Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, Christians 14,000 and 9,000 were not classified by religion. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem" the two names were un
City of David
The City of David (Hebrew: עיר דוד, Ir David. First suggested in 1920, the name was used from the 1970s, following the capture of East Jerusalem by Israel, but today the name is questioned in the archaeological academic community. In 1997 management of the park was taken over by Ir David Foundation. Although it is located within the Jerusalem Municipality, it is considered a settlement, having been built on land in the West Bank, occupied by and annexed to Israel following the 1967 Six-Day War and 1980 Jerusalem Law; the international community regards Israeli settlements illegal under international law, although Israel disputes this. It is best known for its Iron Age structures attributed to Judean kings, it contains older Canaanite infrastructure dated to the Middle Bronze Age; the site is located under the Arab neighborhood of Wadi Hilweh, extends down from the southern city walls of Jerusalem's Old City. The remains at the site include several water tunnels, one of, built by King Hezekiah and still carries water, several pools including the Pool of Siloam known from the Old and New Testaments, here or at the adjacent Ophel scholars expect to find, or claim to have found, the remains of the Acra, a fortress built by Antiochus Epiphanes to subdue those Jerusalemites who were opposed to Hellenisation.
City of David archaeologist Eilat Mazar believes that a so-called Large Stone Structure she has discovered at the upper area of the site and tentatively dated to the tenth to ninth century BC, may be the palace of King David. Not far from that excavation area a number of bullae were unearthed, bearing the names of Yehucal son of Shelemiah and Gedaliah son of Pashhur, two officials mentioned in the Book of Jeremiah; the area is one of the most intensively excavated sites in the Holy Land. Archaeological practice at the site has been criticized with practitioners not acknowledging political and corporate motivations, questionable field practice and overtly skewed interpretations; the debate within biblical archaeology over the location of the City of David began in the late 19th century with the excavations of Charles Warren and Hermann Guthe on the hill southeast of the Old City. The 1909–11 work of Louis-Hugues Vincent and Montagu Brownlow Parker identified the earliest known settlement traces in the Jerusalem region, suggesting the area was an ancient core of settlement in Jerusalem dating back to the Bronze Age.
It is on a narrow ridge running south from the Temple Mount in the predominantly Arab neighborhood of Wadi Hilweh, part of Silwan, an East Jerusalem suburb. It is thought to have been a walled city in the Bronze Age which enjoyed the defensive advantages of its position, as it is surrounded by the Central or Tyropoeon Valley to its west, by the Hinnom Valley to the south, the Kidron Valley on the east. In the pre-Israelite period, the area is thought to have been separated from the site of the Temple Mount by the Ophel, an uninhabited area which became the seat of government under Israelite rule. During the reign of Hezekiah, the walls of Jerusalem were expanded westward, across the Central Valley from the City of David and the Temple Mount, enclosing a unwalled suburb in the area known today as the Western Hill of the Old City; the City of David/Wadi Hilweh is controversial in the context of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. In 2018, a leaked report by the European Economic Community cited the area as one being developed for tourism to justify settlements and insist on Jewish heritage at the expense of its Palestinian context.
The Gihon Spring, which lies on the eastern slope of the southeastern hill of Jerusalem aka the City of David, is considered the reason why the city first emerged at this specific location. The ancient water systems connected to the Gihon Spring include natural, masonry-built, rock-cut structures, such as The Spring Tower Warren's Shaft, a natural shaft, once thought to have been a water supply system The Siloam Channel, a water system that preceded the Siloam Tunnel The Siloam Tunnel, a water supply system where the Siloam inscription was found The Siloam Pool - two connected pools, an upper one from the Byzantine era, the discovered, lower Second Temple-period pool. Other built structures, spread over excavated sections known as Area A, B, C... include The Large Stone Structure The Stepped Stone Structure City walls and towers, houses, a columbarium, rock-cut vaulted tunnels once interpreted as royal Judahite tombs, a rock-cut pool where the Theodotus Inscription was discovered etc. A monumental stepped street used by Second Temple-period pilgrims and built over a large drainage system.
