Thomas Jefferson was an American statesman, lawyer and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. He had served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801; the principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy and individual rights motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation. Jefferson was of English ancestry and educated in colonial Virginia, he graduated from the College of William & Mary and practiced law, with the largest number of his cases concerning land ownership claims. During the American Revolution, he represented Virginia in the Continental Congress that adopted the Declaration, drafted the law for religious freedom as a Virginia legislator, served as the 2nd Governor of Virginia from 1779 to 1781, during the American Revolutionary War, he became the United States Minister to France in May 1785, subsequently the nation's first secretary of state under President George Washington from 1790 to 1793.
Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System. With Madison, he anonymously wrote the controversial Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798 and 1799, which sought to strengthen states' rights by nullifying the federal Alien and Sedition Acts; as president, Jefferson pursued the nation's shipping and trade interests against Barbary pirates and aggressive British trade policies. He organized the Louisiana Purchase doubling the country's territory; as a result of peace negotiations with France, his administration reduced military forces. He was reelected in 1804. Jefferson's second term was beset with difficulties at home, including the trial of former vice president Aaron Burr. American foreign trade was diminished when Jefferson implemented the Embargo Act of 1807, responding to British threats to U. S. shipping. In 1803, Jefferson began a controversial process of Indian tribe removal to the newly organized Louisiana Territory, he signed the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves in 1807.
Jefferson, while a planter and politician, mastered many disciplines, which ranged from surveying and mathematics to horticulture and mechanics. He was an architect in the classical tradition. Jefferson's keen interest in religion and philosophy led to his presidency of the American Philosophical Society. A philologist, Jefferson knew several languages, he corresponded with many prominent people. His only full-length book is Notes on the State of Virginia, considered the most important American book published before 1800. After retiring from public office, Jefferson founded the University of Virginia. Although regarded as a leading spokesman for democracy and republicanism in the era of the Enlightenment, Jefferson's historical legacy is mixed; some modern scholarship has been critical of Jefferson's private life, pointing out the contradiction between his ownership of the large numbers of slaves that worked his plantations and his famous declaration that "all men are created equal." Another point of controversy stems from the evidence that after his wife Martha died in 1782, Jefferson fathered children with Martha's half-sister, Sally Hemings, his slave.
Despite this, presidential scholars and historians praise his public achievements, including his advocacy of religious freedom and tolerance in Virginia. Jefferson continues to rank among U. S. presidents. Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, at the family home in Shadwell in the Colony of Virginia, the third of ten children, he was of English, Welsh and was born a British subject. His father Peter Jefferson was a surveyor who died when Jefferson was fourteen. Peter Jefferson moved his family to Tuckahoe Plantation in 1745 upon the death of William Randolph, the plantation's owner and Jefferson's friend, who in his will had named him guardian of his children; the Jeffersons returned to Shadwell in 1752, where Peter died in 1757. Thomas inherited 5,000 acres of land, including Monticello, he assumed full authority over his property at age 21. Jefferson began his childhood education beside the Randolph children with tutors at Tuckahoe. Thomas' father, was self-taught, regretting not having a formal education, he entered Thomas into an English school early, at age five.
