A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (/sɪˈstɜːrʃən/, abbreviated as OCist or SOCist, a religious order of monks and nuns. They are variously called the Bernardines, after the highly influential St, the original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of their monasteries, after that the followers of the older pattern of life became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian, derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux and it was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order.
By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Scotland, Spain, Italy, the keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially field-work, Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy. The monastery church of Cluny Abbey, the largest in Europe, had become wealthy from rents, feudal rights and pilgrims who passed through Cluniac houses on the Way of St. James. On March 21,1098, Roberts small group acquired a plot of marshland just south of Dijon called Cîteaux, during the first year, the monks set about constructing lodging areas and farming the lands of Cîteaux, making use of a nearby chapel for Mass. In Roberts absence from Molesme, the abbey had gone into decline, and Pope Urban II, the remaining monks of Cîteaux elected Alberic as their abbot, under whose leadership the abbey would find its grounding.
Robert had been the idealist of the order, and Alberic was their builder, upon assuming the role of abbot, Alberic moved the site of the fledgling community near a brook a short distance away from the original site. Alberic discontinued the use of Benedictine black garments in the abbey and he returned the community to the original Benedictine ideal of manual work and prayer, dedicated to the ideal of charity and self sustenance. Alberic forged an alliance with the Dukes of Burgundy, working out a deal with Duke Odo of Burgundy concerning the donation of a vineyard as well as stones with which they built their church. The church was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary on November 16,1106, on January 26,1108, Alberic died and was soon succeeded by Stephen Harding, the man responsible for carrying the order into its crucial phase. The order was fortunate that Stephen was an abbot of extraordinary gifts, and he framed the original version of the Cistercian Constitution or regulations, the Carta caritatis.
Although this was revised on several occasions to meet needs, from the outset it emphasised a simple life of work, prayer. Cistercian abbeys refused to admit children, allowing adults to choose their religious vocation for themselves – a practice emulated by many of the older Benedictine houses
Philip I of France
Philip I, called the Amorous, was King of the Franks from 1060 to his death. His reign, like that of most of the early Capetians, was long for the time. The monarchy began a modest recovery from the low it reached in the reign of his father and he added to the royal demesne the Vexin, Philip was born 23 May 1052 at Champagne-et-Fontaine, the son of Henry I and his wife Anne of Kiev. Unusual at the time for Western Europe, his name was of Greek origin, although he was crowned king at the age of seven, until age fourteen his mother acted as regent, the first queen of France ever to do so. Baldwin V of Flanders acted as co-regent, following the death of Baldwin VI of Flanders, Robert the Frisian seized Flanders. Baldwins wife, Richilda requested aid from Philip, who defeated Robert at the battle of Cassel in 1071, Philip first married Bertha in 1072. Although the marriage produced the heir, Philip fell in love with Bertrade de Montfort. He repudiated Bertha and married Bertrade on 15 May 1092, in 1094, he was excommunicated by Hugh of Die, for the first time, after a long silence, Pope Urban II repeated the excommunication at the Council of Clermont in November 1095.
In France, the king was opposed by Bishop Ivo of Chartres, Philip appointed Alberic first Constable of France in 1060. A great part of his reign, like his fathers, was spent putting down revolts by his power-hungry vassals, in 1077, he made peace with William the Conqueror, who gave up attempting the conquest of Brittany. In 1082, Philip I expanded his demesne with the annexation of the Vexin, in 1100, he took control of Bourges. It was at the aforementioned Council of Clermont that the First Crusade was launched, Philip at first did not personally support it because of his conflict with Urban II. Philips brother Hugh of Vermandois, was a major participant, Philip died in the castle of Melun and was buried per request at the monastery of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire – and not in St Denis among his forefathers. He was succeeded by his son, Louis VI, whose succession was, according to Abbot Suger, Philip‘s children with Bertha were, married Hugh I of Champagne before 1097 and then, after her divorce, to Bohemund I of Antioch in 1106
Counts of Dreux
They are notable for inheriting the Duchy of Brittany through Pierre de Dreuxs marriage to Alix de Thouars in the early 13th century. In the tenth century the lands belonged to the forebears of the Capetians, they passed by marriage to Walter, Count of the Vexin, in 1017 the lands were given as dowry to Richards illegitimate daughter Matilda, who married Odo II, Count of Blois. King Robert II of France confiscated the lands of Dreux from Odo, the descendants of Robert held the county of Dreux until 1355, when the heiress, Countess Joan II of Dreux, married Simon de Thouars. Simon and Joan had three daughters and no sons, their daughters sold their interests in the county of Dreux to King Charles VI. The county returned to the crown in 1556, and thereafter formed part of the domain, the lands of François, Duke of Anjou. It returned to the domain in the reign of Louis XV. 1355-1365, Simon 1365-1377, Perenelle 1365-1377, Isabeau 1365-1377, Margaret In 1377 the three sisters sell their fief to the French crown.
