Charles Eliot Ware
Charles Eliot Ware was a prominent Boston physician and the husband of Elizabeth Cabot Lee, their daughter being Mary Lee Ware. It is to him that the Harvard Museum of Natural History's famous Glass Flowers exhibit is dedicated to as a memorial, his wife and daughter being the sponsors of the project. Dr. Ware was a close friend of John Holmes, the younger brother of Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. Son of Henry Ware, Dr. Charles Eliot Ware married the wealthy Elizabeth Cabot Lee on November 20, 1854. In 1868, Charles E. Ware bought what would become the Ware Farm in Ware Farm from a Joseph Davis and Dorestos Armory for $3000 – the place having 450 total acres, 21.5 dedicated to pasture land with another 56.5 for cultivation. This farm would serve as his wife and daughter's home and would always stand out among Mary's childhood memories. Seasonal residents of Rindge, Charles Eliot Ware and his family kept a home at Boston, 41 Brimmer Street and they would send their daughter to Radcliffe College where she learned under Professor George Lincoln Goodale - who would become the first director of the Harvard Botanical Museum.
In fact, "Mary Ware, an fascinating character, became in many respects a professional naturalist," a role which she was able to utilize by being the patron sponsor of the Glass Flowers, her purpose being to advance the education of women. Harvard class of 1834, Charles Eliot Ware received a Doctor of Medicine degree three years in 1837 and founded a large private practice which he maintained for years until his health began to fail him. For the next decade Dr. Ware served as "one of the visiting physicians to the Massachusetts General Hospital, on his resignation, in 1867, was appointed on the Consulting Staff." In 1842, along with Dr. Samuel Parkman, founded the New England Quarterly Journal of Medicine, but the journal was canceled due to lack of support after a single year. Occupying such other leading roles as a member of the Board of Trustees - and Vice-President - of the Boston Lying-in Hospital and Secretary of the Massachusetts Medical Society, Charles E. Ware was described as "well fitted for his calling by the clearness of his perceptions, by the soundness of his judgment, by his industrious habits.
He was well read in medical literature, while not departing from a wise conservatism, his mind was open to receive the new truths which are presented by the rapid advance of medical science." As such, Dr. Charles Ware was a member of the Boston Society for Medical Improvement, an elite medical society based in Boston, Massachusetts established for the purposes of "the cultivation of confidence and good feeling between members of the profession. Upon his retirement, Dr. Ware continued his and his family's seasonal residency and cultivation of the Ware Farm and, on September 3, 1887, Charles Eliot Ware died in said farm - leaving it to his wife and daughter, he was buried at Mt. Auburn Cemetery where he would be joined by his wife and daughter; the good Doctor's legacy and reputation as a nature-lover was established after his death by his grieving family. The "ever-loyal and ever-generous" Mary Lee Ware and her Elizabeth C. Ware, Dr. Ware's widow, were drawn into the Glass Flowers enterprise in 1886 when her former teacher, Professor George Goodale, approached them with his idea to populate the new Botanical Museum with uncannily lifelike glass botanical specimens made by a German father and son team of lampworkers - Leopold and Rudolf Blaschka.
Being independently wealthy and liberal benefactors of Harvard's botany department, Mary convinced Mrs. Elizabeth C. Ware to agree to underwrite the consignment, but this was done anonymously at first. A year 1887, Charles E. Ware died, thus when the official contract was signed between the Mary and her mother and Rudolf, Harvard, the agreement was that the collection would be a memorial to the now deceased Doctor: "The first Blaschka glass flowers are formally presented to the Botanical Museum as a memorial to Dr. Charles Eliot Ware, Class of 1834, by his widow Elizabeth C. Ware and daughter Mary L. Ware." Today, there is a large bronze plaque in the exhibit's center formally dedicating it to the nature-loving Doctor and husband. In addition, the Ware Farm remains in active use today. "In 2002 Steve and Beverly Lindell purchased the property, resurrected the Ware Farm name, have since tended and cherished the property in a manner complimentary to its heritage: original buildings are lovingly preserved.