In 1752, at age nine, he began attending a local school run by a Scottish Presbyterian minister and began studying the natural world, for which he grew to love. At this time he began studying Latin and French, while learning to ride horses. Thomas read books from his father's modest library, he was taught from 1758 to 1760 by Reverend James Maury near Gordonsville, where he studied history and the classics while boarding with Maury's family. During this period Jefferson came to know and befriended various American Indians, including the famous Cherokee chief, who stopped at Shadwell to visit, on their way to Williamsburg to trade. During the two years Jefferson was with the Maury family, he traveled to Williamsburg and was a guest of Colonel Dandridge, father of Martha Washington. In Williamsburg the young Jefferson met and came to admire Patrick Henry, eight ye
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
The Hairstons: An American Family in Black and White
The Hairstons: An American Family in Black and White, written by historian Henry Wiencek, was published in 1999 by St. Martin’s Press, won the National Book Critics Circle Award in Biography
Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia and its émigrés and to the Russian-language literature. The roots of Russian literature can be traced to the Middle Ages, when epics and chronicles in Old East Slavic were composed. By the Age of Enlightenment, literature had grown in importance, from the early 1830s, Russian literature underwent an astounding golden age in poetry and drama. Romanticism permitted a flowering of poetic talent: Vasily Zhukovsky and his protégé Alexander Pushkin came to the fore. Prose was flourishing as well; the first great Russian novelist was Nikolai Gogol. Came Ivan Turgenev, who mastered both short stories and novels. Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky soon became internationally renowned. In the second half of the century Anton Chekhov excelled in short stories and became a leading dramatist; the beginning of the 20th century ranks as the Silver Age of Russian poetry. The poets most associated with the "Silver Age" are Konstantin Balmont, Valery Bryusov, Alexander Blok, Anna Akhmatova, Nikolay Gumilyov, Osip Mandelstam, Sergei Yesenin, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Marina Tsvetaeva and Boris Pasternak.
This era produced some first-rate novelists and short-story writers, such as Aleksandr Kuprin, Nobel Prize winner Ivan Bunin, Leonid Andreyev, Fyodor Sologub, Aleksey Remizov, Yevgeny Zamyatin, Dmitry Merezhkovsky and Andrei Bely. After the Revolution of 1917, Russian literature split into white émigré parts. While the Soviet Union assured universal literacy and a developed book printing industry, it enforced ideological censorship. In the 1930s Socialist realism became the predominant trend in Russia, its leading figure was Maxim Gorky. Nikolay Ostrovsky's novel How the Steel Was Tempered has been among the most successful works of Russian literature. Alexander Fadeyev achieved success in Russia. Various émigré writers, such as poets Vladislav Khodasevich, Georgy Ivanov and Vyacheslav Ivanov; some writers dared to oppose Soviet ideology, like Nobel Prize-winning novelist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, who wrote about life in the gulag camps. The Khrushchev Thaw brought some fresh wind to literature and poetry became a mass cultural phenomenon.
This "thaw" did not last long. The end of the 20th century was a difficult period for Russian literature, with few distinct voices. Among the most discussed authors of this period were Victor Pelevin, who gained popularity with short stories and novels and playwright Vladimir Sorokin, the poet Dmitri Prigov. In the 21st century, a new generation of Russian authors appeared, differing from the postmodernist Russian prose of the late 20th century, which lead critics to speak about "new realism". Russian authors have contributed to numerous literary genres. Russia has five Nobel Prize in literature laureates; as of 2011, Russia was the fourth largest book producer in the world in terms of published titles. A popular folk saying claims Russians are "the world's most reading nation". Old Russian literature consists of several masterpieces written in the Old East Slavic; the main type of Old Russian historical literature were chronicles, most of them anonymous. Anonymous works include The Tale of Igor's Campaign and Praying of Daniel the Immured.
Hagiographies formed a popular genre of the Old Russian literature. Life of Alexander Nevsky offers a well-known example. Other Russian literary monuments include Zadonschina, Synopsis and A Journey Beyond the Three Seas. Bylinas – oral folk epics – fused Christian and pagan traditions. Medieval Russian literature had an overwhelmingly religious character and used an adapted form of the Church Slavonic language with many South Slavic elements; the first work in colloquial Russian, the autobiography of the archpriest Avvakum, emerged only in the mid-17th century. After taking the throne at the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great's influence on the Russian culture would extend far into the 18th century. Peter's reign during the beginning of the 18th century initiated a series of modernizing changes in Russian literature; the reforms he implemented encouraged Russian artists and scientists to make innovations in their crafts and fields with the intention of creating an economy and culture comparable.