An adjacent and related excavation site is known as the Givati Parking Lot digIn 2010, an archaeological survey of the City of David was conducted by Rina Avner, Eliahu Shukron and Ronny Reich, on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority. In 2012–2013, two teams of archaeologists conducted surveys of the area on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority. Archaeological surveys in the City of David continued in 2014, led by Uzziel Joseph, Nahshon Zanton. Archaeological exploration of the area began in the nineteenth century, with excavations undertaken by Charles Warren in 1867. Warren was sent by the Palestine Exploration Fund. Warren conducted an excavation of the area south of the Temple Mount and recovered a massive fortification; the finding led him to conduct more excavations at the area
Thomas Williams (Christadelphian)
Thomas Williams was a Welsh Christadelphian who emigrated to America in 1872, became editor of The Christadelphian Advocate magazine and author of The Great Salvation and The World's Redemption, reserving him a place alongside Christadelphian founders Dr. John Thomas and Robert Roberts; when his appeals to English brethren went unheeded, he became the most prominent of the brethren who avoided these divisive factions, became known as Unamended Christadelphians because they never adopted a particular amendment to the Christadelphian statement of faith. Williams was born on April 7 in Parkmill, near Swansea. Having apprenticed as a carpenter in Parkmill, he found work with a William Clement his father-in-law, a member of the Christadelphian Ecclesia in Mumbles, was immersed on Sunday January 15, 1868, he married Elizabeth Clement and the couple had eight children - Clement, Katherine, in Wales, Gershom, May and Bessie in America. In 1872 he moved from Wales to Riverside, Iowa where he worked as a carpenter and joined the local "ecclesia" of 12 members In March 1885 he commenced publication of The Christadelphian Advocate Magazine at Waterloo, Iowa.
In 1888 he met Robert Roberts in Wauconda and again in Lanesville, Virginia for the first time since leaving Wales. In 1891 Williams began to publish a second magazine, The Truth Gleaner aimed at non-Christadelphians, in 1892 relocated to Chicago. In 1893, in response to the expected visitors to Chicago for the World's Columbian Exposition, Williams published 10,000 copies of the booklet The Great Salvation. By 1972 105,000 copies had been published. In 1905 J. G. Miller of Waterloo, Iowa translated the booklet as Die grosse Erlösung. Williams was active traveling throughout North America as a preacher and Christadelphian speaker; as was typical of religious speakers of the period Williams participated in lengthy public debates with other religious groups. In 1898 a controversy in London, England caused the Birmingham Central Ecclesia meeting at Temperance Hall to amend its statement of faith to include an extra bracketed sentence implying that God could and would raise at least some unbaptised believers at the resurrection.
Although 10 members had been "disfellowshipped" for not accepting this teaching in Sydney, Australia in 1883, some British ecclesias had similar amendments, the status of Birmingham as in the words of sociologist Bryan R. Wilson, primus inter pares, led to an escalation which saw many ecclesias without similar amendments being isolated in areas directly affected by the controversy such as London. See the history section of the article Christadelphians for background information. Following the death of Robert Roberts in 1898 the role of editor of The Christadelphian Magazine in Britain was taken by Charles Curwen Walker. From May to August 1900 Williams visited Britain, meeting Walker and Henry Sulley in Birmingham and John James Andrew, in London. Walker was reluctant to speak as any kind of "representative" of the British Christadelphians, but counseled Williams to support the amendment without regard for the peace of the original Christadelphian ecclesias in North America. From October 1903 to June 1904 Williams visited Britain again at the invitation of Albert Hall of the Sowerby Bridge ecclesia in Yorkshire. and of John Owler of the Barnsbury Hall, Islington ecclesia in London.
