German Society of Pennsylvania
The German Society of Pennsylvania, located in the Northern Liberties neighborhood of Philadelphia, is the oldest German-culture organization in the United States. Its Joseph P. Horner Memorial Library is the largest private German-language library outside of Germany, among the holdings are many early products of the German-American press, including a 1743 Christoph Sauer Bible, the first European-language Bible printed in North America. Since 1888, the Society has been located in a townhouse at 611 Spring Garden Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania German Society German Society of Pennsylvania Website Pennsylvania State Historical Marker
Ardagh Group is a Luxembourg-based producer of glass and metal products. It was founded in 1932 as the Irish Glass Bottle Company, in 1999 it expanded by buying Rockware Glass and in 2007 by buying the Rexam Glass Division. In 2011 Ardagh Group bought the packaging company Impress Group for €1. 7bn. In August 2012, the company acquired Anchor Glass in an $880 million transaction, in January 2013, Ardagh Group agreed to acquire St-Gobains Verallia North America for €1.275 billion. The company operates 89 facilities in 22 countries, employs approximately 23,500 people and has approximately €7.7 billion in revenue, Ardagh Glass profits surge 150pc to €43. 6m
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
Cox & Barnard
Cox & Barnard Ltd is a stained glass designer and manufacturer based in Hove, part of the English city of Brighton and Hove. The company was founded in Hove in 1919 and specialises in stained glass for churches, many commissions have come from Anglican and Roman Catholic churches in the English counties of East Sussex, West Sussex and Kent. The company was responsible for six war memorial windows at an Anglican church in Canada. A Mr Loadsman established the firm in 1919, operating out of a building in Blatchington Road in Hove and he died soon afterwards, and the business was left to his employees Oliver Cox and William Barnard. They renamed the company and moved to new offices at Old Shoreham Road, the premises were extended, giving a design studio at the front and an extra storey above. In 1968, the firm bought the former Livingstone Road Baths building from Hove Council, the company continues to operate from the premises, which combine design and manufacturing facilities and a showroom which is open to the public.
Cox & Barnard received many commissions in the Brighton and Hove area, most of the firms work has been done elsewhere in southeast England for Anglican and Roman Catholic churches—either in the companys own name or in the name of an individual designer working for them. One commission came from outside England and this inspired him to turn his collection of fragments into a window to commemorate them and other victims of the war. All Saints Church, Kent The firms work in Staplehursts parish church consists of six supplied in 1952. Those in the chapel and the north aisle have heraldic badges and emblems. Holy Trinity Church, Eridge Green, East Sussex The church at Eridge was built in the 1850s and altered in 1875. Working for Cox & Barnard, Charles Knight designed three windows for the church, one in the transept in 1950, and two of the three lights in the east window in 1956. These show the virtues of Charity and Faith, Holy Trinity Church, High Hurstwood, East Sussex Ewan Christian designed the church in this hamlet in the parish of Buxted in 1870–72.
Harry Mileham designed a window for the side of the nave showing Saint Francis, it was installed in 1958. Paul Chapman added a window depicting Saint Christopher and Saint Luke in the aisle in 1959. St Andrews Church, Moulsecoomb and Hove The church serving the Moulsecoomb housing estate in Brighton was completed in 1934, many design elements refer to Saint Andrews occupation of fisherman, including Cox & Barnards stained glass which was installed throughout the church in and after 1998. The transepts have windows with four fish, there is a window with a blue cross. They were installed in 1958 and depict Saint Thomas of Canterbury, st Jamess Church, London Borough of Croydon In 2003, Cox & Barnard supplied stained glass windows depicting Saint Cecilia and Saint Francis de Sales for the parish church of Riddlesdown
Edinburgh Crystal was a cut glass crystal manufactured in Scotland between 1867 and 2006, and was the name of the manufacturing company. In addition to drinking glasses, Edinburgh Crystal made decanters, baskets, the company produced the glass panels for the lamps on the royal carriages. The Edinburgh Crystal company went into administration in 2006 and following its subsequent acquisition by Waterford Wedgwood, there were many ranges of glassware but at the collectable end there were just four in the former Connoisseur Collection. Star of Edinburgh – decorated with a star-burst pattern, thistle – the tops of these pieces are shaped in accordance with the thistle theme while the body is stippled. King James – glassware in this range is notable for the stems and neck. Lochnagar – Lochnagar was introduced during the reign of Queen Victoria, for several years students from Wolverhampton University and the Edinburgh College of Art were employed, for periods of 12–15 months, to work in the design department.