Peter's example set a precedent for the remainder of the 18th century as Russian writers began to form clear ideas about the proper use and progression of the Russian language. Through their debates regarding versification of the Russian language and tone of Russian literature, the writers in the first half of the 18th century were able to lay foundation for the more poignant, topical work of the late 18th century. Satirist Antiokh Dmitrievich Kantemir, 1708–1744, was one of the earliest Russian writers not only to praise the ideals of Peter I's reforms but the ideals of the growing Enlightenment movement in Europe. Kantemir's works expressed his admiration for Peter, most notably in his epic dedicated to the emperor entitled Petrida. More however, Kantemir indirectly praised Peter's influence through his satiric criticism of Russia's “superficiality and obscurantism,” which he saw as manifestations of the backwardness Peter attempted to correct through his reforms. Kantemir honored this tradition of reform not only through his support for Peter
Lego is a line of plastic construction toys that are manufactured by The Lego Group, a held company based in Billund, Denmark. The company's flagship product, consists of colourful interlocking plastic bricks accompanying an array of gears, figurines called minifigures, various other parts. Lego pieces can be assembled and connected in many ways to construct objects, including vehicles and working robots. Anything constructed can be taken apart again, the pieces reused to make new things; the Lego Group began manufacturing the interlocking toy bricks in 1949. Movies, games and six Legoland amusement parks have been developed under the brand; as of July 2015, 600 billion Lego parts had been produced. In February 2015, Lego replaced Ferrari as Brand Finance's "world's most powerful brand"; the Lego Group began in the workshop of Ole Kirk Christiansen, a carpenter from Billund, who began making wooden toys in 1932. In 1934, his company came to be called "Lego", derived from the Danish phrase leg godt, which means "play well".
In 1947, Lego expanded to begin producing plastic toys. In 1949 Lego began producing, among other new products, an early version of the now familiar interlocking bricks, calling them "Automatic Binding Bricks"; these bricks were based on the Kiddicraft Self-Locking Bricks, patented in the United Kingdom in 1939 and released in 1947. Lego had received a sample of the Kiddicraft bricks from the supplier of an injection-molding machine that it purchased; the bricks manufactured from cellulose acetate, were a development of the traditional stackable wooden blocks of the time. The Lego Group's motto is det bedste er ikke for godt which means "only the best is the best"; this motto, still used today, was created by Christiansen to encourage his employees never to skimp on quality, a value he believed in strongly. By 1951 plastic toys accounted for half of the Lego company's output though the Danish trade magazine Legetøjs-Tidende, visiting the Lego factory in Billund in the early 1950s, felt that plastic would never be able to replace traditional wooden toys.
Although a common sentiment, Lego toys seem to have become a significant exception to the dislike of plastic in children's toys, due in part to the high standards set by Ole Kirk. By 1954, Christiansen's son, had become the junior managing director of the Lego Group, it was his conversation with an overseas buyer. Godtfred saw the immense potential in Lego bricks to become a system for creative play, but the bricks still had some problems from a technical standpoint: their locking ability was limited and they were not versatile. In 1958, the modern brick design was developed; the modern Lego brick design was patented on 28 January 1958. The Lego Group's Duplo product line was introduced in 1969 and is a range of simple blocks whose lengths measure twice the width and depth of standard Lego blocks and are aimed towards younger children. In 1978, Lego produced the first minifigures. In May 2011, Space Shuttle Endeavour mission STS-134 brought 13 Lego kits to the International Space Station, where astronauts built models to see how they would react in microgravity, as a part of the Lego Bricks in Space program.
In May 2013, the largest model created was displayed in New York City and was made of over 5 million bricks. Other records include a 4 km railway. In February 2015, Lego replaced Ferrari as the "world's most powerful brand." Lego's popularity is demonstrated by its wide representation and usage in many forms of cultural works, including books and art work. It has been used in the classroom as a teaching tool. In the US, Lego Education North America is a joint venture between Pitsco, Inc. and the educational division of the Lego Group. In 1998, Lego bricks were one of the original inductees into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York. Lego pieces of all varieties constitute a universal system. Despite variation in the design and the purposes of individual pieces over the years, each piece remains compatible in some way with existing pieces. Lego bricks from 1958 still interlock with those made in the current time, Lego sets for young children are compatible with those made for teenagers.
