Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus that affects the liver. It can cause both chronic infection. Many people have no symptoms during the initial infection. In acute infection, some may develop a rapid onset of sickness with vomiting, yellowish skin, dark urine and abdominal pain; these symptoms last a few weeks and does the initial infection result in death. It may take 30 to 180 days for symptoms to begin. In those who get infected around the time of birth 90% develop chronic hepatitis B while less than 10% of those infected after the age of five do. Most of those with chronic disease have no symptoms. Cirrhosis or liver cancer occur in about 25% of those with chronic disease; the virus is transmitted by exposure to infectious body fluids. Infection around the time of birth or from contact with other people's blood during childhood is the most frequent method by which hepatitis B is acquired in areas where the disease is common. In areas where the disease is rare, intravenous drug use and sexual intercourse are the most frequent routes of infection.
Other risk factors include working in healthcare, blood transfusions, living with an infected person, travel in countries where the infection rate is high, living in an institution. Tattooing and acupuncture led to a significant number of cases in the 1980s; the hepatitis B viruses cannot be spread by holding hands, sharing eating utensils, hugging, sneezing, or breastfeeding. The infection can be diagnosed 30 to 60 days after exposure; the diagnosis is confirmed by testing the blood for parts of the virus and for antibodies against the virus. It is one of five main hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, E; the infection has been preventable by vaccination since 1982. Vaccination is recommended by the World Health Organization in the first day of life. Two or three more doses are required at a time for full effect; this vaccine works about 95% of the time. About 180 countries gave the vaccine as part of national programs as of 2006, it is recommended that all blood be tested for hepatitis B before transfusion, that condoms be used to prevent infection.
During an initial infection, care is based on the symptoms. In those who develop chronic disease, antiviral medication such as tenofovir or interferon may be useful. Liver transplantation is sometimes used for cirrhosis. About a third of the world population has been infected at one point in their lives. At least 391 million people, or 5% of the world's population, had chronic HBV infection as of 2017. While another 145 million cases of acute HBV infection occurred that year. Over 750,000 people die of hepatitis B each year. About 300,000 of these are due to liver cancer; the disease is most common in the Western African regions. In Europe rates are 1.6% and in the Americas they are 0.7%. It was known as "serum hepatitis". Acute infection with hepatitis B virus is associated with acute viral hepatitis, an illness that begins with general ill-health, loss of appetite, vomiting, body aches, mild fever, dark urine, progresses to development of jaundice; the illness lasts for a few weeks and gradually improves in most affected people.
A few people may have a more severe form of liver disease known as fulminant hepatic failure and may die as a result. The infection may be asymptomatic and may go unrecognized. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus either may be asymptomatic or may be associated with a chronic inflammation of the liver, leading to cirrhosis over a period of several years; this type of infection increases the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Across Europe, hepatitis B and C cause 50% of hepatocellular carcinomas. Chronic carriers are encouraged to avoid consuming alcohol as it increases their risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis B virus has been linked to the development of membranous glomerulonephritis. Symptoms outside of the liver are present in 1–10% of HBV-infected people and include serum-sickness–like syndrome, acute necrotizing vasculitis, membranous glomerulonephritis, papular acrodermatitis of childhood; the serum-sickness–like syndrome occurs in the setting of acute hepatitis B preceding the onset of jaundice.
The clinical features are fever, skin rash, polyarteritis. The symptoms subside shortly after the onset of jaundice but can persist throughout the duration of acute hepatitis B. About 30–50% of people with acute necrotizing vasculitis are HBV carriers. HBV-associated nephropathy is more common in children. Membranous glomerulonephritis is the most common form. Other immune-mediated hematological disorders, such as essential mixed cryoglobulinemia and aplastic anemia have been described as part of the extrahepatic manifestations of HBV infection, but their association is not as well-defined. Transmission of hepatitis B virus results from exposure to infectious blood or body fluids containing blood, it is 50 to 100 times more infectious than human immunodeficiency virus. Possible forms of transmission include sexual contact, blood transfusions and transfusion with other human blood products, re-use of contaminated needles and syringes, vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth.
Without intervention, a mother, positive for HBsAg has a 20% risk of
Orlando Executive Airport is a public airport three miles east of downtown Orlando, in Orange County, Florida. It serves general aviation. Orlando Executive Airport is a general aviation and corporate aviation airport, its proximity to the State Road 408 East-West Expressway and downtown Orlando makes it a popular airport. The airport is still the "minor" airport of Orlando, Florida, as Orlando International Airport is the airport for airline flights, drawing more passengers every year; the airport has been used for special air industry events and showcases including the National Business Aviation Association Convention, held there in 2008, 2009, 2012, 2014. The airport has been used since the 1990s as a landing site and staging site by Marine Helicopter Squadron One for Marine One and other supporting HMX-1 helicopter operations during Presidential visits to Orlando. All Presidential visits to the Orlando area are on Air Force One, which lands at Orlando International Airport. Executive Airport covers 989 acres at an elevation of 113 feet.