This provided the students work experience while inputting new design ideas. The Edge range came out of this collaboration and this visitor centre, now closed, hosted around 100,000 people, each year, who came to Penicuik to see how the glass was made. It was situated off the A701 in Penicuik, OS ref, Glass container manufacturing can be traced back for at least 400 years. However, it was only in the 19th century that commercial companies appeared on the scene, amongst them, in 1867, the Edinburgh and Leith Flint Glass Company was established. Alexander Dixson Jenkinson took over the business upon the death of his father in 1880, alexander Jenkinson died in 1909 and the business was inherited by Stanley Noel Jenkinson. 1921 saw Thomas Webb and Sons Limited of Stourbridge, West Midlands,1955 brought a name change from the Edinburgh and Leith Flint Glass Company to The Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company. Further corporate activity took place in 1964 when Crown House Limited acquired The Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company and Thomas Webb, during 1969, there was a move to a site of over 7 acres in Penicuik, some 10 miles from Edinburgh.
Then in 1971 Edinburgh Crystal and Thomas Webb merged with Dema Glass, Thomas Webb and Sons and The Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company traded well resulting in 1987 in being incorporated into the Coloroll Group. After Coloroll went bankrupt, Caledonia Investments, with the support of senior managers, led a buy-out of the Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company, the new company moved all manufacturing and distribution to its site in Penicuik. In April 2004, Edinburgh Crystal bought Caithness Glass from the receivers Deloitte, Caithness are notable for paperweights and the trophy presented to the winner of the BBCs Mastermind programme. On 21 May 2006 the offices of the headquarters were burnt out, on 26 July 2006 the Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company Ltd went into administration. Its two subsidiaries, the Caithness Glass Company Ltd and Selkirk Glass Ltd, continued to trade, on 31 July 2006,300 of Edinburgh Crystals 450 workforce were made redundant
Heaton, Butler and Bayne
Heaton and Bayne were an English firm who produced stained glass windows from 1862 to 1953. Clement Heaton founded his own stained glass firm in 1852, joined by James Butler in 1855, between 1859 and 1861 they worked alongside Clayton and Bell and were joined by Robert Turnill Bayne, who became their sole designer and a full partner in the firm in 1862. The firm was known as Heaton and Bayne from 1862 and his windows show strong design and colour, and are often recognisable by the inclusion of at least one figure with Baynes features and long beard. A change in direction came with their production of windows to the designs of Henry Holiday in 1868, during a long career, the firm produced stained glass for numerous churches throughout the Britain and the Empire, as well as the United States. Westminster Abbey includes a Heaton and Bayne window, installed in 1868, other windows by this firm are in Wimborne Minster 1857, Peterborough Cathedral 1864 and St Marys Parish Church, Hampton c1888. A documentary film, Stained Glass Masters, Butler, the documentary was narrated by Edgar Award winning author Burl Barer.