Hall and Owler had followed Andrew in the "resurrectional responsibility" controversy, although by 1903 Andrew himself would not fellowship with his previous supporters and been rebaptised in 1901. At a lecture in Leeds, which 40 visitors from those aligned with Birmingham Temperance Hall attended, Williams failed to state that God could and would raise some unbaptised, this was taken as supporting Andrew's teaching; however the next year Williams in print rejected Andrew's views as "extreme". Correspondence with Andrew continued till the latter's death in 1907; the result of the visit was a further distancing of the two sides. In 1906 Williams held a public lecture in Toronto against the "Hell-fire" teaching of R. A. Torrey which drew an audience of 4,000, was published as a booklet "Hell Torments". Notes of an earlier debate in 1888 with the atheist Charles Watts led to publication of "The Divinity of the Bible" in 1906. From June 1907 to August 1908 Williams made a third visit to England, leaving James Leask to run the magazine.
In Wales he persuaded four ecclesias which were in fellowship with the "Fraternal Visitor" magazine of J. J. Hadley to avoid the extremes which characterized their brethren, but this only resulted in a third group, rejected by both Birmingham Temperance Hall and Birmingham Suffolk St... The process of division was unstoppable, in November 1909 when Williams published an Unamended Statement of Faith, the old 1878 Birmingham Statement of Faith with 7 minor changes, the new statement became known as the "BUSF" and continued to be used by the Unamended Christadelphians. In 1911 Williams relocated both home and magazine from Chicago to Orlando, Florida In 1913 he made a fourth visit to Britain visiting Sowerby Bridge, Heckmondike and Huddersfield in Yorkshire arranged by Hall London for meetings arranged by Owler. Heading back by train from London to Mumbles he collapsed and died on December 8, aged 66. After William's death his role of editor passed to A. H. Zilmer a Lutheran pastor a Church of God Abrahamic Faith minister as a Christadelphian the associate editor of The Faith magazine, which he resigned on taking up William's position.
After two years he was replaced with John Owler, ment
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE. The period in which the First Temple or stood in Jerusalem, is known in academic literature as the First Temple period; the Hebrew Bible states that the temple was constructed under Solomon, king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah and that during the Kingdom of Judah, the temple was dedicated to Yahweh, is said to have housed the Ark of the Covenant. Jewish historian Josephus says that "the temple was burnt four hundred and seventy years, six months, ten days after it was built"; because of the religious sensitivities involved, the politically volatile situation in Jerusalem, only limited archaeological surveys of the Temple Mount have been conducted. No archaeological excavations have been allowed on the Temple Mount during modern times.
Therefore, there are few pieces of archaeological evidence for the existence of Solomon's Temple. An ivory pomegranate which mentions priests in the house "of ---h", an inscription recording the Temple's restoration under Jehoash have both appeared on the antiquities market, but their authenticity has been challenged and they are the subject of controversy; the noun hekhal means "a large building". This can be either the main building of the Temple in Jerusalem, or a palace such as the "palace" of Ahab, king of Samaria, or the "palace" of the King of Babylon. Hekhal is used 80 times in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible. Of these, 70 refer to the House of the LORD, the other 10 are references to palaces. There is no reference to any part of the tabernacle using this term in the Hebrew Bible. In the year that king Uzziah died. I saw the LORD sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, His train filled the hekhal. In older English versions of the Bible, including the King James Version, the term temple is used to translate hekhal.
In modern versions more reflective of archaeological research, the distinction is made of different sections of the whole Temple. Scholars and archaeologists agree on the structure of Solomon's Temple as described in 1 Kings 6:3–5, with three main elements: the porch. Schmid and Rupprecht are of the view that the site of the temple used to be a Jebusite shrine which Solomon chose in an attempt to unify the Jebusites and Israelites. Rabbinic sources state that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work Seder Olam Rabbah, place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in 422 BCE, 165 years than secular estimates; the exact location of the Temple is unknown: it is believed to have been situated upon the hill which forms the site of the 1st century Second Temple and present-day Temple Mount, where the Dome of the Rock is situated. The only source of information on the First Temple is the Tanakh. According to the biblical sources, the temple was constructed under Solomon, during the united monarchy of Israel and Judah.