1382-1401, Arnaud Amanieu 1401-1415, Charles I 1415-1471, Charles II John IV 1471-1522, Alain - Alain the Great John V 1522-1555, Henry I 1555-1572, Jeanne
They can be numbered, in which case they are provided with a fixed prebend, or unnumbered, in which case the bishop indicates the number of canons according to the rents. In some Church of England cathedrals there are two bodies, the lesser and greater chapters, which have different functions. The smaller body usually consists of the members and is included in the larger one. Originally, it referred to a section of a rule that was read out daily during the assembly of a group of canons or other clergy attached to a cathedral or collegiate church. Later it came to be applied to the group of clergy itself, in both cases the chapter was the bishops consilium which he was bound to consult on all important matters and without doing so he could not act. Thus, a decision of a bishop needed the confirmation of the chapter before it could be enforced. In its corporate capacity the chapter takes charge sede vacante of a diocese, in England, this custom has never obtained, the two archbishops having, from time immemorial, taken charge of the vacant dioceses in their respective provinces.
The normal constitution of the chapter of a cathedral church comprised four officers. These are the dean, the precentor, the chancellor and the treasurer and these four officers, occupying the four corner stalls in the choir, are called in many of the statutes the quatuor majores personae of the church. A dean seems to have derived the designation from the Benedictine deans who had ten monks under their charge, the dean came into existence to supply the place of the provost in the internal management of the church and chapter. In England every secular cathedral church was headed by a dean who was elected by the chapter. The dean is president of the chapter and within the cathedral has charge of the celebration of the services, deans sit in the principal stall in the choir, which is usually the first on the right hand on entering the choir at the west. Next to the dean is the precentor, whose duty is that of regulating the musical portion of the services. The third officer is the chancellor, who must not be confused with the chancellor of the diocese, the chancellor of the cathedral church is charged with the oversight of its schools, ought to read theology lectures and superintend the lections in the choir and correct slovenly readers.
Chancellors are often the secretary and librarian of the chapter, in the absence of the dean and precentor the chancellor is president of the chapter. The easternmost stall, on the side of the choir, is usually assigned to the chancellor. The fourth officer is the treasurer and they are guardians of the fabric and all the furniture and ornaments of the church. It was their duty to provide bread and wine for the Eucharist and candles and they regulated such matters as the ringing of the bells
Adelaide of Maurienne
Adelaide of Savoy was the second spouse but first Queen consort of Louis VI of France. Adelaide was the daughter of Humbert II of Savoy and Gisela of Burgundy, and niece of Pope Callixtus II and she became the second wife of Louis VI of France, whom she married on 3 August 1113/14 in Paris, France. They had eight children, the second of whom became Louis VII of France, adelaide was one of the most politically active of all Frances medieval queens. Her name appears on 45 royal charters from the reign of Louis VI, during her tenure as queen, royal charters were dated with both her regnal year and that of the king. Among many other religious benefactions and Louis founded the monastery of St Peters at Montmartre, after Louis VIs death, Adélaide did not immediately retire to conventual life, as did most widowed queens of the time. Instead she married Matthieu I of Montmorency, with whom she had one child and she remained active in the French court and in religious activities. Adélaide is one of two queens in a legend related by William Dugdale, as the story goes, Queen Adélaide of France became enamoured of a young knight, William dAlbini, at a joust.
But he was engaged to Adeliza of Louvain and refused to become her lover. The jealous Adélaide lured him into the clutches of a hungry lion and this story is almost without a doubt apocryphal. In 1153 she retired to the abbey of Montmartre, which she had founded with Louis VII and she died there on 18 November 1154. She was buried in the cemetery of the Church of St. Pierre at Montmartre, not to be confused with his elder brother. Peter, married Elizabeth, Lady of Courtenay Nolan, Kathleen D. Capetian Women Facinger, a Study of Medieval Queenship, Capetian France, 987–1237 Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History 5 (1968, 3–48
Pope Eugene III
Pope Eugene III, born Bernardo da Pisa, was Pope from 15 February 1145 to his death in 1153. He was the first Cistercian to become Pope, in response to the fall of Edessa to the Muslims in 1144, Eugene proclaimed the Second Crusade. The crusade failed to recapture Edessa, which was the first of many failures by the Christians in the crusades to recapture lands won in the First Crusade and he was beatified on 28 December 1872 by Pope Pius IX on the account of his sanctity. Little is known about his origins and family except that he was son of a certain Godius, in 1106 he was a canon of the cathedral chapter in Pisa and from 1115 is attested as subdeacon. 1133–1138 he acted as vicedominus of the archdiocese of Pisa, between May 1134 and February 1137 he was ordained into the priesthood by Pope Innocent II, who resided at that time in Pisa. Under the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux he entered the Cistercian Order in the monastery of Clairvaux in 1138, a year he returned to Italy as leader of the Cistercian community in Scandriglia.