It has two asphalt runways: 7/25 is 6,004 by 150 feet and 13/31 is 4,625 by 100 feet. In the year ending September 30, 2017 the airport had 106,627 aircraft operations, averaging 292 per day: 94% general aviation, 5% air taxi and <1% military. 210 aircraft were based at this airport: 66% single-engine, 20% multi-engine, 9% jet, 5% helicopter. The airport has two fixed-base operators, serves private and corporate aircraft, is the operating base for the Aviation Section of the Orange County Sheriff's Office. Opened in 1928 as the Orlando Municipal Airport, the airport was the first commercial airport in central Florida; the United States Postal Service started airmail service to Orlando the following year. The United States Army Air Corps took control of the airport in 1940 for use as a training facility and renamed it the Orlando Army Air Base. For the next six years, the airport remained under military control. In June 1941, the Army Air Corps became the United States Army Air Forces and beginning in late 1941 through mid-1943, Orlando Army Air Base was used by I Bomber Command and by units of the Army Air Forces Antisubmarine Command to fly antisubmarine patrols along both the east coast as well as over the Gulf of Mexico and the Florida Straits, augmenting U.
S. Navy and U. S. Coast Guard aircraft in that capacity. With the lessening of the U-boat threat, Orlando AAB became the home of the Army Air Forces School of Applied Tactics and subsequently as the Army Air Forces Tactical Center. In 1943 the AAFSAT began training units in night fighter operations; the 481st Night Fighter Group was established, equipped with the Douglas P-70, a variation of the A-20 Havoc attack aircraft used for training. Squadrons attached to the group in 1943 and 1944 were the 348th, 349th, 420th, 423d, 425th, 426th and 427th Night Fighter Squadrons, after completion of training, were sent overseas to either the Pacific or European Theaters for combat. In contrast, the Orlando Fighter Wing was stationed at the base. In 1946 the airfield was released to the City of Orlando, while the military support facilities north and northeast of the airport remained under U. S. Army Air Forces control as a non-flying administrative and technical training installation still named Orlando Army Air Base.
With the establishment of the United States Air Force as a separate service in 1947, this installation was renamed Orlando Air Force Base, serving as a technical training facility for the Air Training Command, a ground-launched tactical missile training facility for the Tactical Air Command, as a headquarters installation for the Military Air Transport Service and the Air Rescue Service. In 1968, Orlando AFB was transferred to the United States Navy and renamed Naval Training Center Orlando; this installation served as the newest of one of three Navy enlisted recruit training centers and as home to various technical training schools, to include the Naval Nuclear Power School for officer and enlisted personnel. The 1993 Base Realignment and Closure Commission directed that NTC Orlando be closed no than 1 October 1999; the base property was sold to the City of Orlando. Most of the installation was demolished and residential and commercial properties developed on the site, renamed Baldwin Park.
In 1946 passenger flights on National Airlines and Eastern Air Lines began at the now civil Orlando Municipal Airport. Five years the airport built its main terminal, a two-story structure with a built-in control tower; the April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 20 weekday departures: 6 National. Eastern Air Lines had a nonstop flight to Atlanta; the nonstops to Washington that began in 1959 were the longest ORL had. The August 1955 diagram shows Runway 17 4,480 ft along the west side of the field, Runway 18 5,071 ft, Runway 4 5,422 ft, Runway 10R 5,313 ft and Runway 13 5,568 ft. By the early 1960s development around the airport had made further expansion unlikely; the airport's 6000 foot main runway, Runway 7/25, wasn't long enough for early jet airliners such as the Boeing 707, Douglas DC-8 and Convair 880, so the city and Orange County governments lobbied the U. S. Air Force to convert McCoy Air Force Base, a Strategic Air Command B-52 base about eight miles to the south, to a civil-military airport with an airline terminal on undeveloped land on
The De Hoop Marine Protected Area lies between Arniston and the mouth of the Breede River on the south coast of South Africa adjacent to the De Hoop Nature Reserve. The MPA is 51 kilometres long, extends 5 nautical miles to sea; the whole MPA is a restricted area and is part of the migratory route and calving area for Southern right whales. The area protects habitats for several economically important inshore reef fish species, ensures the retention of marine biomass in this part of the coast; the limestone coastline is includes archaeological middens that date back centuries. The MPA is close to the Breede River estuary and, provides protection for species like cob that breed in the estuary and return to the ocean; the MPA was proclaimed by the Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Mohammed Valli Moosa, in Government Gazette No. 21948 of 29 December 2000 in terms section 43 of the Marine Natural Resources Act, 18 of 1998. The area was established as a nature reserve in 1985. A marine protected area is defined by the IUCN as "A defined geographical space, recognised and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values".
