Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet
Sir George Gabriel Stokes, 1st Baronet, was an Anglo-Irish physicist and mathematician. Born in County Sligo, Stokes spent all of his career at the University of Cambridge, where he was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics from 1849 until his death in 1903; as a physicist, Stokes made seminal contributions to fluid dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes equation, to physical optics, with notable works on polarization and fluorescence. As a mathematician, he popularised "Stokes' theorem" in vector calculus and contributed to the theory of asymptotic expansions. Stokes was made a baronet by the British monarch in 1889. In 1893 he received the Royal Society's Copley Medal the most prestigious scientific prize in the world, "for his researches and discoveries in physical science", he represented Cambridge University in the British House of Commons from 1887 to 1892, sitting as a Tory. Stokes served as president of the Royal Society from 1885 to 1890 and was the Master of Pembroke College, Cambridge.
George Stokes was the youngest son of the Reverend Gabriel Stokes, a clergyman in the Church of Ireland who served as rector of Skreen, in County Sligo. Stokes home life was influenced by his father's evangelical Protestantism. After attending schools in Skreen and Bristol, in 1837 Stokes matriculated at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Four years he graduated as senior wrangler and first Smith's prizeman, achievements that earned him election of a fellow of the college. In accordance with the college statutes, Stokes had to resign the fellowship when he married in 1857. Twelve years under new statutes, he was re-elected to the fellowship and he retained that place until 1902, when on the day before his 83rd birthday, he was elected as the college's Master. Stokes did not hold that position for long, for he died at Cambridge on 1 February the following year, was buried in the Mill Road cemetery. In 1849, Stokes was appointed to the Lucasian professorship of mathematics at Cambridge, a position he held until his death in 1903.
On 1 June 1899, the jubilee of this appointment was celebrated there in a ceremony, attended by numerous delegates from European and American universities. A commemorative gold medal was presented to Stokes by the chancellor of the university and marble busts of Stokes by Hamo Thornycroft were formally offered to Pembroke College and to the university by Lord Kelvin. Stokes, made a baronet in 1889, further served his university by representing it in parliament from 1887 to 1892 as one of the two members for the Cambridge University constituency. During a portion of this period he was president of the Royal Society, of which he had been one of the secretaries since 1854. Since he was Lucasian Professor at this time, Stokes was the first person to hold all three positions simultaneously. Stokes was the oldest of the trio of natural philosophers, James Clerk Maxwell and Lord Kelvin being the other two, who contributed to the fame of the Cambridge school of mathematical physics in the middle of the 19th century.
Stokes's original work began about 1840, from that date onwards the great extent of his output was only less remarkable than the brilliance of its quality. The Royal Society's catalogue of scientific papers gives the titles of over a hundred memoirs by him published down to 1883; some of these are only brief notes, others are short controversial or corrective statements, but many are long and elaborate treatises. In scope, his work covered a wide range of physical inquiry but, as Marie Alfred Cornu remarked in his Rede lecture of 1899, the greater part of it was concerned with waves and the transformations imposed on them during their passage through various media, his first published papers, which appeared in 1842 and 1843, were on the steady motion of incompressible fluids and some cases of fluid motion. These were followed in 1845 by one on the friction of fluids in motion and the equilibrium and motion of elastic solids, in 1850 by another on the effects of the internal friction of fluids on the motion of pendulums.
To the theory of sound he made several contributions, including a discussion of the effect of wind on the intensity of sound and an explanation of how the intensity is influenced by the nature of the gas in which the sound is produced. These inquiries together put the science of fluid dynamics on a new footing, provided a key not only to the explanation of many natural phenomena, such as the suspension of clouds in air, the subsidence of ripples and waves in water, but to the solution of practical problems, such as the flow of water in rivers and channels, the skin resistance of ships, his work on fluid motion and viscosity led to his calculating the terminal velocity for a sphere falling in a viscous medium. This became known as Stokes's law, he derived an expression for the frictional force exerted on spherical objects with small Reynolds numbers. His work is the basis of the falling sphere viscometer, in which the fluid is stationary in a vertical glass tube. A sphere of known size and density is allowed to descend through the liquid.