The farm presently consists of 230 acres, the majority on the east side of Woodbound Road, matching the original Ware Farm footprint." Today the farm is the home-ba
Hingham is a town in metropolitan Greater Boston on the South Shore of the U. S. state of Massachusetts in northern Plymouth County. At the 2010 census, the population was 22,157. Hingham is known for its colonial location on Boston Harbor; the town was named after Hingham, Norfolk and was first settled by English colonists in 1633. The town of Hingham was dubbed "Bare Cove" by the first colonizing English in 1633, but two years was incorporated as a town under the name "Hingham." The land on which Hingham was settled was deeded to the English by the Wampanoag sachem Wompatuck in 1655. The town was within Suffolk County from its founding in 1643 until 1803, Plymouth County from 1803 to the present; the eastern part of the town split off to become Cohasset in 1770. The town was named for Hingham, a village in the English county of Norfolk, East Anglia, whence most of the first colonists came, including Abraham Lincoln's ancestor Samuel Lincoln, his first American ancestor, who came to Massachusetts in 1637.
A statue of President Lincoln adorns the area adjacent to downtown Hingham Square. Hingham was born of religious dissent. Many of the original founders were forced to flee their native village in Norfolk with both their vicars, Rev. Peter Hobart and Rev. Robert Peck, when they fell foul of the strict doctrines of Anglican England. Peck was known for what the eminent Norfolk historian Rev. Francis Blomefield called his "violent schismatical spirit." Peck lowered the chancel railing of the church, in accord with Puritan sentiment that the Anglican church of the day was too removed from its parishioners. He antagonized ecclesiastical authorities with other forbidden practices. Hobart, born in Hingham, Norfolk, in 1604 and, like Peck, a graduate of Magdalene College, sought shelter from the prevailing discipline of the high church among his fellow Puritans; the cost to those who emigrated was steep. They "sold their possessions for half their value," noted a contemporary account, "and named the place of their settlement after their natal town."
While most of the early Hingham settlers came from Hingham and other nearby villages in East Anglia, a few Hingham settlers like Anthony Eames came from the West Country of England. The early settlers of Dorchester, for instance, had come under the guidance of Rev. John White of Dorchester in Dorset, some of them moved to Hingham. Accounts from Hingham's earliest years indicate some friction between the disparate groups, culminating in a 1645 episode involving the town's "trainband", when some Hingham settlers supported Eames, others supported Bozoan Allen, a prominent early Hingham settler and Hobart ally who came from King's Lynn in Norfolk, East Anglia. Prominent East Anglian Puritans like the Hobarts and the Cushings, for instance, were used to holding sway in matters of governance; the controversy became so heated that John Winthrop and Thomas Dudley were drawn into the fray. The bitter trainband controversy dragged on for several years. A weary Eames, in his mid-fifties when the controversy began and who had served Hingham as first militia captain, a selectman, Deputy in the General Court, threw in the towel and moved to nearby Marshfield where he again served as Deputy and emerged as a leading citizen, despite his brush with the Hingham powers-that-be.
Although the town was incorporated in 1635, the colonists didn't get around to negotiating purchase from the Wampanoag, the Native American tribe in the region, until three decades later. On July 4, 1665, the tribe's chief sachem, Josiah Wompatuck, sold the township to Capt. Joshua Hobart and Ensign John Thaxter, representatives of Hingham's colonial residents. Having occupied the land for 30 years, the Englishmen felt entitled to a steep discount; the sum promised Josiah Wompatuck for the land encompassing Hingham was to be paid by two Hingham landowners: Lieut. John Smith and Deacon John Leavitt, granted 12 acres on Hingham's Turkey Hill earlier that year. Now the two men were instructed to deliver payment for their 12-acre grant to Josiah the chief Sachem; the grant to Smith and Leavitt—who together bought other large tracts from the Native Americans for themselves and their partners—was "on condition that they satisfy all the charge about the purchase of the town's land of Josiah—Indian sagamore, both the principal purchase and all the other charge that hath been about it".