In Autumn 1140, Pope Innocent II named him abbot of the monastery of S. Anastasio alle Tre Fontane outside Rome, Bernardo was elected pope in February 1145 and took the pontifical name of Eugene III. The choice did not have the approval of Bernard, but after the choice was made, he took advantage of the qualities in Eugene III which he objected to, so as to virtually rule in his name. During nearly the whole of his pontificate, Eugene III was unable to reside in Rome, but as he would not agree to a treacherous compact against Tivoli, he was compelled to leave the city in March 1146. He stayed for some time at Viterbo, and at Siena, at a great diet held at Speyer in 1146, Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III and many of his nobles were incited to dedicate themselves to the crusade by the eloquence of Bernard. Eugene III held synods in northern Europe at Paris, Rheims and he considered and approved the works of Hildegard of Bingen. In June 1148, Eugene III returned to Italy and took up his residence at Viterbo and he fled to Prince Ptolemys fortress in Tusculum on 8 April 1149 and remained there, where he met the returning Crusader king Louis VII of France and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine.
He stayed there until 7 November, at the end of November 1149, through the aid of the King of Sicily, he was again able to enter Rome, but the jealousy of the republicans soon compelled him to retire. The Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa had promised to aid him against his revolted subjects, though the citizens of Rome were jealous of the efforts of Eugene III to assert his temporal authority, they were always ready to recognize him as their spiritual lord. Besides that, they deeply reverenced his personal character, accordingly, he was buried in the Vatican with every mark of respect, and his tomb soon acquired an extraordinary fame for miraculous cures. The people of Rome were quick to recognize Eugene III as a figure who was meek. His tomb acquired considerable fame due to the miracle purported to have occurred there, Pope Pius IX beatified him in 1872. Knights Templar Original text from the 9th edition of an unnamed encyclopedia, Original referred to him as Eugene – modified to match spelling on Popes list
William I, Count of Burgundy
William I, called the Great, was Count of Burgundy from 1057 to 1087 and Mâcon from 1078 to 1087. He was a son of Renaud I and Alice of Normandy, daughter of Richard II, william was the father of several notable children, including Pope Callixtus II. In 1057, he succeeded his father and reigned over a larger than that of the Franche-Comté itself. In 1087, he died in Besançon, Prince-Archbishopric of Besançon and he was buried in Besançons Cathedral of St John. William married a woman named Stephanie and she married secondly Godfrey I, Count of Leuven and was possibly the mother of Joscelin of Louvain
Reginald I, Count of Burgundy
Reginald I, Count of Burgundy was the second Count of the Free County of Burgundy. Born in 986, he was the son of Otto-William, Count of Burgundy, in 1016, Reginald married Alice of Normandy. He succeeded to the County on his fathers death in 1026, Reginald was succeeded by his son, William I, on his death in 1057. He had to leave his county of Brionne and Vernon in Normandy, after being at the head of the coalition of the barons of Normandy, guy found refuge with his uncle Geoffrey II of Anjou. He attempted to take over the county of Burgundy from his brother William, Viscount of Lons-le-Saunier, sire Montmorot and Scey married to Aldeberge Scey. They had a son Montmorot Thibert, founder of the house Montmorot, alberada of Buonalbergo was Robert Guiscards first wife
Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux, O. Cist was a French abbot and the primary reformer of the Cistercian order. After the death of his mother, Bernard sought admission into the Cistercian order, three years later, he was sent to found a new abbey at an isolated clearing in a glen known as the Val dAbsinthe, about 15 kilometres southeast of Bar-sur-Aube. According to tradition, Bernard founded the monastery on 25 June 1115, naming it Claire Vallée, there Bernard would preach an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary. In the year 1128, Bernard attended the Council of Troyes, at which he traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar, on the death of Pope Honorius II on 13 February 1130, a schism broke out in the Church. King Louis VI of France convened a council of the French bishops at Étampes in 1130. After the council of Étampes, Bernard spoke with King Henry I of England, known as Henry Beauclerc, Henry I was sceptical because most of the bishops of England supported Antipope Anacletus II, Bernard persuaded him to support Innocent.