If selected, it reaches terminal velocity, which can be measured by the time it takes to pass two marks on the tube. Electronic sensing can be used for opaque fluids. Knowing the terminal velocity, the size and density of the sphere, the density of the liquid, Stokes's law can be used to calculate the viscosity of the fluid. A series of steel ball bearings of different diameter is used in the classic experiment to improve the accuracy of the calculation; the school experiment uses glycerine as the fluid, t
Sir Gabriel Stokes was an Indian civil servant and British colonial administrator from Ireland. He acted as the Governor of Madras between February–March 1906. Gabriel Stokes was born on 7 July 1849 at Ballyard, County Kerry and was educated at Kilkenny College and Trinity College, Dublin; the son of Henry Stokes, the County Surveyor of Kerry, Stokes was born into a prominent family of academics, associated for Trinity College, Dublin for several generations. His grandfather was Whitley Stokes, a Regius Professor of Physic at Trinity College, his great-grandfather Gabriel Stokes, a Professor of Mathematics at Trinity and his great-great grandfather Gabriel Stokes, a Deputy Surveyor General of Ireland, his older brother Henry Stokes was a prominent member of the Indian civil service. Stokes cleared the Indian civil service examinations and qualified for the civil service in 1871. In India, he served as a member of the executive council of the Governor of Madras from 1896 to 1906 and from 1906 to 1907.
Gabriel Stokes acted as the Governor of Madras from 15 February 1906 to 28 March 1906. During his tenure, the Asian Petroleum Company began its work in Madras, he died at his home, 72 Morehampton Road in Dublin on 22 October 1920. In the 1909 New Year Honours, Stokes was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India for his services to the Crown. Kate Newmann. Gabriel Stokes: Colonial Governor. Dictionary of Ulster Biography. Ulster History Circle
Tamil Nadu Legislative Council
Tamil Nadu Legislative Council was the upper house of the former bicameral legislature of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It began its existence as Madras Legislative Council, the first provincial legislature for Madras Presidency, it was created as an advisory body in 1861, by the British colonial government. It was established by the first Indian Council Act of 1861, enacted in the British parliament in the aftermath of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, its role and strength were expanded by the second Council Act of 1892. Limited election was introduced in 1909; the Council became a unicameral legislative body in 1921 and the upper chamber of a bicameral legislature in 1937. After India became independent in 1947, it continued to be the upper chamber of the legislature of Madras State, one of the successor states to the Madras Presidency, it was renamed as the Tamil Nadu Legislative Council when the state was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1969. The Council was abolished by the M. G. Ramachandran administration on 1 November 1986.
In 2010 the DMK regime headed by M. Karunanidhi tried to revive the Council; the current AIADMK regime has expressed its intention not to revive the council and has passed a resolution in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly in this regard. The first Indian Councils Act of 1861 set up the Madras Legislative Council as an advisory body through which the colonial administration obtained advice and assistance; the Act empowered the provincial Governor to nominate four non-English Indian members to the council for the first time. Under the Act, the nominated members were allowed to move their own bills and vote on bills introduced in the council. However, they were not allowed to move resolutions or examine the budget, they could not interfere with the laws passed by the Central Legislature. The Governor was the president of the Council and he had complete authority over when and how long to convene the Council and what to discuss. Two members of his Executive Council and the Advocate-General of Madras were allowed to participate and vote in the Council.
The Indians nominated under this Act were zamindars and ryotwari landowners, who benefited from their association with the colonial government. Supportive members were re-nominated for several terms. G. N. Ganapathy Rao was nominated eight times, Humayun Jah Bahadur was a member for 23 years, T. Rama Rao and P. Chentsal Rao were members for six years each. Other prominent members during the period included V. Bhashyam Aiyangar, S. Subramania Iyer and C. Sankaran Nair; the Council met infrequently and in some years was not convened once. The maximum of number of times it met in a year was eighteen; the Governor preferred to convene the Council at his summer retreat Udagamandalam, much to the displeasure of the Indian members. The few times when the Council met, it was for only a few hours with bills and resolutions being rushed through. In 1892, the role of the Council was expanded by the Indian Councils Act of 1892; the Act increased the number of additional members of the Council to a maximum of 20, of whom not more than nine had to be officials.
The Act introduced the method of election for the Council, but did not mention word "election" explicitly. The elected members were called as "nominated" members and their method of election was described as "recommendation"; such "recommendations" were made by district boards, universities and other associations. The term of the members was fixed at two years; the Council could discuss the annual financial statement and ask questions subject to certain limitations. Thirty eight Indian members were "nominated" in the eight elections during 1893-1909 when this Act was in effect. C. Jambulingam Mudaliar, N. Subba Rao Pantulu, P. Kesava Pillai and C. Vijayaraghavachariar representing southern group of district boards, Kruthiventi Perraju Pantulu of the northern group of municipalities, C. Sankaran Nair and P. Rangaiah Naidu from the Corporation of Madras and P. S. Sivaswami Iyer, V. Krishnaswamy Iyer and M. Krishnan Nair from the University of Madras were some of the active members. However, over a period of time, representation by Indian members dwindled, for example, the position of Bashyam Iyengar and Sankaran Nayar in 1902 was occupied by Acworth and Sir George Moore.