The Bible describes Hiram I of Tyre who furnished architects and cedar timbers for the temple of his ally Solomon at Jerusalem. He co-operated with Solomon in mounting an expedition on the Red Sea. 1 Kings 6:1 puts the date of the beginning of building the temple "in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel". The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE; this puts the date of its construction in the mid-10th century BCE. 1 Kings 9:10 says that it took Solomon 20 years altogether to build his royal palace. The Temple itself finished being built after 7 years. 1 Kings 8:10-66 and 2 Chronicles 6:1-42 recount the events of the temple's dedication. When the priests emerged from the holy of holies after placing the Ark there, the Temple was filled with an overpowering cloud which interrupted the dedication ceremony, "for the glory of the Lord had filled the house of the Lord". Solomon interpreted the cloud as " that his pious work was accepted": The Lord has said that he would dwell in thick darkness.
I have built you a place for you to dwell in forever. The allusion is to Leviticus 16:2: The Lord said to Moses: Tell your brother Aaron not to come just at any time into the sanctuary inside the curtain before the mercy seat, upon the ark, or he will die. Solomon led the whole assembly of Israel in prayer, noting that the construction on the temple represented a fulfilment of God's promise to David, dedicating the temple as a place of prayer and reconciliation for the people of Israel and for foreigners living in Israel, highlighting the paradox that God who lives in the heavens cannot be contained within a single building; the dedication was concluded with sacrifices said to have included "twenty-two thousand bulls and one hundred and twenty thousand sheep". During the United Monarchy the Temple was dedicated to the God of Israel. From the reign of King Manasseh until King Josiah, Baal and "the host of heaven" were worshipped; until the reforms of King Josiah, there was a statue for the goddess Asherah and priestesses wove ritual textiles for her.
Next to the temple was a house for the temple prostitutes (2 Kings
Whanganui spelled Wanganui, is a city on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. The Whanganui River, New Zealand's longest navigable waterway, runs from Mount Tongariro to the sea. Whanganui is part of the Manawatu-Wanganui region. Like several New Zealand centres, it was designated a city until administrative reorganisation in 1989, is now run by a District Council. Although the city was called Wanganui from 1854, in February 2009, the New Zealand Geographic Board recommended the spelling be changed to "Whanganui". In December 2009, the government decided that while either spelling was acceptable, Crown agencies would use the Whanganui spelling. On 17 November 2015, Land Information New Zealand announced that Wanganui District would be renamed to Whanganui District; this changed the official name of the District Council, because Whanganui is not a city but a district, the official name of the urban area as well. Whanganui is located on the South Taranaki Bight, close to the mouth of the Whanganui River.
It is 200 kilometres north of Wellington and 75 kilometres northwest of Palmerston North, at the junction of State Highways 3 and 4. Most of the city lies on the river's northwestern bank, due to the greater extent of flat land; the river is crossed by four bridges – Cobham Bridge, City Bridge, Dublin Street Bridge and Aramoho Railway Bridge. Both Mount Ruapehu and Mount Taranaki can be seen from Durie Hill and other vantage points around the city; the suburbs within Whanganui include: Northeast: Wanganui East, Bastia Hill, Aramoho East: Durie Hill South: Pūtiki West: Gonville, Tawhero Northwest: Springvale, St. Johns Hill, Otamatea The area around the mouth of the Whanganui river was a major site of pre-European Māori settlement; the pā named Pūtiki is home to the Ngāti Tūpoho hapū of the iwi Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi. It took its name from the legendary explorer Tamatea Pōkai Whenua, who sent a servant ashore to find flax for tying up his topknot. In the 1820s coastal tribes in the area assaulted the Kapiti Island stronghold of Ngāti Toa chief Te Rauparaha.