Six bricks of 2 × 4 studs can be combined in 915,103,765 ways. Each Lego piece must be manufactured to an exacting degree of precision; when two pieces are engaged they must fit yet be disassembled. The machines that manufacture Lego bricks have tolerances as small as 10 micrometres. Primary concept and development work takes place at the Billund headquarters, where the company employs 120 designers; the company has smaller design offices in the UK, Spain and Japan which are tasked with developing products aimed at these markets. The average development period for a new product is around twelve months, split into three stages; the first stage is to identify market trends and developments, including contact by the designers directly with the market. The second stage is the design and development of the product based upon the results of the first stage; as of September 2008 the design teams use 3D modelling software to generate CAD drawings from initial design sketches. The designs are prototyped using an in-house stereolithography machine.
Cooleemee known as the Cooleemee Plantation House, is a house located between Mocksville and Lexington, North Carolina, at the terminus of SR 1812 on the Yadkin River in Davie County, North Carolina. It is a U. S. National Historic Landmark, designated in 1978 for its architecture; the house's floor plan in the shape of a Greek cross, with four equal wings extending from an octagonal core, is based on a published design by William H. Ranlett, The Architect 1847, Vol. I, Plate 32, published again in Godey's Lady's Book, January 1850; the house is an "Anglo-Grecian Villa", built in the shape of a Greek cross between 1853-1855 by Peter and Columbia Stuart Hairston. The builder Peter Wilson Hairston a white Superior Court judge in North Carolina, who had inherited Cooleemee from his grandfather, was a central figure in Henry Wiencek's telling of the family's story; the house is built from 300,000 bricks made on site. Cooleemee Plantation was founded by Colonel Jesse A. Pearson who took part in the capture of 600 tribal Creek Indians during the War of 1812.
The Indians known as "Kulimi", a tribe of the Creek nation, were from the village of "Cooleeme" near the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers. The Creek word means "the place where the white oaks grow". Upon his return in 1814, he named his existing plantation "Cooleemee Hill". In 1817, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War and four-time state legislator, Peter Hairston, purchased the 2,500-acre Cooleemee Hill Plantation for $8 per acre – $20,000 total. In addition to the plantation house, in 1860 there were twenty-three slave dwellings at Cooleemee; the principal crop at Cooleemee was tobacco. In 1997, the Hairston family, who still owned the house, donated a conservation easement to The LandTrust for Central North Carolina, which helped preserve the house and property against development. At that time, the plantation included 1,900 acres of farmland, surrounded by a two-mile stretch of the Yadkin River supporting more than 200 species of bird. Cooleemee Plantation was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1978.
In 1999, Henry Wiencek published The Hairstons: An American Family In Black And White, which told the story of the Hairston family, which continues to own Cooleemee, of the plantation and its history over the past 150 years. This family, with black and white branches due to slavery, have continued to hold reunions at Cooleemee that honor their family's history and roots in the region. Wiencek, in the course of his preparation for this book, witnessed what he considered to be extraordinary interactions between members of the Hairston Family. In the course of his research, Wiencek learned that the Hairstons were not only the largest slaveholding family in the South, but slave traders. Peter Wilson Hairston, the latest Hairston to own the property at the end of the 20th century, published a book in 1986 accounting the history of the family's slaves, which helped other research into the family and the property. Hairston died in February 2007 in the same bed. About 175 arrowheads that were found on the western side of the Yadkin River at Cooleemee Plantation were classified by Dr. Joffre L. Coe of the University of North Carolina, Dr. James Bingham, former President of the North Carolina Archaeological Society.