The council did not meet more than 9 days in a year during the time. The Indian Councils Act 1909 introduced the method of electing members to the Council, but it did not provide for direct election of the members. It abolished automatic official majorities in the Council and gave its members the power to move resolutions upon matters of general public interest and the budget and to ask supplementary questions. There were a total of 21 nominated members; the Act allowed up to 16 nominated members to be official and the remaining five were required to be non-officials. The Governor was authorised to nominate two experts whenever necessary; as before, the Governor, his two executive council members and the Advocate-General were members of the Council. P. Kesava Pillai, A. S. Krishna Rao, N. Krishnaswami Iyengar, B. N. Sarma, B. V. Narasimha Iyer, K. Perraju Pantulu, T. V. Seshagiri Iyer, P. Siva Rao, V. S. Srinivasa Sastri, P. Theagaraya Chetty and Yakub Hasan Sait were among the active members.
Based on the recommendations of the Montague-Chelmsford report, the Government of India Act of 1919 was enacted. The Act enlarged the provincial legislative councils and increased the strength of elected members to be greater than that of nominated and official members, it introduced a system of dyarchy in the Provinces. Although this Act brought about repr
Whitley Stokes, CSI, CIE, FBA was an Irish lawyer and Celtic scholar. He was a son of William Stokes, a grandson of Whitley Stokes, each of whom was Regius Professor of Physic at the University of Dublin, his sister Margaret Stokes was a archaeologist. He was born at 5 Merrion Square and educated at St Columba's College where he was taught Irish by Denis Coffey, author of a Primer of the Irish Language. Through his father he came to know the Irish antiquaries Samuel Ferguson, Eugene O'Curry, John O'Donovan and George Petrie, he entered Trinity College, Dublin in 1846 and graduated with a BA in 1851. His friend and contemporary Rudolf Thomas Siegfried became assistant librarian in Trinity College in 1855, the college's first professor of Sanskrit in 1858, it is that Stokes learnt both Sanskrit and comparative philology from Siegfried, thus acquiring a skill-set rare among Celtic scholars in Ireland at the time. Stokes qualified for the bar at Inner Temple, his instructors in the law were Arthur Cayley, Hugh McCalmont Hughes, Thomas Chitty.
Stokes became an English barrister on 17 November 1855, practicing in London before going to India in 1862, where he filled several official positions. In 1865 he married Mary Bazely by whom he had two daughters. One of his daughters, Maïve, compiled a book of Indian Fairy Tales in 1879 based on stories told to her by her Indian ayahs and a man-servant, it included some notes by Mrs. Mary Stokes. Mary died. In 1877, Stokes was appointed legal member of the viceroy's council, he drafted the codes of civil and criminal procedure and did much other valuable work of the same nature. In 1879 he became president of the commission on Indian law. Nine books by Stokes on Celtic studies were published in India, he returned to settle permanently in London in 1881 and married Elizabeth Temple in 1884. In 1887 he was made a CSI, two years a CIE He was an original fellow of the British Academy, an honorary fellow of Jesus College and foreign associate of the Institut de France. Whitley Stokes is most famous as a Celtic scholar, in this field he worked both in India and in England.
He studied Irish and Cornish texts. His chief interest in Irish was as a source of material for comparative philology. Despite his learning in Old Irish and Middle Irish, he never acquired Irish pronunciation and never mastered Modern Irish. In the hundred years since his death he has continued to be a central figure in Celtic scholarship. Many of his editions have not been superseded in that time and his total output in Celtic studies comes to over 15,000 pages, he was a close friend of Kuno Meyer from 1881 onwards. With Meyer he established the journal Archiv für celtische Lexicographie and was the co-editor, with Ernst Windisch, of the Irische Texte series. In 1862 he was awarded the Cunningham Gold Medal by the Royal Irish Academy. Stokes died at his London home, 15 Grenville Place, Kensington, in 1909 and is buried in Paddington Old Cemetery. Willesden Lane, where his grave is marked by a Celtic cross. Another Celtic cross was erected as a memorial to him at St Fintan's, Dublin; the Gaelic League paper An Claidheamh Soluis called Stokes "the greatest of the Celtologists" and expressed pride that an Irishman should have excelled in a field, at that time dominated by continental scholars.