With that payment the matter was considered settled. The third town clerk of Hingham was Daniel Cushing, who emigrated to Hingham from Hingham, with his father Matthew in 1638. Cushing's meticulous records of early Hingham enabled subsequent town historians to reconstruct much of early Hingham history as well as that of the early families. Cushing was rather unusual in that he included the town's gossip along with the more conventional formal record-keeping. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 26.3 square miles, of which 22.2 square miles is land and 4.1 square miles, or 15.58%, is water. Hingham is bordered on the east by Cohasset, Scituate, on the south by Norwell and Rockland, on the west by Weymouth, on the north by Hingham Bay and Hull. Cohasset and Weymouth are in Norfolk County. Hingham is 14 miles southeast of downtown Boston. Hingham lies along the sou
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States. Founded in 1780, the Academy is dedicated to honoring excellence and leadership, working across disciplines and divides, advancing the common good. Membership in the academy is achieved through a thorough petition and election process and has been considered a high honor of scholarly and societal merit since the academy was founded during the American Revolution by John Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin, others of their contemporaries who contributed prominently to the establishment of the new nation, its government, the United States Constitution. Today the Academy is charged with a dual function: to elect to membership the finest minds and most influential leaders, drawn from science, business, public affairs, the arts, from each generation, to conduct policy studies in response to the needs of society. Major Academy projects now have focused on higher education and research and cultural studies and technological advances, politics and the environment, the welfare of children.
Dædalus, the Academy's quarterly journal, is regarded as one of the world's leading intellectual journals. The Academy carries out nonpartisan policy research by bringing together scientists, artists, business leaders, other experts to make multidisciplinary analyses of complex social and intellectual topics; the Academy's current areas of work are Arts & Humanities, Democracy & Justice, Energy & Environment, Global Affairs, Science & Technology. David W. Oxtoby began his term as the organization’s President in January 2019. A chemist by training, he served as President of Pomona College from 2003 to 2017, he was elected a member of the American Academy in 2012. The Academy is headquartered in Massachusetts; the Academy was established by the Massachusetts legislature on May 4, 1780. Its purpose, as described in its charter, is "to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honor and happiness of a free and virtuous people." The sixty-two incorporating fellows represented varying interests and high standing in the political and commercial sectors of the state.
The first class of new members, chosen by the Academy in 1781, included Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as well as several international honorary members. The initial volume of Academy Memoirs appeared in 1785, the Proceedings followed in 1846. In the 1950s, the Academy launched its journal Daedalus, reflecting its commitment to a broader intellectual and socially-oriented program. Since the second half of the twentieth century, independent research has become a central focus of the Academy. In the late 1950s, arms control emerged as one of its signature concerns; the Academy served as the catalyst in establishing the National Humanities Center in North Carolina. In the late 1990s, the Academy developed a new strategic plan, focusing on four major areas: science and global security. In 2002, the Academy established a visiting scholars program in association with Harvard University. More than 75 academic institutions from across the country have become Affiliates of the Academy to support this program and other Academy initiatives.
The Academy has sponsored a number of awards and prizes, now numbering 11, throughout its history and has offered opportunities for fellowships and visiting scholars at the Academy. Charter members of the Academy are John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Bacon, James Bowdoin, Charles Chauncy, John Clarke, David Cobb, Samuel Cooper, Nathan Cushing, Thomas Cushing, William Cushing, Tristram Dalton, Francis Dana, Samuel Deane, Perez Fobes, Caleb Gannett, Henry Gardner, Benjamin Guild, John Hancock, Joseph Hawley, Edward Augustus Holyoke, Ebenezer Hunt, Jonathan Jackson, Charles Jarvis, Samuel Langdon, Levi Lincoln, Daniel Little, Elijah Lothrup, John Lowell, Samuel Mather, Samuel Moody, Andrew Oliver, Joseph Orne, Theodore Parsons, George Partridge, Robert Treat Paine, Phillips Payson, Samuel Phillips, John Pickering, Oliver Prescott, Zedekiah Sanger, Nathaniel Peaslee Sargeant, Micajah Sawyer, Theodore Sedgwick, William Sever, David Sewall, Stephen Sewall, John Sprague, Ebenezer Storer, Caleb Strong, James Sullivan, John Bernard Sweat, Nathaniel Tracy, Cotton Tufts, James Warren, Samuel West, Edward Wigglesworth, Joseph Willard, Abraham Williams, Nehemiah Williams, Samuel Williams, James Winthrop.
