1956 Louisiana gubernatorial election
The Louisiana gubernatorial election of 1956 was held on January 17, 1956. The 1956 election saw the election of Earl K. Long to his second full term as Governor of Louisiana, he received over 50 % of the vote. Like most Southern states between the Reconstruction Era and the Civil Rights Movement, Louisiana's Republican Party was nonexistent in terms of electoral support; this meant that the Democratic Party primary held on this date was the real contest over who would be governor. Outgoing Governor Robert F. Kennon was constitutionally barred from succeeding himself; the candidates running to replace him were: Earl K. Long of Winnfield, the head of the state's Longite faction, governor from 1939 to 1940 and from 1948 to 1952. DeLesseps Morrison, mayor of New Orleans since 1946; the 1956 election was the first of Morrison's three failed bids for governor. Fred Preaus, a car dealer and former member of the Farmerville Town Council, had been Director of Highways under Governor Kennon, received Kennon's support.
Francis Grevemberg of Lafayette was known for his high-profile gambling raids as State Police Superintendent. Grevemberg campaigned on his reputation for integrity, but his gambling crackdown had alienated too many people for him to receive much support. James M. McLemore, an Alexandria cattleman, ran as a segregationist candidate in his second straight gubernatorial bid. Long's campaign promises included spending increases to fund health and other social programs, he made these promises on an extensive tour of the state, stopping in nearly every town to deliver theatrical speeches mocking his opponents. The acerbic Long attacked Morrison with particular enthusiasm, mocking his toupee and fancy suits and calling him "as slick as a peeled onion", out of touch with residents of small towns and rural areas. Long mocked his unusual first name: "Ole De la Soups is the only man that can talk out of both sides of his mouth and strut all at once." In addition to his usual base, Long won support from corrupt rural sheriffs who were angry at their loss of gambling revenues after Kennon's reforms and Grevemberg's raids.
Despite the reluctance of Morrison's own Crescent City Democratic Association, the New Orleans mayor was overly optimistic at his chances. Morrison did not get it. Long encouraged false optimism in Morrison's campaign by having his rural supporters write to the New Orleans mayor urging him to run for governor; this false rural support never materialized in the actual election. His emphasis on his record as mayor and his promises of economic development found little resonance with rural voters. Democratic Party Primary, January 17 Earl Long won 62 of the state's 64 parishes; the support of local political boss Leander Perez won Plaquemines Parish for Fred Preaus, who lost his own Union Parish. Long was intensely proud of his first-primary victory, exclaiming "Huey never done that!" Haas, Edward F. DeLesseps S. Morrison and the Image of Reform: New Orleans Politics, 1946-60. LSU Press, 1974. Kurtz and Morgan Peoples. Earl K. Long: The Saga of Uncle Earl and Louisiana Politics. LSU Press, 1990. Louisiana Secretary of State.
Democratic Primary Election Returns, 1956
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1936, it responded to needs for relief and recovery from the Great Depression. Major federal programs included the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Civil Works Administration, the Farm Security Administration, the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 and the Social Security Administration, they provided support for farmers, the unemployed and the elderly. The New Deal included new constraints and safeguards on the banking industry and efforts to re-inflate the economy after prices had fallen sharply. New Deal programs included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt; the programs focused on what historians refer to as the "3 Rs": relief for the unemployed and poor, recovery of the economy back to normal levels and reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.
The New Deal produced a political realignment, making the Democratic Party the majority with its base in liberal ideas, the South, traditional Democrats, big city machines and the newly empowered labor unions and ethnic minorities. The Republicans were split, with conservatives opposing the entire New Deal as hostile to business and economic growth and liberals in support; the realignment crystallized into the New Deal coalition that dominated presidential elections into the 1960s while the opposing conservative coalition controlled Congress in domestic affairs from 1937 to 1964. By 1936, the term "liberal" was used for supporters of the New Deal and "conservative" for its opponents. From 1934 to 1938, Roosevelt was assisted in his endeavors by a "pro-spender" majority in Congress. In the 1938 midterm election and his liberal supporters lost control of Congress to the bipartisan conservative coalition. Many historians distinguish between a First New Deal and a Second New Deal, with the second one more liberal and more controversial.