Germany had decided to support Innocent through Norbert of Xanten, who was a friend of Bernards, Innocent insisted on Bernards company when he met with Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor. Lothair III became Innocents strongest ally among the nobility, although the councils of Étampes, Wurzburg and Rheims all supported Innocent, large portions of the Christian world still supported Anacletus. Bernard set out to convince these other regions to rally behind Innocent, the first person he went to was Gerard of Angoulême. He proceeded to write a letter, known as Letter 126, Bernard would comment that Gerard was his most formidable opponent during the whole schism. After persuading Gerard, Bernard traveled to visit William X, Duke of Aquitaine and he was the hardest for Bernard to convince. He did not pledge allegiance to Innocent until 1135, after that, Bernard spent most of his time in Italy persuading the Italians to pledge allegiance to Innocent. He traveled to Sicily in 1137 to convince the king of Sicily to follow Innocent, the whole conflict ended when Anacletus died on 25 January 1138.
In 1139, Bernard assisted at the Second Council of the Lateran, Bernard denounced the teachings of Peter Abelard to the pope, who called a council at Sens in 1141 to settle the matter. Bernard soon saw one of his disciples elected Pope Eugene III, having previously helped end the schism within the church, Bernard was now called upon to combat heresy. In June 1145, Bernard traveled in southern France and his preaching there helped strengthen support against heresy, after the Christian defeat at the Siege of Edessa, the pope commissioned Bernard to preach the Second Crusade. The last years of Bernards life were saddened by the failure of the crusaders, Bernard died at the age of 63, after 40 years as a monk. He was the first Cistercian placed on the calendar of saints, in 1830 Pope Pius VIII bestowed upon Bernard the title Doctor of the Church
Bertha of Holland
Bertha of Holland, known as Berthe or Bertha of Frisia and erroneously as Berta or Bertrada, was queen consort of the Franks from 1072 until 1092, as the first wife of King Philip I. Berthas marriage to the king in 1072 was a result of negotiations between him and her stepfather, Count Robert the Frisian of Flanders. After nine years of childlessness, the couple had three children, including Philips successor, Louis the Fat. Philip, grew tired of his wife by 1090 and that marriage was a scandal since both Philip and Bertrada were already married to other people, at least until Queen Bertha died the next year. Bertha was the daughter of Count Floris I of Holland and his wife and she is erroneously referred to as Matilda by Chronologia Johannes de Beke. Bertha had six siblings and both of her parents came from large families and her father ruled a territory vaguely described as Friesland west of the Vlie, which is where Bertha spent her childhood. Count Floris I was assassinated in 1061, and two years her mother remarried to Robert of Flanders, now known as Robert the Frisian, became guardian of Bertha and her six siblings.
In 1070, Robert the Frisian became involved in a war with King Philip I of France over succession to the County of Flanders. Within two years and Philip concluded a treaty which was to be sealed by a marriage, Roberts own daughters were too young. Robert thus agreed to the marriage of his stepdaughter to King Philip, Bertha married Philip, thus becoming queen of the Franks, probably in 1072. Bertha had no kings among her ancestors and lacked even tenuous links with the Carolingian that her predecessors could claim. Consequently, contemporary chroniclers did not even try to present her lineage as more exalted than that of a counts daughter, the shortage of royal candidates made Bertha a suitable choice. Little is known about Berthas queenship and she co-signed only three donation charters. However, she plays a prominent role in the hagiography titled Vita Arnulfi, the hagiography describes how she used her regal power to expel Abbot Gerard of Saint-Médard and reinstate the former abbot, who had been removed due to his mismanagement of the abbey.
Saint Arnulf of Soissons warned her that doing so would incur the wrath of God and lead to her being out of the kingdom into exile. The queen furiously refused to listen to him, the hagiography, was written after Bertha died and during Bertradas queenship, which might explain the name confusion. For six years, King Philip and Queen Bertha were troubled by their childlessness and especially by the lack of male children, the birth of the long-awaited heir apparent had such a great impact that a story of a miracle developed around it. Reportedly, the couples fertility was only restored thanks to the prayers of a hermit, Arnulf informed Queen Bertha that she was expecting a son and that it would be appropriate to give him the Carolingian name of Louis
Robert II of France
Robert II, called the Pious or the Wise, was King of the Franks from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet, immediately after his own coronation, Roberts father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. Lewis has observed, in tracing the phenomenon in this line of kings who lacked dynastic legitimacy, ralph Glaber, attributes Hughs request to his old age and inability to control the nobility. Robert was eventually crowned on 25 December 987, Robert had begun to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV and she was the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders, with whom she had two children. Robert divorced her within a year of his fathers death in 996 and he tried instead to marry Bertha, daughter of Conrad of Burgundy, around the time of his fathers death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois, but was Roberts cousin, for reasons of consanguinity, Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage, and Robert was excommunicated.