Adoration of the Magi in Tewkesbury Abbey, faith and Charity in the church of St Mary the Virgin Staverton, Northamptonshire. “Memorial Window to C. H. Crompton-Roberts of Drybridge House, several windows in St. Saviours Episcopal Church in Bar Harbor, Maine. Several windows in St. Matthews Cathedral in Laramie, Stained glass - British glass, 1811-1918 Victorian Era Work of Heaton and Bayne on Flickr Stained glass masters Buckinghamshire Stained Glass
Bormioli Rocco is a formerly all-Italian manufacturer of household goods now operating under international holding company Vision Capital. The company has been Italys largest glass manufacturer and one of the leading suppliers of tableware/glassware. Founded in 1825 in Fidenza, Bormioli Rocco produces glassware and plastic containers as well as focused on pharmaceutical use. Bormioli Rocco operates 9 plants,2 decorative ateliers and 9 stores and one store with a presence in over 100 countries. The Bormioli family was originally from Altare, in the hinterland of Savona, the family name Bormioli di Altare can be tracked back to AD1300, in the archives of Savona, for the purchase of soda. In 1825, Luigi Bormioli left Altare and moved to Borgo San Donnino in the province of Parma, with the money inherited from his father, Luigi started a glassware company. In 1832, after his death, the business was continued by his wife Petronilla, a mother of six children, together with her sons Dominic and Charles, she led the company for 22 years.
In 1854 they purchase the Royal Factory of Ceramics and Glasses Strada Farnese in Parma immediately changing its name to Brothers Bormioli Glassware, soon the brothers split, Dominic remained in Fidenza and Rocco in the capital. In the following years the company from Parma began to mechanize the production, in 1880 the company name changed to Bormioli Rocco Glass and Son. At the death Rocco, in 1893, succeeded his son Louis, joined in the period of the First World War by two sons and Rocco. At the time the company was one of the industrial company of the region. A position confirmed in the two decades. In the first post-war period and with more than 1,600 employees, Bormioli Rocco worked with his son Pier Luigi, destined to lead the company after having become general manager in 1966. During the 80s, with the acquisition of companies in Italy. In the 90s, after the death of Pier Luigi Bormioli Roccos son was forced by a financial crisis to cede a majority stake to Banca Popolare di Lodi. In the following years the company part of Gruppo Banca Popolare that in 2011 was sold to the private equity firm Vision Capital.
A factory located in Rive-de-Gier, was closed in 20041825,1880, After the acquisition of the “Royal factory of majolica and glassware” in Parma, The Bormioli family changes the business name into “Vetreria Fratelli Bormioli Rocco e Figlio spa”. 1938, The first automatic machine is assembled,1946, After the war bombings and the total destruction of the factory, the production is relaunched using the most advanced automation technologies
Blenko Glass Company
Blenko Glass Company, located in Milton, West Virginia, is known for its artistic hand-blown glass. William J. Blenko was born in London, England in 1853 and he worked at a glass factory in his youth. In 1893, he emigrated to Kokomo, Indiana, in the US, in 1903, he was forced to close his factory and return to England, due to an economic downturn. His second business venture was in 1909, in Point Marion and this endeavor quickly failed, as did a third, in Clarksburg, West Virginia. At that time, Blenko found work at other established Ohio and West Virginia glass companies and his new company was originally named Eureka Glass Company, changing the name to Blenko. Until the arrival of his son, William H. Blenko, in 1923, he had no employees, this did not mean the end of Blenko’s stained glass industry. Blenko Glass Company still produces hand-blown sheet glass for use in stained glass windows, Blenkos early successes include providing glass for the stained glass windows of St. Patricks Cathedral in New York City, helping the company earn national recognition.
Prior to 1946, Blenkos tableware output was largely functional and classical in form, as a testament to the popularity of Blenkos early tableware, the White House has a collection of Blenko table ware, which is used periodically. Change came in 1947 with the decision to hire Winslow Anderson as a design director. Blenkos Historic Period, the focus of collector and cultural interest, begins with Anderson in 1946, the second designer, Wayne Husted, did much to propel the company into the forefront of cutting-edge design, notably including pioneering the concept of architectural scale designs. In 1964, Joel Philip Myers, Husteds successor and founder of the Studio Glass movement, further improved the companys importance and reputation by directly engaging Blenko with Studio Glass. A new wave of public interest in Blenko began with the opening of the Blenko Museum in 2000, with strong interest from collectors and nationwide exposure on PBS television specials, the companys reputation has grown to reach new audiences.
