3rd Baron Stanley of Alderley and 2nd Baron Eddisbury Edward Lyulph Stanley, 4th Baron Sheffield, 4th Baron Stanley of Alderley and 3rd Baron Eddisbury Arthur Lyulph Stanley, 5th Baron Sheffield, 5th Baron Stanley of Alderley and 4th Baron Eddisbury Edward John Stanley, 6th Baron Sheffield, 6th Baron Stanley of Alderley and 5th Baron Eddisbury Lyulph Henry Victor Owen Stanley, 7th Baron Sheffield, 7th Baron Stanley of Alderley and 6th Baron Eddisbury Thomas Henry Oliver Stanley, 8th Baron Sheffield, 8th Baron Stanley of Alderley and 7th Baron Eddisbury Richard Oliver Stanley, 9th Baron Sheffield, 9th Baron Stanley of Alderley and 8th Baron Eddisbury The heir presumptive is the present holder's brother Hon. Charles Ernest Stanley.
Audley-Stanley family Earl of Derby Baron Sheffield Baron Eddisbury Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's list of baronets