From the beginning, the membership and elected by peers, has included not only scientists and scholars, but writers and artists as well as representatives from the full range of professions and public life. Throughout the Academy's history, 10,000 fellows have been elected, including such notables as John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John James Audubon, Joseph Henry, Washington Irving, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Willa Cather, T. S. Eliot, Edward R. Murrow, Jonas Salk, Eudora Welty, Duke Ellington. International honorary members have included Jose Antonio Pantoja Hernandez, Leonhard Euler, Marquis de Lafayette, Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Ranke, Charles Darwin, Otto Hahn, Jawaharlal Nehru, Pablo Picasso, Liu Kuo-Sung, Lucian Michael Freud, Galina Ulanova, Werner Heisenberg, Alec Guinness and Sebastião Salgado. Astronomer Maria Mitchell was the first woman elected to the Academy, in 1848; the current membership encompasses over 5,700 members based across the United States and around the world.
Academy members include more than 60 Pulitzer Prize winners. The current membership is divided into five classes and twen
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world; the school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony—though without a single building, instructor, or student. In 1638, the college became home for North America's first known printing press, carried by the ship John of London. Three years the college was renamed in honor of deceased Charlestown minister John Harvard who had bequeathed to the school his entire library and half of his monetary estate. Harvard's first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton; the school's first students were graduated in 1642. In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck "from the Wampanoag … did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period."The colleges of England's Oxford and Cambridge Universities are communities within the larger university, each an association of scholars sharing room and board.
Harvard's founders may have envisioned it as the first in a series of sibling colleges on the English model which would constitute a university—though no further colleges materialized in colonial times. The Indian College was active from 1640 to no than 1693, but it was a minor addition not operated in federation with Harvard according to the English model. Harvard began granting higher degrees in the late eighteenth century, it was styled Harvard University as Harvard College was thought of as the university's undergraduate division in particular. Today Harvard College is responsible for undergraduate admissions, housing, student life, athletics – all undergraduate matters except instruction, the purview of Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences; the body known as The President and Fellows of Harvard College retains its traditional name despite having governance of the entire University. Radcliffe College paid Harvard faculty to repeat their lectures for women students. Since the 1970s, Harvard has been responsible for undergraduate governance matters for women.
About 2,000 students are admitted each year, representing between five and ten percent of those applying. Few transfers are accepted. Midway through the second year, most undergraduates join one of fifty standard fields of concentration. Joint concentrations and special concentrations are possible. Most Harvard College concentrations lead to the Artium Baccalaureus completed in four years, though students leaving high school with substantial college-level coursework may finish in three. A smaller number receive the Scientiarum Baccalaureus. There are special degree programs, such as a five-year program leading to both a Harvard undergraduate degree and a Master of Arts from the New England Conservatory of Music. Undergraduates must fulfill the general education requirement of coursework in eight designated fields: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding Culture and Belief Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning Ethical Reasoning Science of Living Systems Science of the Physical Universe Societies of the World United States in the WorldEach student's exposure to a range of intellectual areas, while pursuing a chosen concentration in depth, fulfills the injunction of Harvard past-president Abbott Lawrence Lowell that liberal education should produce "men who know a little of everything and something well."In 2012, dozens of students were disciplined for cheating on a take-home exam in one course.
The university instituted an honor code beginning in the fall of 2015. The total annual cost of attendance, including tuition and room and board, for 2018–2019 was $67,580. Under financial aid guidelines adopted in 2012, families with incomes below $65,000 no longer pay anything for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $65,000 to $150,000 pay no more than 10 percent of their annual income. In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million across all eleven divisions. Grants total 88 percent of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid provided by loans and work-study. Nearly all undergraduates live on campus, for the first year in dormitories in or near Harvard Yard and in the upperclass houses—administrative subdivisions of the college as well as living quarters, providing a sense of community in what might otherwise be a incohesive and administratively daunting university environment; each house is presided over by a senior-faculty dean, while its Allston Burr Resident Dean—usually a junior faculty member—supervises undergraduates' day-to-day academic and disciplinary well-being.