The arrowheads which were from different peoples and of different times were dated from 7000 BCE to the 18th century. Several specimens exist which date from 8000 to 8500 years old with the eldest, a Hardaway Point, being dated at 9000 years old. Beaver Creek Plantation List of National Historic Landmarks in North Carolina National Register of Historic Places listings in Davie County, North Carolina Media related to Cooleemee Plantation at Wikimedia Commons The Cooleemee Plantation House Historic American Buildings Survey No. NC-212, "Cooleemee Plantation, U. S. Route 64, Mocksville vicinity, Davie County, NC", 14 measured drawings, 3 data pages
Direct Holdings Global LLC, through its subsidiaries StarVista Live, Lifestyle Products Group and Time Life, is a creator and direct marketer, known for selling books, video/DVD, multimedia products. The current focus of the company is music and entertainment experiences as the book division closed in 2003, its products have been sold throughout North America, Europe and Asia through television, retail, the Internet and direct sales. Current operations are focused in the Canada with limited retail distribution overseas. Time Life was founded in 1961 as the book division of Time Inc, it took its name from Time Inc.'s cornerstone magazines and Life, but remained independent of both. Starting in 1967, Time Life combined its book offerings with music collections and packaged them as a sturdy box set. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the selection of books and videos grew and was diversified into more genres; when record labels were no longer producing vinyl albums in 1990, Time Life transitioned to CD.
In the mid-1990s, Time Life acquired Heartland Music, with the Heartland Music label now appearing as a brand. This company is no longer associated with Time Life. At the end of 2003 Time Life was acquired by Ripplewood Holdings L. L. C. and ZelnickMedia Corporation to become part of Direct Holdings Worldwide L. L. C. Direct Holdings Americas Inc. operates as a leader in the sale of music and video products under the Time Life brand. Since 2003, Direct Holdings US Corp is the legal name of Time Life, is no longer owned by its former parent Time Warner Time Inc. in June 9, 2014. In March 2007 Ripplewood led a group that took The Reader's Digest Association private and treated Time Life as a division of RDA. By 2003 onward, a disclaimer on the copyright stated that it is "not affiliated with Time Warner Inc. or Time Inc." who owns the Time and Life magazines, which this company name came from. In 2013 Reader's Digest Association sold Time Life to Mosaic Media Investment Partners; the Time Life company was founded by Time, Incorporated, as a book marketing division.
Its name is derived from Time and Life magazines, two of the most popular magazines of the era, both owned by the company. It was the holding company of television and radio combo stations KLZ-TV-AM-FM in Denver, WFBM-TV-AM-FM in Indianapolis, WOOD-TV-AM in Grand Rapids, Michigan, KERO-TV in Bakersfield, KOGO-TV-AM-FM in San Diego, many of which were sold to McGraw-Hill in 1972. Time Life was based in the Time Life building in Rockefeller Center. Time Life gained fame as a seller of book series that would be mailed to households in monthly installments, operating as book sales clubs. Several of these book series garnered substantial critical acclaim unusual for a mass-market mail order house. For example, the series Library of Photography of the early-1970s featured high-quality duotone printing for its black-and-white reproductions in its original edition, was of course able to draw on Life's vast archive of journalistic and art photographs from every major photographer. Other series of high regard covered nature and the sciences, as well as the history of world civilizations.
The science books are interesting as ephemera of their time. The content of these series was more or less encyclopedic, providing the basics of the subjects in the way it might be done in a lecture aimed at the general public. There was a series on contemporary life in various countries of the world; some other series are much less regarded the output as the publisher moved away from soberly presented science and history toward sensationalism, pop history, DIY-themed books. The books, whatever their quality, are easy to find at low prices on the used-book market, due to their being published in the millions of copies. Yet, of some series it is known that a particular title in the series enjoyed a much smaller print run than the other volumes in the series, resulting the after-market value of that particular volume and/or the set as a whole increasing. Examples include the fourteen volume "40th Anniversary Edition" The Civil War: A Narrative and the 18-volume Voices of the Civil War series, where the volumes "Petersburg Siege to Bentonville" and "Shenandoah 1864" are the rarer ones respectively.
Nonspecific U. S. topic series were habitually translated into other languages, disseminated through local branches of Time-Life Books in the intended target markets. However, not were these translated versions truncated for various reasons; the Dutch language versions—disseminated through Time-Life Books BV, the local branch for mainland Europe at the time located at Ottho Heldringstraat 5, 1066 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands—of History of the World, The Epic of Flight and The Enchanted World, for example, were shy of four and nine volumes in translation, whereas the German-language version of The Old West (as "Der Wilde Westen," and though Ame