Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
United States Fleet Forces Command
The United States Fleet Forces Command is a service component command of the United States Navy that provides naval forces to a wide variety of U. S. forces. The naval resources may be allocated to Combatant Commanders such as United States Northern Command under the authority of the Secretary of Defense. Formed as United States Atlantic Fleet in 1906, it has been an integral part of the defense of the United States of America since the early 20th century. In 2002, the Fleet comprised over 118,000 Navy and Marine Corps personnel serving on 186 ships and in 1,300 aircraft, with an area of responsibility ranging over most of the Atlantic Ocean from the North Pole to the South Pole, the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, the waters of the Pacific Ocean along the coasts of Central and South America; the command is based at Naval Support Activity Hampton Roads in Norfolk, Virginia and is the navy's service component to U. S. Northern Command and is a supporting command under the U. S. Strategic Command.
The command's mission is to organize, man and equip Naval Forces for assignment to Unified Command Combatant commanders. The Atlantic Fleet was established by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906, at the same time as the Pacific Fleet, as protection for new bases in the Caribbean acquired as a result of the Spanish–American War; the Fleet was a combination of the South Atlantic Squadron. The first commander of the fleet was Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans, who hoisted his flag in the battleship USS Maine on 1 January 1906; the following year, he took his 16 battleships, now dubbed the Great White Fleet, on a round-the-world cruise that lasted until 1909, a goodwill tour that served the purpose of advertising the United States' naval strength and reach to all other nations of the globe. In January 1913 the fleet consisted of six first-line divisions, a torpedo flotilla and fleet auxiliaries; the fleet was under the command of Rear Admiral Hugo Osterhaus. The First Division, under Rear Admiral Bradley A. Fiske, consisted of USS Florida, USS Delaware, USS North Dakota.
The Second Division, under Rear Admiral Nathaniel R. Usher with his flag aboard the USS Vermont, consisted of USS Louisiana, USS Michigan, USS New Hampshire, USS South Carolina; the Third Division, under Rear Admiral Cameron McR. Winslow, comprised USS Virginia, USS Georgia, USS New Jersey, USS Rhode Island, USS Nebraska; the Fourth Division, under Rear Admiral Frank F. Fletcher, consisted of the USS Minnesota, USS Connecticut, USS Ohio, USS Idaho, USS Kansas.. Fifth and Sixth Divisions were made up of protected cruisers, USS St. Louis, USS Tennessee, USS Washington, USS Cleveland, USS Denver, USS Des Moines, USS Tacoma; the Cruiser and Transport Force, under Rear Admiral Albert Gleaves served in Atlantic waters during World War I moving the American Expeditionary Forces to Europe. United States Battleship Division Nine joined the Grand Fleet in the UK; the Atlantic Fleet was reorganized into the Scouting Force in 1923, under the United States Fleet along with the Pacific Fleet. In January 1939 the Atlantic Squadron, United States Fleet, was formed.
The aircraft carrier USS Ranger was transferred to the Atlantic Ocean. Vice Admiral Alfred Wilkinson Johnson commanded the squadron. On 1 November 1940 the Atlantic Squadron was renamed the Patrol Force; the Patrol Force was organized into type commands: Patrol Force. On 1 February 1941, the Atlantic Fleet was organized from the Patrol Force. Along with the Pacific Fleet and Asiatic Fleet, the fleet was to be under the command of a full admiral, which jumped the fleet's commander Ernest J. King from a two-star to a four-star. King's flagship was USS Texas. Subsequently, the headquarters was in a rather odd assortment of ships. In 1948, the HQ moved into the former naval hospital at Norfolk and has remained there since. On 7 December 1941 the Fleet comprised eight separate components: Battleships, Atlantic Fleet was made up of three Battleship Divisions Of these, Battleship Division 5 was a training unit consisting of the oldest remaining battleships in service, while Division 6 was responsible for working up the two most commissioned battleships, North Carolina and Washington.