The First New Deal dealt with the pressing banking crises through the Emergency Banking Act and the 1933 Banking Act. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration provided $500 million for relief operations by states and cities, while the short-lived CWA gave locals money to operate make-work projects in 1933–1934; the Securities Act of 1933 was enacted to prevent a repeated stock market crash. The controversial work of the National Recovery Administration was part of the First New Deal; the Second New Deal in 1935–1938 included the Wagner Act to protect labor organizing, the Works Progress Administration relief program, the Social Security Act and new programs to aid tenant farmers and migrant workers. The final major items of New Deal legislation were the creation of the United States Housing Authority and the FSA, which both occurred in 1937; the FSA was one of the oversight authorities of the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration, which administered relief efforts to Puerto Rican citizens affected by the Great Depression.
The economic downturn of 1937–1938 and the bitter split between the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations labor unions led to major Republican gains in Congress in 1938. Conservative Republicans and Democrats in Congress joined in the informal conservative coalition. By 1942–1943, they shut down relief programs such as the WPA and the CCC and blocked major liberal proposals. Nonetheless, Roosevelt turned his attention to the war effort and won reelection in 1940–1944. Furthermore, the Supreme Court declared the NRA and the first version of the Agricultural Adjustment Act unconstitutional, but the AAA was rewritten and upheld. Republican president Dwight D. Eisenhower left the New Deal intact expanding it in some areas. In the 1960s, Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society used the New Deal as inspiration for a dramatic expansion of liberal programs, which Republican Richard Nixon retained. However, after 1974 the call for deregulation of the economy gained bipartisan support.
The New Deal regulation of banking lasted. Several New Deal programs remain active and those operating under the original names include the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, the Federal Housing Administration and the Tennessee Valley Authority; the largest programs still in existence today are the Social Security System and the Securities and Exchange Commission. From 1929 to 1933 manufacturing output decreased by one third, which economists call the Great Contraction. Prices fell by 20 %. Unemployment in the United States increased from 4% to 25%. Additionally, one-third of all employed persons were downgraded to working part-time on much smaller paychecks. In the aggregate 50% of the nation's human work-power was going unused. Before the New Deal, there was no insurance on deposits at banks; when thousands of banks closed, depositors lost their savings as at that time there was no national safety net, no public unemployment insurance and no Social Security.
Relief for the poor was the respons
Interstate 65 is a major Interstate Highway in the central United States. As with most interstates that end in a five, it is a major cross-country, north-south route, connecting the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes, its southern terminus is located at an interchange with I-10 in Mobile and its northern terminus is at an interchange with I-90, U. S. Route 12, U. S. Route 20 in Gary, just southeast of Chicago. I-65 connects several major metropolitan areas in Southern United States, it connects the four largest cities in Alabama: Mobile, Montgomery and Huntsville. It serves as one of the main north–south routes through Nashville, Tennessee. In the state of Alabama, I-65 passes through or near four of the state's major metropolitan areas: Mobile, Montgomery and Huntsville. I-65 begins its path northward in Mobile at its junction with I-10. From I-10, I-65 runs west of downtown Mobile and through the northern suburbs of the city before turning northeasterly towards Montgomery. In Montgomery, I-65 connects with the southern terminus of I-85.
In Birmingham, I-65 has an interchange with I-20/I-59. North of downtown, I-22 branches off I-65 towards Memphis. From Birmingham, I-65 continues north. A few miles north of the river, it interchanges with I-565, a short spur route which provides access to Huntsville, it continues northwards out of the Tennessee Valley to the state of Tennessee, towards Nashville. I-65 enters Tennessee from the south near the town of Ardmore and passes through rural territory for 65 miles, it passes Lewisburg. It reaches the outer parts of Columbia and making its way to Saturn Parkway, which brings travelers to the town of Spring Hill. I-65 continues on to reach I-840 and progresses until it intersects SR 96 at Franklin; the highway goes through Brentwood, Madison, White House, close to Portland, this highway passes into the state of Kentucky. I-65 enters the state five miles south of Franklin. Throughout its length, it passes near Mammoth Cave National Park, Bernheim Forest, the National Corvette Museum and the Fort Knox Military Reservation.