The length of the protected shoreline is 51 km, the area of protected ocean is 288.9 km2 The whole of De Hoop MPA is zoned as a restricted area. The northern boundary is the high water mark The eastern boundary is a line at 114° true bearing from a beacon near Stilbaai Point at S34°27.13'. The marine protected areas of South Africa are the responsibility of the national government, which has management agreements with a variety of MPA management authorities, in this case, the MPA is adjacent to the De Hoop Nature Reserve and is managed by CapeNature with funding from the SA Government through the Department of Environmental Affairs; the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries is responsible for issuing permits and law enforcement. The climate of the South-western Cape is markedly different from the rest of South Africa, a summer rainfall region, receiving most of its rainfall during the summer months of December to February; the South-western Cape has a Mediterranean type climate, with most of its rainfall during the winter months from June to September.
During the summer the dominant factor determining the weather in the region is a high pressure zone, known as the South Atlantic High, located over the South Atlantic ocean to the west of the Cape coast. Winds circulating in an anticlockwise direction from such a system reach the Cape from the south-east, producing periods of up to several days of high winds and clear skies; these winds keep the region cool. Because of its south facing aspect De Hoop is exposed to these winds. Winter in the South-western Cape is characterised by disturbances in the circumpolar westerly winds, resulting in a series of eastward moving depressions; these bring cool cloudy rain from the north west. The south westerly winds over the South Atlantic produce the prevailing south-westerly swell typical of the winter months, which beat on the exposed coastline; the MPA is in the warm temperate Agulhas ecoregion to the east of Cape Point which extends eastwards to the Mbashe River. There are a large proportion of species endemic to South Africa along this coastline.
Four major habitats exist in the sea in this region, distinguished by the nature of the substrate. The substrate, or base material, is important in that it provides a base to which an organism can anchor itself, vitally important for those organisms which need to stay in one particular kind of place. Rocky shores and reefs provide a firm fixed substrate for the attachment of animals; some of these may have Kelp forests, which reduce the effect of waves and provide food and shelter for an extended range of organisms. Sandy beaches and bottoms are a unstable substrate and cannot anchor kelp or many of the other benthic organisms. There is open water, above the substrate and clear of the kelp forest, where the organisms must drift or swim. Mixed habitats are frequently found, which are a combination of those mentioned above. There are no significant estuarine habitats in the MPA. Rocky shores and reefs There are mixed rocky and sandy bottoms. For many marine organisms the substrate is another type of marine organism, it is common for several layers to co-exist.
Examples of this are red bait pods, which are encrusted with sponges, bryozoans and gastropods, abalone, which are covered by similar seaweeds to those found on the surrounding rocks with a variety of other organisms living on the seaweeds. The type of rock of the reef is of some importance, as it influences the range of possibilities for the local topography, which in turn influences the range of habitats provided, therefore the diversity of inhabitants. Sandstone and other sedimentary rocks erode and weather differently, depending on the direction of dip and strike, steepness of the dip, may produce reefs which are flat to very
Live from Austin, TX is an album by Waylon Jennings, released on New West Records in 2006. As part of New West's series of albums featuring individual artists' performances on Austin City Limits, it was recorded on April 1, 1989, several months after the release of Full Circle, Jennings' last album for MCA Records, a year before the singer's move to Epic Records would yield The Eagle; the songs themselves include popular selections from Jennings' own catalog: "I'm a Ramblin' Man", "America", "Theme from The Dukes of Hazzard", "Luckenbach, Texas" and "Mamas Don't Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys", among others. The concert was released in video format and in 2007, the DVD of Live from Austin, TX was certified gold by the RIAA. "I'm a Ramblin' Man" "Rainy Day Woman" "America" "I May Be Used" "Amanda" "Me and Bobby McGee" "Trouble Man" "Mammas Don't Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys" "Good Ol' Boys" "Bob Wills Is Still the King" "Are You Sure Hank Done It This Way" "Suspicious Minds" "Honky Tonk Angels" "Good Hearted Woman" "I've Always Been Crazy" "Luckenbach, Texas" "I Ain't Living Long Like This"
FAX +49-69/450464 was a German record label founded in Frankfurt in 1992 by ambient musician Peter Kuhlmann. It was devoted to Namlook's collaborations with other German electronic artists in hard trance and hardcore styles, but soon expanded with the debut of the ambient Silence and Air projects; the main label had three principal subdivisions, indicated by the first two letters of a given record's catalog number.• PK was for Namlook's solo releases. • PW was for collaborations with international artists – including Turkish folk musician Burhan Öçal as Sultan, English DJ Mixmaster Morris as Dreamfish and Japanese ambient artist Tetsu Inoue as Shades of Orion, 2350 Broadway and 62 Eulengasse. • PS released records by other artists—without Namlook—of diverse nationalities and idioms, including US guitarist Robert Musso, bassist Bill Laswell, German techno producer David Moufang, Canadian sound artist Chris Meloche.• PI released exclusives for iTunes, such as Music for Babies. In addition to these divisions, there were three sub-labels: Yesterday & Tomorrow, Ambient World and Rather Interesting.