After long negotiations with Gregorys successor, Sylvester II, the marriage was annulled, finally, in 1001, Robert entered into his final and longest-lasting marriage to Constance of Arles, the daughter of William I of Provence. Her southern customs and entourage were regarded with suspicion at court, after his companion Hugh of Beauvais urged the king to repudiate her as well, knights of her kinsman Fulk III, Count of Anjou had Beauvais murdered. The king and Bertha went to Rome to ask Pope Sergius IV for an annulment so they could remarry, after this was refused, he went back to Constance and fathered several children by her. Her ambition alienated the chroniclers of her day, who blamed her for several of the kings decisions and Robert remained married until his death in 1031. Robert was a devout Catholic, hence his sobriquet the Pious and he was musically inclined, being a composer and poet, and made his palace a place of religious seclusion where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes.
Roberts reputation for piety resulted from his lack of toleration for heretics and he is credited with advocating forced conversions of local Jewry. He supported riots against the Jews of Orléans who were accused of conspiring to destroy the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, Robert reinstated the Roman imperial custom of burning heretics at the stake. In 1003, his invasion of the Duchy of Burgundy was thwarted, the pious Robert made few friends and many enemies, including his own sons, Hugh and Robert. They turned against their father in a war over power. Hugh died in revolt in 1025, in a conflict with Henry and the younger Robert, King Roberts army was defeated, and he retreated to Beaugency outside Paris, his capital. He died in the middle of the war with his sons on 20 July 1031 at Melun and he was interred with Constance in Saint Denis Basilica and succeeded by his son Henry, in both France and Burgundy
Constance of Arles
Constance of Arles, known as Constance of Provence, was a queen consort of France as the third spouse of King Robert II of France. Born c. 986 Constance was the daughter of William I, count of Provence and Adelaide-Blanche of Anjou and she was the half-sister of Count William II of Provence. Constance was married to King Robert, after his divorce from his second wife, the marriage was stormy, Berthas family opposed her, and Constance was despised for importing her Provençal kinfolk and customs. Roberts friend, Hugh of Beauvais, tried to convince the king to repudiate her in 1007, possibly at her request twelve knights of her kinsman, Fulk Nerra, murdered Beauvais. In 1010 Robert went to Rome, followed by his former wife Bertha, to seek permission to divorce Constance, Pope Sergius IV was not about to allow a consanguineous marriage which had been formally condemned by Pope Gregory V and Robert had already repudiated two wives. After his return according to one source Robert loved his wife more, however, as the condemned clerics left the trial the queen struck out the eye of Stephen.
With the staff which she carried and this was seen as Constance venting her frustration at anyone subverting the prestige of the crown. At Constances urging, her eldest son Hugh Magnus was crowned co-king alongside his father in 1017, but Hugh demanded his parents share power with him, and rebelled against his father in 1025. Constance, however, on learning of her sons rebellion was furious with him, at some point Hugh was reconciled with his parents but shortly thereafter died, probably about age eighteen. Robert and Constance quarrelled over which of their sons should inherit the throne, Robert favored their second son Henry, while Constance favored their third son. Despite his mothers protests and her support by several bishops, Henry was crowned in 1027, however, was not graceful when she didnt get her way. The ailing Fulbert, bishop of Chartres told a colleague that he could attend the ceremony if he traveled slowly to Reims—but he was too frightened of the queen to go at all. Constance encouraged her sons to rebel, and they began attacking and pillaging the towns, son Robert attacked Burgundy, the duchy he had been promised but had never received, and Henry seized Dreux.
At last King Robert agreed to their demands and peace was made which lasted until the kings death, King Robert died on 20 July 1031. Soon afterwards Constance was at odds with both her surviving sons, Constance seized her dower lands and refused to surrender them. Henry fled to Normandy, where he received aid, weapons and he returned to besiege his mother at Poissy but Constance escaped to Pontoise. She only surrendered when Henry began the siege of Le Puiset, Constance died 28 July 1032. and was buried beside her husband Robert at Saint-Denis Basilica. A missing Capetian princess, daughter of King Robert II of France,1990 Moore, the Birth of Popular Heresy,1975