The first major intersection in the state is with I-165 at Bowling Green. I-65 has intersections with three of the parkways in the state; the first major junction is with the Cumberland Parkway near Rocky Hill. At Elizabethtown, it has two more parkway interchanges with the Wendell H. Ford Western Kentucky Parkway and the Martha Layne Collins Bluegrass Parkway. I-65 has interchanges with I-265, I-264, I-64, I-71; the widest stretch of Interstate 65 in its entirety is in Louisville at Kentucky Route 1065, where the main line is 14 lanes wide. The highway crosses the Ohio River into Indiana on the John F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge and Abraham Lincoln Bridge; the latter bridge opened in October 2016 as part of the Ohio River Bridges Project. Prior to the project, the Kennedy Bridge carried traffic in both directions; the project included reconstruction of the I-65/I-64/I-71 convergence interchange just south of the Kennedy Bridge, plus renovating the older span to carry six lanes of southbound traffic.
Additionally, a second six-lane cable-stayed bridge 12 miles upstream on the Ohio, the Lewis and Clark Bridge, was built as part of the project, opening in December 2016 to complete the I-265 loop around Louisville. At one time, the stretch of I-65 from Louisville to Elizabethtown was a toll road bearing the Kentucky Turnpike name; the bonds that financed the road have been paid off, tolls are no longer collected. All signs of the former turnpike have been removed. On November 15, 2006, the stretch of I-65 from Bowling Green to Louisville was renamed the Abraham Lincoln Memorial Highway. On February 12, 2007, a bill passed the Kentucky Senate to rename I-65 in Jefferson County the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Expressway. Signs were posted July 25, 2007. On July 15, 2007, Kentucky highway officials raised its speed limits on Interstate and State Parkway highways to 70 miles per hour; until that date, Kentucky was the only state along I-65's path. I-65 enters Indiana at Clarksville. Miles 0–9 were rebuilt and realigned from north of Sellersburg to the Ohio River during 2008–10, giving great traffic relief to the fast-growing Indiana suburbs of Louisville.
Over 300,000 of the 1.5 million persons in Louisville's CMSA live in its Indiana counties. The section of I-65 in downtown Indianapolis overlaps I-70; the junctions are referred to as the "North Split" and the "South Split", forming a section of Interstate locally known as the "Inner Loop" or "The Spaghetti Bowl" due to the visual complexity of the overlapping freeways. In mid-March 2007, a 6-mile section of I-70 from the North Split to I-465 east of downtown was restricted to automobiles only for the "Super 70" project, a massive rebuild and expansion of that freeway. Trucks over 13 short tons were forced to divert through I-65 if coming from the north and use the circular I-465 to the south to reconnect to I-70 eastbound. Westbound traffic from I-70 was required to loop north or south along I-465 to get to I-65 or I-70; the Super 70 project was completed in November 2007. In the middle of 2003, the portion of I-65 that runs concurrently with I-70 was closed to all traffic due to the "HyperFix" project.
During that time, a new concrete surface was installed and the overpasses were upgraded. In 1999, the 25-mile segment of I-65 between the two I-465 interchan
Governor of Kentucky
The Governor of the Commonwealth of Kentucky is the head of the executive branch of government in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Fifty-seven men and one woman have served as Governor of Kentucky; the governor's term is four years in length. Throughout the state's history, four men have served two non-consecutive terms as governor, two others have served two consecutive terms. Kentucky is one of only five U. S. states. The current governor is Matt Bevin, first elected in 2015; the governor's powers are enumerated in the state constitution. There have been four constitutions of Kentucky—adopted in 1792, 1799, 1850, 1891, respectively—and each has enlarged the governor's authority. Among the powers appropriated to the governor in the constitution are the ability to grant pardons, veto legislation, call the legislature into session; the governor serves as commander-in-chief of the state's military forces and is empowered to enforce all laws of the state. The officeholder is given broad statutory authority to make appointments to the various cabinets and departments of the executive branch, limited somewhat by the adoption of a merit system for state employees in 1960.