Te Rauparaha retaliated in 1830 slaughtering the inhabitants. The first European traders arrived in 1831, followed in 1840 by missionaries Octavius Hadfield and Henry Williams who collected signatures for the Treaty of Waitangi. On 20 June 1840, the Revd John Mason, Mrs Mason, Mr Richard Matthews and his wife Johanna arrived to establish a mission station of the Church Missionary Society; the Revd Richard Taylor joined the CMS mission station in 1843. The Revd Mason drowned on 5 January 1843. By 1844 the brick church built by Mason was inadequate to meet the needs of the congregation and it had been damaged in an earthquake. A new church was built under the supervision of Taylor, with the timber supplied by each pā on the river in proportion to its size and number of Christians. After the New Zealand Company had settled Wellington it looked for other suitable places for settlers. Edward Wakefield, son of Edward Gibbon Wakefield, negotiated the sale of 40,000 acres in 1840, a town named Petre – after Lord Petre, one of the directors of the New Zealand Company – was established four kilometres from the river mouth.
The settlement was threatened in 1846 by a chief from up the Whanganui River. The British military arrived on 13 December 1846 to defend the township. Two stockades, the Rutland and York, were built to defend the settlers. Two minor battles were fought on 19 May and 19 July 1847 and after a stalemate the up river iwi returned home. By 1850 Te Mamaku was receiving Christian instruction from Revd Taylor. There were further incidents in 1847 when four members of the Gilfillan family were murdered and their house plundered; the name of the city was changed to Wanganui on 20 January 1854. The early years of the new city were problematic. Purchase of land from the local tribes had been haphazard and irregular, as such many Māori were angered with the influx of Pākehā onto land that they still claimed, it was not until the town had been established for eight years that agreements were reached between the colonials and local tribes, some resentment continued. Wanganui grew after this time, with land being cleared for pasture.
The town was a major military centre during the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s, although local Māori at Pūtiki led by Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui remained friendly to settlers. In 1871 a town bridge was built, followed six years by a railway bridge at Aramoho. Wanganui was linked by rail to both New Plymouth and Wellington by 1886; the town was incorporated as a Borough on 1 February 1872, declared a city on 1 July 1924. Wanganui's biggest scandal happened in 1920, when Mayor Charles Mackay shot and wounded a young poet, Walter D'Arcy Cresswell, blackmailing him over his homosexuality. Mackay served seven years in prison and his name was erased from the town's civic monuments, while Cresswell was praised as a "wholesome-minded young man". Mackay's name was restored to the foundation stone of the Sarjeant Gallery in 1985; the Whanganui River catchment is seen as a sacred area to Māori, the Whanganui region is still seen as a focal point for any resentment over land ownership. In 1995, Moutoa Gardens in Wanganui, known to local Māori as Pakaitore, were occupied for 79 days in a peaceful protest by the Whanganui iwi over land claims.
Wanganui was the site of the New Zealand Police Law Enforcement System from 1976 to 1995. An early Sperry mainframe computer-based intelligence and data manage
Glad Tidings is a free Bible magazine published monthly by the Christadelphians. The magazine was launched in 1884; the stated aims of the magazine are: to encourage study of the Bible as God's inspired message to men. To this end the magazine contains articles such as A Closer Look at Bible Prophecy and Arabs to Find Lasting Peace and Three Steps to a Happier Life. Www.gladtidingsmagazine.org
The Christadelphians are a millenarian Christian group who hold a view of Biblical Unitarianism. There are 50,000 Christadelphians in around 120 countries; the movement developed in the United Kingdom and North America in the 19th century around the teachings of John Thomas, who coined the name Christadelphian from the Greek for "Brethren in Christ". Claiming to base their beliefs on the Bible, Christadelphians differ from mainstream Christianity in a number of doctrinal areas. For example, they reject the Trinity and the immortality of the soul, believing these to be corruptions of original Christian teaching, they were found predominantly in the developed English-speaking world, but expanded in developing countries after the Second World War. Congregations are traditionally referred to as'ecclesias' and would not use the word'church' due to its association with mainstream Christianity, although today it is more acceptable; the Christadelphian religious group traces its origins to John Thomas, who emigrated to North America from England in 1832.