The faculty dean and resident dean are assisted by other members of the Senior Common Room—select graduate students and university officials brought into voluntary association with each house. Many tutors reside in the house, as do the faculty resident dean. Terms like tutor, Senior Common Room, Junior Common Room reflect
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Mary Lee Ware
Mary Lee Ware, daughter of Elizabeth Cabot Ware and Charles Eliot Ware, was born to a wealthy Bostonian family and, with her mother, was the principal sponsor of the Harvard Museum of Natural History's famous Glass Flowers. She was an avid student of botany of the work of George Lincoln Goodale. Born into a respected family in the New Hampshire town of Rindge to naturalist and Harvard Medical School professor Dr. Charles Eliot Ware and his wife Elizabeth in 1858, Mary Lee Ware was an avid nature-lover and lived according to the precept "It is more blessed to give than to receive." Taken to Italy as a young girl, Mary was dazzled by the many sights there, which served to enhance her love of beautiful things. Beauty that ranged from the picturesque landscape to the language which she excelled, to the art for which the country is famous; this is no surprise given that her father, Dr. Charles Ware, while not a botanist himself raised his daughter to love botany with a passion. A love, fostered by the family farm in Rindge New Hampshire, a place which stood out among her childhood memories.
Mary settled with her parents in Boston, 41 Brimmer Street, around 1870. She was at some point, a student of Radcliffe College and learned under Dr. Goodale - who would become the first director of the Harvard Botanical Museum. In fact, "Mary Ware, an fascinating character, became in many respects a professional naturalist," a role which she was able to utilize by being the patron sponsor of the Glass Flowers, her purpose being to advance the education of women; the "ever-loyal and ever-generous" Mary Lee Ware and her mother were drawn into the Glass Flowers enterprise in 1886 when her former teacher, Professor George Goodale, approached them with his idea to populate the new Botanical Museum with Blaschka glass specimens. Being independently wealthy and liberal benefactors of Harvard's botany department, Mary convinced her mother to agree to underwrite the 200 mark consignment, but this was done anonymously at first; the uncannily lifelike models enchanted the Wares. That same year, Dr. Charles Ware died, thus filling the two women with the desire to provide Harvard with a donation in his memory.
Hence, when the official contract was signed between the Mary and her mother and Rudolf, Harvard, the agreement was that the collection would be a memorial to the now deceased Doctor: "The first Blaschka glass flowers are formally presented to the Botanical Museum as a memorial to Dr. Charles Eliot Ware, Class of 1834, by his widow Elizabeth C. Ware and daughter Mary L. Ware." Today, there is a large bronze plaque in the exhibit's center formally dedicating it to the nature-loving Doctor and husband. The initial contract signed dictated that the Blaschkas need only work half-time on the models, thus allowing them to continue their work making glass marine invertebrates. However, in 1890, they and Goodale - acting on behalf of the Wares - signed an updated version that allowed Leopold and Rudolf to work on them full-time, it is noted by Prof. Goodale in the Annual reports of the President and Treasurer of Harvard College 1890-1891 that the updated contract was due to the Blaschkas insisting that it was impossible to craft the botanical models for half the year and the marine ones the other half.
Furthermore, the report notes that the activity of the Blaschka "has been increased by their exclusive devotion to a single a single line of work." In 1889, Leopold made and gifted a bouquet of glass flowers to the Wares which, at some date, was given to Harvard and is now part of the Glass Flowers exhibit. Early in the making of the Glass Flowers, Mary Lee Ware engaged in correspondence with Professor Goodale regarding the making of the collection, one of which contained a remark of Leopold's regarding the false rumor that secret methods were used in the making of the Glass Flowers: "Many people think that we have some secret apparatus by which we can squeeze glass into these forms, but it is not so. We have tact. My son Rudolf has more than I have, because he is my son, tact increases in every generation; the only way to become a glass modeler of skill, I have said to people, is to get a good great-grandfather who loved glass." Miss Ware is known to have visited the Blaschka home/studio three times, the first in 1899 along with Prof. Goodale, Mrs Goodale and their son Francis.