Because Kentucky's governor controls so many appointments to commissions, the office has been considered one of the most powerful state executive positions in the United States. Additionally, the governor's influence has been augmented by wide discretion in awarding state contracts and significant influence over the legislature, although the latter has been waning since the mid-1970s; the history of the office of Governor is one of long periods of domination by a single party, though different parties were predominant in different eras. Federalists were rare among Kentuckians during the period of the First Party System, Democratic Republicans won every gubernatorial election in the state until 1828; the Second Party System began when the Democratic-Republicans split into Jacksonian Democrats and National Republicans. Beginning with the election of Thomas Metcalfe in 1828, the Whigs dominated the governorship until 1851, with John Breathitt being the only Democrat elected during that period.
With the collapse of the Whig Party in the 1850s, Democrats took control of the governorship for the duration of the Third Party System, with Charles S. Morehead of the Know Nothing Party being the only exception; the election of Republican William O'Connell Bradley in 1895 began the only period of true two-party competition for the governorship. Since 1931, only four Republicans have served as governor of Kentucky. In all four Kentucky constitutions, the first power enumerated to the governor is to serve as commander-in-chief of the state's militia and military forces. In 1799, a stipulation was added that the governor would not lead troops on the battlefield unless advised to do so by a resolution of the General Assembly; such a case occurred in 1813 when Governor Isaac Shelby, a veteran of the Revolutionary War, was asked to lead a band of Kentucky troops to aid William Henry Harrison at the Battle of the Thames. For his service, Shelby received the Thanks of the Congressional Gold Medal.
Among the other powers and responsibilities of the governor that appear in all four constitutions are the power to enforce all laws, the power to fill vacancies in elected offices until the next meeting of the General Assembly, the power to remit fines and grant pardons. The power to pardon is not applicable to cases of impeachment, in cases of treason, a gubernatorial pardon is only effective until the end of the next session of the General Assembly, which can grant a full pardon for treason; the 1891 constitution further required that, with each application for a pardon, the governor file "a statement of the reasons for his decision thereon, which... shall always be open to public inspection." This requirement was first proposed by a delegate to the 1850 constitutional convention, but it was rejected at that time. Power in Kentucky's executive has been split amongst a variety of elected positions—including Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Auditor of Public Accounts and several commissioners—but in the late 20th century, political power has centralized in the office of Governor.
The power of the governor to adjourn the General Assembly for a period of up to four months if the two houses cannot agree on a time to adjourn appears in all four constitutions. The governor is empowered to convene the General Assembly "on extraordinary occasions". Since the 1799 constitution, the governor has been permitted to call the legislature into session somewhere other than the state capital if the capital had, since the last legislative session, "become dangerous from an enemy or from contagious diseases." This was an important provision in the early days of the Commonwealth, when epidemics like smallpox posed a danger to the populace. One notable example of an attempt to employ this power was in 1900 when Republican Governor William S. Taylor attempted to adjourn the legislature and re-convene it in Republican London, Kentucky following the shooting of William Goebel. Taylor claimed a state of insurrection existed in the capital, but defiant Democrats refused to heed the call to adjourn or to convene in London.
The 1891 constitution added a provision that the governor must specify the reason for any specially-called legislative session
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Kentucky General Assembly
The Kentucky General Assembly called the Kentucky Legislature, is the state legislature of the U. S. state of Kentucky. It comprises the the Kentucky House of Representatives; the General Assembly meets annually in the state capitol building in Frankfort, convening on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in January. In even-numbered years, sessions may not last more than 60 legislative days, cannot extend beyond April 15. In odd-numbered years, sessions may not last more than 30 legislative days, cannot extend beyond March 30. Special sessions may be called by the Governor of Kentucky at any time for any duration; the first meeting of the General Assembly occurred in 1792, shortly after Kentucky was granted statehood. Legislators convened in the state's temporary capital. Among the first orders of business was choosing a permanent state capital. In the end, the small town of Frankfort, with their offer to provide a temporary structure to house the legislature and a cache of materials for constructing a permanent edifice, was chosen, the state's capital has remained there since.