Following a near shipwreck he vowed to find out the truth about life and God through personal Biblical study. He sought to avoid the kind of sectarianism he had seen in England. In this he found sympathy with the emerging Restoration Movement in the US at the time; this movement sought a reform based upon the Bible alone as a sufficient guide and rejected all creeds. However, this liberality led to dissent as John Thomas developed his personal beliefs and began to question mainstream orthodox Christian beliefs. While the Restoration Movement accepted Thomas's right to have his own beliefs, when he started preaching that they were essential to salvation, it led to a fierce series of debates with a notable leader of the movement, Alexander Campbell. John Thomas believed that scripture, as God's word, did not support a multiplicity of differing beliefs, challenged the leaders to continue with the process of restoring 1st-century Christian beliefs and correct interpretation through a process of debate.
The history of this process appears in the book Dr. Thomas, His Life and Work by a Christadelphian, Robert Roberts. During this period of formulating his ideas John Thomas was baptised twice, the second time after renouncing the beliefs he held, he based his new position on a new appreciation for the reign of Christ on David's throne. The abjuration of his former beliefs led to the Restoration Movement disfellowshipping him when he toured England and they became aware of his abjuration in the United States of America; the Christadelphian community in Britain dates from Thomas's first lecturing tour. His message was welcomed in Scotland, Campbellite and Adventist friends separated to form groups of "Baptised Believers". Two thirds of ecclesias, members, in Britain before 1864 were in Scotland. In 1849, during his tour of Britain, he completed Elpis Israel in which he laid out his understanding of the main doctrines of the Bible. Since his medium for bringing change was print and debate, it was natural for the origins of the Christadelphian body to be associated with books and journals, such as Thomas's Herald of the Kingdom.
In his desire to seek to establish Biblical truth and test orthodox Christian beliefs through independent scriptural study he was not alone. Among other churches, he had links with Benjamin Wilson. In terms of his rejection of the trinity, Thomas's views had certain similarities with Unitarianism which had developed in a formal way in Europe in the 16th century. Although the Christadelphian movement originated through the activities of John Thomas, he never saw himself as making his own disciples, he believed rather that he had rediscovered 1st century beliefs from the Bible alone, sought to prove that through a process of challenge and debate and writing journals. Through that process a number of people became convinced and set up various fellowships that had sympathy with that position. Groups associated with John Thomas met under various names, including Believers, Baptised Believers, the Royal Association of Believers, Baptised Believers in the Kingdom of God and The Antipas until the time of the American Civil War.
At that time, church affiliation was required in the United States and in the Confederacy in order to register for conscientious objector status, in 1864 Thomas chose for registration purposes the name Christadelphian. Through the teaching of John Thomas and the need in the American Civil War for a name, the Christadelphians emerged as a denomination, but they were formed into a lasting structure through a passionate follower of Thomas's interpretation of the Bible, Robert Roberts. In 1864, he began to publish The Ambassador of the Coming Age magazine. John Thomas, out of concern that someone else might start a publication and call it The Christadelphian, urged Robert Roberts to change the name of his magazine to The Christadelphian, which he did in 1869, his editorship of the magazine continued with some assistance until his death in 1898. In church matters, Roberts was prominent in the period following the death of John Thomas in 1871, helped craft the structures of the Christadelphian body.
The denomination grew in the English-speaking world in the English Midlands and in parts of North America. In the early days after the death of John Thoma