In 1929 the Canadian scholar James F. Kenney described Stokes as "the greatest scholar in philology that Ireland has produced, the only one that may be ranked with the most famous of continental savants". A conference entitled "Ireland, London: The Tripartite Life Of Whitley Stokes" took place at the University of Cambridge from 18–19 September 2009; the event was organised to mark the centenary of Stokes's death. A volume of essays based on the papers delivered at this conference, The tripartite life of Whitley Stokes, was published by Four Courts Press in autumn 2011. In 2010 Dáibhí Ó Cróinín published Whitley Stokes:the Lost Celtic Notebooks Rediscovered, a volume based on the scholarship in Stokes's 150 notebooks, resting unnoticed at the University Library, Leipzig since 1919; the Passion: Middle Cornish Poem Three Irish Glossaries Gwreans an Bys: the Creation of the World Translation of William Jordan's 1611 Cornish play Beunans Meriasek The Life of Saint Meriasek Bishop and Confessor - Editor Three Middle-Irish Homilies Old Irish Glosses at Merzburg and Carlsruhe Irische Texte published at Leipzig, co-editor with Ernst Windisch The Anglo-Indian Codes.
Lives of Saints from the Book of Lismore translator Urkeltischer Sprachschatz with Adalbert Bezzenberger Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus with John Strachan This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Stokes, Whitley". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25. Cambridge University Press. P. 953. Stokes bibliography at University College Cork's CELT project Irish Texts edited, some translated, by Whitley Stokes, CELT project, retrieved 23 May 2007 Works by or about Whitley Stokes at Internet Archive
Order of the Star of India
The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1861. The Order includes members of three classes: Knight Grand Commander Knight Commander Companion No appointments have been made since the 1948 New Year Honours, shortly after the Partition of India in 1947. With the death in 2009 of the last surviving knight, the Maharaja of Alwar, the order became dormant; the motto of the order was Heaven's light our guide. The "Star of India", the emblem of the order appeared on the flag of the Viceroy of India and other flags used to represent British India; the order is the fifth most senior British order of chivalry, following the Order of the Garter, Order of the Thistle, Order of St Patrick and Order of the Bath. It is the senior order of chivalry associated with the British Raj. Several years after the Indian Mutiny and the consolidation of Great Britain's power as the governing authority in India, it was decided by the British Crown to create a new order of knighthood to honour Indian Princes and Chiefs, as well as British officers and administrators who served in India.
On 25 June 1861, the following proclamation was issued by the Queen: The Queen, being desirous of affording to the Princes and People of the Indian Empire, a public and signal testimony of Her regard, by the Institution of an Order of knighthood, whereby Her resolution to take upon Herself the Government of the Territories in India may be commemorated, by which Her Majesty may be enabled to reward conspicuous merit and loyalty, has been graciously pleased, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to institute, erect and create, an Order of Knighthood, to be known by, have for hereafter, the name and designation, of "The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India" The first appointees were: HRH The Prince Consort HRH The Prince of Wales The Rt Hon Earl Canning, GCB, Governor-General of India and Grand Master of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India HH Maharaja Shri Sir Vaghji Thakor Morvi State for representing Kathiyawar on the day of Victoria's Jubilee Ceremony given by Queen Victoria for this honor HH Sir Vaghaji Thakor make them Sister.
HH Nawab Mir Tahniat Ali Khan Bahadur, Afzal ad-Dawlah, Asaf Jah V, the Nizam of Hyderabad HH Jayajirao Scindia, Maharaja of Gwalior HH Raja Bahadur Bindeshwari Prasad Singh Deo, Raja of Udaipur state in Chota Nagpur States. HH Maharaja Duleep Singh, former Maharaja of the Sikh Empire HH Ranbir Singh, Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir HH Tukojirao Holkar, Maharaja of Indore HH Narendra Singh, Maharaja of Patiala HH Khanderrao Gaekwad, Maharaja of Baroda HRH Maharaja Bir Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana of Nepal HH Nawab Sikander Begum, Nawab Begum of Bhopal HH Yusef Ali Khan Bahadur, Nawab of Rampur The Rt Hon Viscount Gough, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army The Rt Hon Lord Harris, Governor of Madras The Rt Hon Lord Clyde, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army Sir George Russell Clerk, Governor of Bombay Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence, Bt, GCB, Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab Sir James Outram, Bt, GCB, Member of the Viceroy's Council Sir Hugh Henry Rose, GCB, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army HEH Nizam Sir Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi Asaf Jah VII, 7th Nizam of HyderabadThe Order of the Indian Empire, founded in 1877, was intended to be a less exclusive version of the Order of the Star of India.