The other components were Atlantic Fleet, which included Carrier Division Three. During World War II "Transports, Amphibious Force, Atlantic Fleet" was part of this command. Smaller units included the Antisubmarine Development Detachment, Atlantic Fleet located at Quonset Point, Rhode Island; the detachment was responsible for the study and development of antisubmarine gear during World War II. The Commander of the detachment was known as COMASDEVLANT. In addition, the aircraft carriers USS Yorktown and USS Long Island were directl
The Tampico Affair began as a minor incident involving U. S. sailors and Mexican land forces loyal to Mexican dictator General Victoriano Huerta during the guerra de las facciones phase of the Mexican Revolution. A misunderstanding occurred on April 9, 1914, but developed into a breakdown of diplomatic relations between the two countries; as a result, the United States invaded the port city of Veracruz, occupying it for more than six months. This contributed to the fall of President Victoriano Huerta, who resigned in July 1914. In the midst of the Mexican Revolution, de facto President Huerta struggled to defend his power and territory from the forces of Emiliano Zapata in the state of Morelos and the rapid advance of the Northern opposition Constitutionalists under the leadership of Venustiano Carranza. By March 26, 1914, Carranza's forces were 10 mi from the prosperous coastal oil town of Tampico, Tamaulipas. There was a considerable settlement of U. S. citizens in the area due to the immense investment by U.
S. firms in the local oil industry. Several U. S. Navy warships commanded by Rear Admiral Henry T. Mayo were deployed off the coast for the stated purpose of protecting American citizens and property; the U. S. occupation of Veracruz resulted in widespread anti-American sentiment among Mexican residents, other U. S. warships were used to evacuate U. S. nationals from both the Gulf Coast and the west coast of Mexico, taking them to refugee centers in San Diego, California. As a result of anti-American sentiment, Mexico maintained neutrality during World War I, refusing to support the U. S. in Europe, all the while continuing to do business with Germany. With the U. S. threatening to invade in 1918 to take control of the Tampico oil fields, Mexican President Venustiano Carranza threatened to have them destroyed to prevent their falling under U. S. control. By the spring of 1914, diplomatic relations between the US and Mexico were strained. US President Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize the presidency of Mexican General Victoriano Huerta, installed as president the previous year after Huerta and the conservative rebel General Félix Díaz, a nephew of Porfirio Díaz, had signed the Embassy Pact with the approval of US Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson, who had since been removed by the president.
The instability caused by the ongoing Mexican Revolution threatened US lives and economic interests in Mexico. Although Tampico was besieged by Constitutionalist forces, relations between the US forces and Huerta's federal garrison remained amicable; the gunboat Dolphin, one of the few US Navy vessels able to sail up the Pánuco River through the shallow harbor entrance, had followed a request of the Mexican government to present a 21-gun salute to the Mexican flag three times on April 2, 1914, to pay tribute to the celebrated occupation of Puebla in 1867 by Mexican General Porfirio Díaz in the last phases of the war to expel the forces supporting the French intervention in Mexico. Relations between the US and Huerta deteriorated on April 9, when Mexican soldiers detained nine US sailors in Tampico; the commander of the Dolphin had tasked a purser and eight sailors with the purchase and pickup of urgently-needed 440 gallons of gasoline fuel from a dealer located near a tense defensive position at Iturbide Bridge, held by Huerta's forces.
The defenders of the bridge anticipated an attack after skirmishes with Constitutionalist forces on the two preceding days. Nine US sailors on a whaleboat flying the US flag were dispatched to the warehouse along a canal. According to the sailors' account, seven of them were moving the cans of fuel to the boat while two remained on the boat. Mexican federal soldiers were confronted the American sailors. Neither side could speak the other's language, the sailors were not complying with commands from the soldiers; the Mexicans raised their rifles to the Americans, including the sailors still on the boat, forcibly escorted them to the police headquarters for questioning. Although the sailors had been released after only a few minutes, Rear Admiral Henry T. Mayo, the commander of U. S. naval forces in the area, demanded a formal apology from Huerta's government. Mexican President refused to have his forces raise the US flag on Mexican soil to provide a 21-gun salute. Two weeks negotiations were at a standstill whe President Wilson asked the US Congress for permission for an armed invasion of the area.