After women gained suffrage in Kentucky, Mary Elliott Flanery was elected to the Kentucky House of Representative from the 89th District representing Boyd County, Kentucky. When Flanery took her seat in January 1922, she was the first female state legislator elected in Kentucky and the first female legislator elected south of the Mason–Dixon line. Operation Boptrot lead to the conviction of more than a dozen legislators between 1992 and 1995; the investigation led to reform legislation being passed in 1993. Kentucky remained neutral during the Civil War. However, the majority of the General Assembly had strong Union sympathies. A group of Confederate sympathizers met in Russellville to establish a Confederate government for the state; the group decided to establish the Confederate state capital in Bowling Green, but never displaced the elected General Assembly in Frankfort. The General Assembly played a decisive role in the disputed gubernatorial election of 1900. Initial vote tallies had Republican William S. Taylor leading Democrat William Goebel by a scant 2,383 votes.
The General Assembly, wielded the final authority in election disputes. With a majority in both houses, the Democrats attempted to invalidate enough votes to give the election to Goebel. During the contentious days that followed, an unidentified assassin shot Goebel as he approached the state capitol; as Goebel hovered on the brink of death, chaos ensued in Frankfort, further violence threatened. Taylor, serving as governor pending a final decision on the election, called out the militia and ordered the General Assembly into a special session, not in Frankfort, but in London, Kentucky, a Republican area of the state; the Republican minority heeded the call and headed to London. Democrats predictably resisted the call. Both factions claimed authority. Goebel died four days after receiving the fatal shot, the election was contested to the U. S. Supreme Court, who ruled the General Assembly's actions legal and made Goebel's lieutenant governor, J. C. W. Beckham, governor of the state; the General Assembly is bicameral, consisting of a House of Representatives.
The House and Senate chambers are on opposite ends of the third floor of the capitol building, legislators have offices in the nearby Capitol Annex building. Section 33 of the Kentucky Constitution requires that the General Assembly divide the state into 38 Senate and 100 House districts. Districts are required to be as nearly equal in population. Districts can be formed by joining more than one county, but the counties forming a district must be contiguous. Districts must be re-divided if necessary. Under the state constitution, only three counties may be divided to form a Senate district--Jefferson and Kenton; the Senate is the upper house of the General Assembly. According to Section 32 of the Kentucky Constitution, a state senator must: be at least 30 years old. Under section 30 of the Kentucky Constitution, senators are elected to four year staggered terms, with half the Senate elected every two years. Prior to a 1992 constitutional amendment, the Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky presided over the Senate.
President: Robert Stivers President Pro-Tempore: David P. Givens Additionally, each party elects a floor leader and caucus chair; the House of Representatives is the lower house of the General Assembly. Section 47 of the Kentucky Constitution stipulates that all bills for raising revenue must originate in the House of Representatives. According to Section 32 of the Kentucky Constitution, a state representative must: be at least 24 years old. Per section 30 of the Kentucky Constitution, representatives are elected every two years in the November following a regular session of the General Assembly. Speaker: David Osborne Speaker Pro Tempore: David Meade Additionally, each party elects a floor leader and caucus chair. Senate Standing Committees and Chairs AGRICULTURE, Sen. Paul Hornback APPROPRIATIONS & REVENUE, Sen. Christian McDaniel Senate Budget Review Subcommittee on Economic Development an
Albert Benjamin "Happy" Chandler Sr. was an American politician from the Commonwealth of Kentucky. He represented the Commonwealth in the U. S. Senate and served as 49th governor. Aside from his political positions, he served as the second Commissioner of Baseball from 1945 to 1951 and was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1982, his grandson, Ben Chandler served as congressman for Kentucky's Sixth District. A multi-sport athlete during his college days at Transylvania College, Chandler considered a career in professional baseball before deciding to pursue a law degree. After graduation, he entered politics and was elected as a Democrat to the Kentucky Senate in 1928. Two years he was elected lieutenant governor, serving under Governor Ruby Laffoon. Chandler and Laffoon disagreed on the issue of instituting a state sales tax and when Chandler, the presiding officer in the state senate, worked to block the legislation, Laffoon's allies in the General Assembly stripped him of many of his statutory powers.