The last appointments to the orders relating to the British Empire in India were made in the 1948 New Year Honours, some months after the Partition of India in August 1947. The orders have never been formally abolished, Elizabeth II succeeded her father George VI as Sovereign of the Orders when she ascended the throne in 1952, she remains Sovereign of the Order to this day. However, there are no living members of the order. There were only three female members of the Order: Sultan Shah Jahan, Begum of Bhopal and her daughter, Hajjah Nawab Begum Dame Sultan Jahan, Mary of Teck; the last Grand Master of the Order, Admiral of the Fleet The Earl Mountbatten of Burma, was assassinated by the Provisional IRA on 27 August 1979. The last surviving Knight Grand Commander, HH Maharaja Sree Padmanabhadasa Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma GCSI, GCIE, Maharajah of Travancore; the last surviving Knight Commander, HH Maharaja Sir Tej Singh Prabhakar Bahadur KCSI, Maharaja of Alwar, died on 15 February 2009 in New Delhi.
The last surviving Companion of the Order, Vice-Admiral Sir Ronald Brockman CSI, died on 3 September 1999 in London. The British Sovereign was, still is, Sovereign of the Order; the next most senior member was the Grand Master, a position held ex officio by the Viceroy of India. When the order was established in 1861, there was only one class of Knights Companion, who bore the postnominals KSI. In 1866, however, it was expanded to three classes. Members of the first class were known as "Knights Grand Commander" so as not to offend the non-Christian Indians appointed to the Order. All those surviving members, made Knights Companion of the Order were retroactively known as Knights Grand Commander. Former viceroys and other high officials, as well as those who served in the Department of the Secretary of State for India for at least thirty years were eligible for appointment. Rulers of Indian Princely States were eligible for appointment; some states were of such importance that their rulers were always appointed
Trinity College Dublin
Trinity College the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland. The college was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I as the "mother" of a new university, modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but unlike these other ancient universities, only one college was established; the college is incorporated by "the Provost, Foundation Scholars and other members of the Board" as outlined by its founding charter. It is one of the seven ancient universities of Britain and Ireland, as well as Ireland's oldest surviving university. Trinity College is considered the most prestigious university in Ireland and amongst the most elite in Europe, principally due to its extensive history, reputation for social elitism and unique relationship with both the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. In accordance with the formula of ad eundem gradum, a form of recognition that exists among the three universities, a graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin can be conferred with the equivalent degree at either of the other two universities without further examination.
Trinity College, Dublin is a sister college to St John's College and Oriel College, Oxford. Trinity was established outside the city walls of Dublin in the buildings of the outlawed Catholic Augustinian Priory of All Hallows. Trinity College was set up in part to consolidate the rule of the Tudor monarchy in Ireland, as a result was the university of the Protestant Ascendancy for much of its history. While Catholics were admitted from 1793 certain restrictions on membership of the college remained as professorships and scholarships were reserved for Protestants; these restrictions were lifted by Act of Parliament in 1873. However, from 1871 to 1970, the Catholic Church in Ireland in turn forbade its adherents from attending Trinity College without permission. Women were first admitted to the college as full members in January 1904. Trinity College is now surrounded by central Dublin and is located on College Green, opposite the historic Irish Houses of Parliament; the college proper occupies 190,000 m2, with many of its buildings ranged around large quadrangles and two playing fields.
Academically, it is divided into three faculties comprising 25 schools, offering degree and diploma courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The Library of Trinity College is a legal deposit library for Ireland and Great Britain, containing over 6.2 million printed volumes and significant quantities of manuscripts, including the Book of Kells. The first University of Dublin was created by the Pope in 1311, had a Chancellor and students over many years, before coming to an end at the Reformation. Following this, some debate about a new university at St. Patrick's Cathedral, in 1592 a small group of Dublin citizens obtained a charter by way of letters patent from Queen Elizabeth incorporating Trinity College at the former site of All Hallows monastery, to the south east of the city walls, provided by the Corporation of Dublin; the first provost of the college was the Archbishop of Dublin, Adam Loftus, he was provided with two initial Fellows, James Hamilton and James Fullerton.