Although the request was granted two days the US had begun to occupy Veracruz. President Wilson ordered an increase in US forces in Mexican waters. On April 18, USS Iris, Lieutenant Allen B. Reed, tender for the Pacific Fleet First Torpedo Flotilla, USS Cheyenne, Lieutenant Kenneth Heron, tender for the Pacific Fleet Second Torpedo Flotilla and submarines USS H-1 and USS H-2 departed San Pedro, California for San Diego. On April 22, Iris and five torpedo boats USS Whipple, USS Paul Jones, USS Perry, USS Stewart and USS Truxtun, of the Pacific Fleet First Torpedo Flotilla, Lieutenant Commander Edwin H. Dodd, departed San Diego for Mazatlan. On April 22, President Wilson received the backing of Congress for the use of military force to resolve the conflict with Huerta; the day before, he had ordered the Navy to seize the port of Veracruz, preparing to receive a German ship, the SS Ypiranga, with an important cargo of ammunition intended for Huerta's troops. The message was relayed to Rear Admiral Frank Friday Fletcher, who commanded the squadron lying off the port of Veracruz.
With the battleships USS Florida, USS Utah and the transport USS Prairie carrying 350 Mari
Henry Braid Wilson
Henry Braid Wilson, Jr. was an admiral in the United States Navy during World War I. Wilson was a native of Camden, New Jersey, he joined the United States Navy in the latter part of the nineteenth century and continued to serve for over forty years. He graduated from the U. S. Naval Academy in 1881, His assignments included duties as commanding officer of the USS North Dakota, senior inspector and president of the Board of Inspection and Survey from November 1913 until May 1916, commanding officer of the USS Pennsylvania in 1916. During World War I, he served as commander, Patrol Forces, Atlantic Fleet and commander, U. S. Naval Forces, France. After the World War he served as Commander-In-Chief of the Atlantic Fleet 1919-1921, Commander-In-Chief of the U. S. Battle Fleet and superintendent of the U. S. Naval Academy 1921-1925, two notable students of his at the academy were cadets and future Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, class of 1922, Admiral Arleigh A. Burke, class of 1923. Wilson retired following forty-four years of service.
Wilson died in 1954 in New York City. Wilson's son-in-law was Hoover Administration United States Secretary of War and Major General Patrick J. Hurley. USS Henry B. Wilson, a guided missile destroyer, was named for him. A portion of U. S. Route 30 in New Jersey passing through New Jersey, Admiral Wilson Boulevard. History of the Fleet Forces Command the U. S. Atlantic Fleet Arlingtoncemetery.net entry Camden People - Admiral Henry Braid Wilson Jr. short bio from DANFS DANFS History of U. S. S. Pennsylvania BB-38 INSERV Presidents Henry Braid Wilson at Find a Grave US Navy Biography of Admiral Henry B. Wilson
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Naval aviation is the application of military air power by navies, whether from warships that embark aircraft, or land bases. Naval aviation is projected to a position nearer the target by way of an aircraft carrier. Carrier-based aircraft must be sturdy enough to withstand demanding carrier operations, they must be able to launch in a short distance and be sturdy and flexible enough to come to a sudden stop on a pitching flight deck. These aircraft are designed for many purposes, including air-to-air combat, surface attack, submarine attack and rescue, matériel transport, weather observation and wide area command and control duties. Early experiments on the use of kites for naval reconnaissance took place in 1903 at Woolwich Common for the Admiralty. Samuel Franklin Cody demonstrated the capabilities of his 8 foot long black kite and it was proposed for use as either a mechanism to hold up wires for wireless communications or as a manned reconnaissance device that would give the viewer the advantage of considerable height.