Fourth-generation company President Richard Blenko often personally participated in these drives, generating a sharp spike in publicity. The Blenko Glass Company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in May 2011, in August,2012 Blenko Vice President Katie Trippe announced that Blenko Glass was rebounding after filing for bankruptcy protection. Citing increased sales and lower gas prices she said the company is making an effort to move forward. A reorganization plan was accepted by the court in December 2012, the company exited bankruptcy in 2013 and continues to produce art glass for the consumer market. Despite increased fuel costs, a period of inactivity, and a rapidly changing industry and marketplace. On August 3,2015, the Eight Annual Festival of Glass held in Milton, Blenko’s special commissions include the Country Music Awards trophy and numerous sculptures by the contemporary Studio Glass artist Hank Adams, represented in many museums throughout the US
Based in Torrington in north Devon, Dartington Crystal manufactures crystal glassware using traditional Swedish glass blowing techniques. Many of their ranges continue to be made in their North Devon factory, the company was founded by the Dartington Hall Trust, a charity which aimed to assist the economic regeneration of rural areas through business and the arts. In the early sixties the trust had become concerned that north Devon was becoming depopulated as a lack of job opportunities forced people to move elsewhere to find work. The glass-making factory was intended to be a solution this problem, to achieve this vision the trust recruited Eskil Vilhemson, a Swedish glass manufacturer, to be the companys Managing Director. A team of Scandinavian glass blowers came with him to Torrington, some of whom are still there to this day, a year in 1969 more glass blowers followed, one Italian and a couple from Denmark. Demand outstripped production in the 1970s and the factory had to be expanded, by the 1980s the modern image of Dartington had attracted the attention of Wedgwood who took up a large stake in the business, allowing for further expansion.
In 1987, Frank Thrower MBE died of cancer, but the business boomed in the late 1980s. In 1989 Dartington Hall Trust sold a controlling interest to the Rockware Group, whose investment in the business allowed a modern batch mixing plant and new retail shop to be built. The business underwent a management buyout in 1994 from BTR, who had acquired the Rockware Group. The business was acquired by US giftware giant Enesco in 2004. Dartington Crystal underwent another Management Buy Out in April 2006, safeguarding many skilled jobs in the area, Dartington Crystal bought Scottish-based Caithness Glass out of receivership in October 2006 and owns Royal Brierley Crystal which is based in the West Midlands. Indeed, this has given Dartington a modern and contemporary image which has kept it ahead of others, todays most popular ranges include Wine Master, Florabundance as well as Sharon and Dimple which are still made today. This replica can be seen in the Visitors Centre at the Torrington site, commissions include Holland & Holland, Rolls Royce Motor, P&O Cruises and Chivas Regal as well as many others.
Dartington are one of just a few remaining large scale producers of crystal and glass in the UK, not all of their crystal is made in Devon while they design and source other glassware from European suppliers. In addition to Dartington crystal and glass products, the Company owns and markets the Caithness Glass and they sell and distribute John Beswick ceramic character sculptures
Cologne is the largest city in the German federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth-largest city in Germany. It is located within the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, one of the major European metropolitan areas, and with more than ten million inhabitants, Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine River, less than eighty kilometres from Belgium. The citys famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne, the University of Cologne is one of Europes oldest and largest universities. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the first century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the French version of the citys name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior, during the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval.
Up until World War II the city had several occupations by the French. Cologne was one of the most heavily bombed cities in Germany during World War II, the bombing reduced the population by 95%, mainly due to evacuation, and destroyed almost the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many buildings as possible. Cologne is a cultural centre for the Rhineland, it hosts more than thirty museums. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics, the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, in 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia on the Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. The city was named Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium in 50 AD, considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne, especially near the wharf area, where a notable discovery of a 1900-year-old Roman boat was made in late 2007.
From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus, Marius, in 310 under Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it one of the most important trade. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne. The city was the capital of a Roman province until occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462, parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire, Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period, under Charlemagne, in 795, bishop Hildebold was promoted to archbishop