Two years after foundation, a few Fellows and students began to work in the new college, which lay around one small square. During the following fifty years the community increased the endowments, including considerable landed estates, were secured, new fellowships were founded, the books which formed the foundation of the great library were acquired, a curriculum was devised and statutes were framed; the founding Letters Patent were amended by succeeding monarchs on a number of occasions, such as by James I in 1613 and most notably in 1637 by Charles I and supplemented as late as the reign of Queen Victoria. During the eighteenth century Trinity College was seen as the university of the Protestant Ascendancy. Parliament, meeting on the other side of College Green, made generous grants for building; the first building of this period was the Old Library building, begun in 1712, followed by the Printing House and the Dining Hall. During the second half of the century Parliament Square emerged.
The great building drive was completed in the early nineteenth century by Botany Bay, the square which derives its name in part from the herb garden it once contained. Following early steps in Catholic Emancipation, Catholics were first allowed to apply for admission in 1793, prior to the equivalent change at the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford. Certain disabilities remained. In December 1845 Denis Caulfield Heron was the subject of a hearing at Trinity College. Heron had been examined and, on merit, declared a scholar of the college but had not been allowed to take up his place due to his Catholic religion. Heron appealed to the Courts which issued a writ of mandamus requiring the case to be adjudicated by the Archbishop of Dublin and the Primate of Ireland; the decision of Richard Whately and John George de la Poer Beresf
William Stokes (physician)
William Stokes was an Irish physician, Regius Professor of Physic at the University of Dublin. He graduated from the University of Edinburgh Medical School with an MD in 1825 returning the practice in Dublin at Meath Hospital, he went on to create two important works on cardiac and pulmonary diseases – A Treatise on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases of the Chest and The Diseases of the Heart and Aorta – as well as one of the first treatises on the use of the stethoscope. He emphasised the importance of clinical examination in forming diagnoses, of ward-based learning for students of medicine. Both Cheyne–Stokes breathing and Stokes–Adams syndrome are named after him. Stokes' sign is a severe throbbing in the abdomen, at the right of the umbilicus, in acute enteritis. Stokes law is that a muscle situated above an inflamed membrane is affected with paralysis. In 1858 he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In June 1861 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society as: "The Author of A work on the Diseases of the Lungs, of a work on the Diseases of the Heart and Aorta – and of other contributions to Pathological Science.
Eminent as a Physician". He was elected President of the Royal Irish Academy for 1874–76, his son, Whitley Stokes, was a notable lawyer and Celtic scholar, his daughter Margaret Stokes an archaeologist and writer. Doyle, D. "Eponymous doctors associated with Edinburgh, Part 2 – David Bruce, John Cheyne, William Stokes, Alexander Monro Secundus, Joseph Gamgee". Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. 36: 374–81. PMID 17526135. Berry, D. "History of cardiology: Robert Adams, MD, William Stokes, MD". Circulation. 113: f92. PMID 16773739. Ventura, H O. "Treatment of heart failure according to William Stokes: the enchanted mercury". Journal of Cardiac Failure. 7: 277–282. Doi:10.1054/jcaf.2001.26564. PMID 11561230. Coakley, D. "Irish pioneers in medical education: Robert Graves and William Stokes". European Journal of Dental Education. 3: 14–8. PMID 10865357. Cantwell, J D. "William Stokes". Clinical Cardiology. 11: 856–8. Doi:10.1002/clc.4960111213. PMID 3069261. Pinkerton, J H. "John Creery Ferguson.
Friend of William Stokes and pioneer of auscultation of the fetal heart in the British Isles". British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 87: 257–60. Doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.1980.tb04536.x. PMID 7000165. Logan, P. "William Stokes. View of a student". Irish Medical Journal. 71: 602–4. PMID 363641. O'Brien, B. "William Stokes". Irish Medical Journal. 71: 598–601. PMID 363640. O'Brien, E. "William Stokes 1804–78: the development of a doctor". British Medical Journal. 2: 749–50. Doi:10.1136/bmj.2.6139.749. PMC 1607570. PMID 359096. Schoenberg, D G. Southern Medical Journal. 71: 956–7. Doi:10.1097/00007611-197808000-00022. PMID 356272. Brian, V A. "The man behind the name: William Stokes 1804–1878". Nursing Times. 73: 311. PMID 322100. Burchell, H B. "The early use of the stethoscope in Scotland: William Stokes' contributions as a medical student". Biomedical Library Bulletin. 13: 2–4. PMID 11616688. "Men And Medicine". Medical Science. 14: 77. August 1963. PMID 14061440. Fralick, F B. "William Herman Stokes". Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society.
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