The tax passed by a narrow margin. Knowing that Laffoon would try to select his own successor at the Democratic nominating convention, Chandler waited until Laffoon left the state—leaving Chandler as acting governor—and called the legislature into session to enact a mandatory primary election bill; the bill passed, in the ensuing primary, Chandler defeated Laffoon's choice, Thomas Rhea. He went on to defeat Republican King Swope by the largest margin of victory for a Kentucky gubernatorial race to that time; as governor, Chandler oversaw the repeal of the sales tax, replacing the lost revenue with new excise taxes and the state's first income tax. He enacted a major reorganization of state government, realizing significant savings for the state, he used these savings to pay off the state debt and improve the state's education and transportation systems. Convinced that he was destined to become President of the United States, Chandler challenged Senate Majority Leader Alben Barkley for his U. S. Senate seat in 1938.
During the campaign, President Franklin D. Roosevelt came to the state to campaign for Barkley, Chandler lost a close race; the following year, Kentucky's other senator, Marvel Mills Logan, died in office, Chandler resigned as governor so his successor could appoint him to the vacant seat. A fiscal conservative and disciple of Virginia's Harry F. Byrd, Chandler opposed parts of Roosevelt's New Deal and disagreed with the president's decision to prioritize European operations in World War II over the war in the Pacific. In 1945, Chandler resigned his senate seat to succeed the late Kenesaw Mountain Landis as commissioner of baseball, his most significant action as commissioner was the approval of Jackie Robinson's contract with the Brooklyn Dodgers integrating Major League Baseball. He established the first pension fund for Major League players, earning him the title "the players' commissioner". Baseball owners were upset with Chandler's governance and did not renew his contract in 1951. Following his term as commissioner, Chandler returned to Kentucky and won a second term as governor in 1955.
The major accomplishments of his second term were enforcing the racial integration of the state's public schools and establishing a medical school at the University of Kentucky, named the Chandler Medical Center in his honor. Following his second term as governor, his political influence began to wane as he made three more unsuccessful runs for governor in 1963, 1967, 1971, his endorsement of dark-horse candidate Wallace G. Wilkinson was seen as critical to Wilkinson's successful gubernatorial campaign in 1988. Wilkinson resisted calls to remove Chandler from the University of Kentucky board of trustees following Chandler's use of a racial epithet during a board meeting in 1988. In his retirement, Chandler made numerous public appearances and remained active in state politics and events. Chandler died a month before his ninety-third birthday. Albert Benjamin Chandler was born in the farming community of Corydon, Kentucky, in 1898, he was the eldest child of Callie Chandler. Chandler's father rescued his mother from an orphanage and married her when she was 15, but no record of their marriage has been found.
In 1899, Chandler's brother Robert was born. Two years their mother, still in her teens and unable to cope with raising two young children, abandoned the family, she left her sons with their father. In his autobiography, Chandler said. Years he sought his mother and found her living in Jacksonville, Florida, she had married again and he had three half-siblings. His full brother, Robert Chandler, died. Chandler was raised by his father and relatives, by age 8, he supported himself financially from his paper route and doing odd jobs in his community. In 1917, he graduated from Corydon High School, where he had been captain of the baseball and football teams, his father wanted him to study for the ministry, but Chandler instead entered Transylvania College in Lexington, Kentucky. It was there, he paid for his education by doing chores for the local citizens. Chandler was captain of Transylvania's basketball and baseball teams and the quarterback of the football team, he was a teammate of a future member of the College Football Hall of Fame.
He joined the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity and the Omicron De