In 1908 Prime Minister H. H. Asquith approved the formation of an "Aerial Sub-Committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence" to investigate the potential for naval aviation. In 1909 this body accepted the proposal of Captain Reginald Bacon made to the First Sea Lord Sir John Fisher that rigid airships should be constructed for the Royal Navy to be used for reconnaissance; this resulted in the construction of Mayfly in 1909, the first air component of the navy to become operational, the genesis of modern naval aviation. The first pilots for the Royal Navy were transferred from the Royal Aero Club in June 1910 along with two aircraft with which to train new pilots, an airfield at Eastchurch became the Naval Flying School, the first such facility in the world. Two hundred applications were received, four were accepted: Lieutenant C R Samson, Lieutenant A M Longmore, Lieutenant A Gregory and Captain E L Gerrard, RMLI; the French established a naval aviation capability in 1910 with the establishment of the Service Aeronautique and the first flight training schools.
U. S. naval aviation began with pioneer aviator Glenn Curtiss who contracted with the United States Navy to demonstrate that airplanes could take off from and land aboard ships at sea. One of his pilots, Eugene Ely, took off from the cruiser USS Birmingham anchored off the Virginia coast in November 1910. Two months Ely landed aboard another cruiser, USS Pennsylvania, in San Francisco Bay, proving the concept of shipboard operations. However, the platforms erected on; the U. S. Navy and Glenn Curtiss experienced two firsts during January 1911. On 27 January, Curtiss flew the first seaplane from the water at San Diego Bay and the next day U. S. Navy Lt. Theodore G. Ellyson, a student at the nearby Curtiss School, took off in a Curtiss "grass cutter" plane to become the first naval aviator. $25,000 was appropriated for the Bureau of Navigation to purchase three airplanes and in the spring of 1911 four additional officers were trained as pilots by the Wright brothers and Curtiss. A camp with a primitive landing field was established on the Severn River at Greenbury Point, near Annapolis, Maryland.
The group expanded with the addition of six aviators in 1912 and five in 1913, from both the Navy and Marine Corps, conducted maneuvers with the Fleet from the battleship USS Mississippi, designated as the Navy's aviation ship. Meanwhile, Captain Henry C. Mustin tested the concept of the catapult launch in August 1912, in 1915 made the first catapult launching from a ship underway; the first permanent naval air station was established at Pensacola, Florida, in January 1914 with Mustin as its commanding officer. On April 24 of that year, for a period of 45 days afterward, five floatplanes and flying boats flown by ten aviators operated from Mississippi and the cruiser Birmingham off Veracruz and Tampico, Mexico conducting reconnaissance for troops ashore in the wake of the Tampico Affair. In January 1912, the British battleship HMS Africa took part in aircraft experiments at Sheerness, she was fitted for flying off aircraft with a 100-foot downward-sloping runway, installed on her foredeck, running over her forward 12-inch gun turret from her forebridge to her bow and equipped with rails to guide the aircraft.
The Gnome-engined Short Improved S.27 "S.38", pusher seaplane piloted by Lieutenant Charles Samson become the first British aircraft to take-off from a ship while at anchor in the River Medway, on 10 January 1912. Africa transferred her flight equipment to her sister ship Hibernia. In May 1912, with Commander Samson again flying the "S.38", the first instance of an aircraft to take off from a ship, under way occurred. Hibernia steamed at 10.5 knots at the Royal Fleet Review in England. Hibernia transferred her aviation equipment to battleship London. Based on these experiments, the Royal Navy concluded that aircraft were useful aboard ship for spotting and other purposes, but that interference with the firing of guns caused by the runway built over the foredeck and the danger and impracticality of recovering seaplanes that alighted in the water in anything but calm weather more than offset the desirability of having airplanes aboard. In 1912, the nascent naval air detachment in the United Kingdom was amalgamated to form the Royal Flying Corps and in 1913 a seaplane base on the Isle of Grain, an airship base at Kingsnorth and eight new airfields were approved for construction.
The first aircraft participation in naval manoeu