By this time Mary was the sole benefactress of the Blaschkas, as her mother, Elizabeth C. Ware, had died the previous year. During the course of these visits she became great friends with Rudolf and his wife Frieda, and, on one occasion, Rudolf wrote to Mary L. Ware regarding his vision of how the Flowers should be displayed: "I think pure white sheets will do best as bestow good light to the whole room; the models will look best either on pure white or a deep velvet-black." A preference Harvard evidently agreed with as, to this day, the botanical mod
Calvinism is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, theories of worship, the use of God's law for believers, among other things; as declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, the core doctrines are predestination and election. The term Calvinism can be misleading, because the religious tradition which it denotes has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. In the context of the Reformation, Huldrych Zwingli began the Reformed tradition in 1519 in the city of Zürich, his followers were labeled Zwinglians, consistent with the Catholic practice of naming heresy after its founder. Soon, Zwingli was joined by Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, William Farel, Johannes Oecolampadius and other early Reformed thinkers.
The namesake of the movement, French reformer John Calvin, converted to the Reformed tradition from Roman Catholicism only in the late 1520s or early 1530s as it was being developed. The movement was first called referring to John Calvin, by Lutherans who opposed it. Many within the tradition find it either an indescriptive or an inappropriate term and would prefer the word Reformed to be used instead; some Calvinists prefer the term Augustinian-Calvinism since Calvin credited his theology to Augustine of Hippo. The most important Reformed theologians include John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til, Gordon Clark, R. C. Sproul were influential. Contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, John MacArthur, Timothy J. Keller, David Wells, Michael Horton. Reformed churches may exercise several forms of ecclesiastical polity.
Calvinism is represented by Continental Reformed and Congregationalist traditions. The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 100 million members in 211 member denominations around the world. There are more conservative Reformed federations such as the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed Churches, as well as independent churches. Calvinism is named after John Calvin, it was first used by a Lutheran theologian in 1552. It was a common practice of the Catholic Church to name; the term first came out of Lutheran circles. Calvin denounced the designation himself: They could attach us no greater insult than this word, Calvinism, it is not hard to guess. Despite its negative connotation, this designation became popular in order to distinguish Calvinists from Lutherans and from newer Protestant branches that emerged later; the vast majority of churches that trace their history back to Calvin do not use it themselves, since the designation "Reformed" is more accepted and preferred in the English-speaking world.
Moreover, these churches claim to be—in accordance with John Calvin's own words—"renewed accordingly with the true order of gospel". Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed tradition—as a branch of Protestantism distinguished from Lutheranism—divided into two separate groups: Arminians and Calvinists. However, it is now rare to call Arminians a part of the Reformed tradition. While the Reformed theological tradition addresses all of the traditional topics of Christian theology, the word Calvinism is sometimes used to refer to particular Calvinist views on soteriology and predestination, which are summarized in part by the Five Points of Calvinism; some have argued that Calvinism as a whole stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things including salvation. First-generation Reformed theologians include Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, John Oecolampadius, Guillaume Farel; these reformers came from diverse academic backgrounds, but distinctions within Reformed theology can be detected in their thought the priority of scripture as a source of authority.
Scripture was viewed as a unified whole, which led to a covenantal theology of the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper as visible signs of the covenant of grace. Another Reformed distinctive present in these theologians was their denial of the bodily presence of Christ in the Lord's supper; each of these theologians understood salvation to be by grace alone, affirmed a doctrine of particular election. Martin Luther and his successor Philipp Melanchthon were undoubtedly significant influences on these theologians, to a larger extent Reformed theologians; the doctrine of justification by faith alone was a direct inheritance from Luther. John Calvin, Heinrich Bullinger, Wolfgang Musculus, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Andreas Hyperius belong to the second generation of Reformed theologians. Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion was one of the most influential theologies of the era. Toward the middle of the 16th