• The Yesterday & Tomorrow sub-label issued a series of albums juxtaposing ambient and the "ambient side" of classical chamber music. • Ambient World was dedicated to the re-issuing of otherwise out-of-print FAX discs those from the 1990s.• Rather Interesting was a label maintained by German IDM musician Uwe Schmidt, with the vast majority of its catalog being his solo material, issued under a multitude of aliases. Until the creation of the Ambient World sub-label and the subsequent release of its discography on the iTunes Store, all FAX records were issued in limited quantities, with 500–1000 pressings depending on the project; this resulted in FAX originals fetching high prices on other online auction Web sites. Label founder Pete Namlook died of a heart attack on 8 November 2012, although no official statement regarding the label's future was made. List of electronic music record labels Krautrock Kosmische Music of Germany 1995 in music The FAX page on discogs
The Michigan gubernatorial election of 2010 was held on November 2, 2010. Incumbent Democratic Governor Jennifer Granholm was prohibited by the state's Constitution from seeking a third term; this resulted in a large pool of candidates, whittled down, when the May 11 filing deadline passed, to two Democrats and five Republicans. Both the Cook Political Report and the non-partisan Rothenberg Political Report rated the election as leaning Republican; the Republican primary race was competitive. The Democratic front-runner when the 2009 polls were conducted, Lieutenant Governor John D. Cherry, withdrew from the race in January 2010; the final polls just days before the primary election showed that, while Lansing mayor Virg Bernero was in the lead, over a quarter of those polled were still undecided. The deadline for candidates to file nominating petitions for the August 3 state primary was 4:00 PM on May 11, 2010. A total of 1,575,167 registered voters voted in the primaries, with 66.4% of them voting in the Republican primary.
Analysts believe a large portion of Democrats crossed party lines to vote for Snyder, whose ad campaign targeted bipartisan and independent support. In Michigan, voters may vote in either primary regardless of their political affiliation, but can only vote for one party. Ballots with split tickets are not counted in partisan races. Both races came in more disparate. Snyder won with a near 10-point lead over closest rival Pete Hoekstra, Bernero won with an larger 17-point lead over early favorite state house speaker Andy Dillon. Both nominees portrayed themselves as political outsiders. On August 25, Snyder appointed State Representative Brian Calley as his running mate. On August 28, Bernero appointed Southfield Mayor Brenda Lawrence as his running mate. Snyder won a decisive victory over Bernero in the general election, winning by nearly 20 percentage points. Virg Bernero, Mayor of Lansing Andy Dillon, Speaker of the Michigan House of Representatives Robert Bowman, former Michigan treasurer John D. Cherry, Lieutenant Governor Hansen Clarke, member of the Michigan Senate John Freeman, former member of the Michigan House of Representatives Dan Kildee, former Genesee County Treasurer Alma Wheeler Smith, member of the Michigan House of Representatives Mike Bouchard, Sheriff of Oakland County Mike Cox, Michigan Attorney General Tom George, state senator Pete Hoekstra, U.
S. Representative Rick Snyder, businessman David Kniffen, businessman Terri Lynn Land, Michigan Secretary of State Tim Rujan, Huron County Commissioner Based on past election performance, the Libertarian Party of Michigan, Green Party of Michigan, the U. S. Taxpayers Party of Michigan have automatic ballot access for the general election, but by state law they must nominate candidates through party conventions rather than primary elections; the Natural Law Party has automatic ballot access in Michigan, but chose not to run a candidate for governor in 2010. The Libertarian Party of Michigan nominee was Kenneth Proctor; the nomination was won at the Michigan Libertarian Convention held in Okemos, Michigan on Saturday, May 22, in accordance with Michigan state law. He beat out Bhagwan Dashairya, the 2006 U. S. Taxpayers Party nominee for governor; the delegates ended up selecting Dashairya as the Libertarian nominee for U. S. Congress in District 8. Proctor's running mate was Dr. Erwin Maryland of Grand Rapids.
Haas received the Lt. Governor nomination unanimously; the Green Party of Michigan held their statewide nominating convention July 31 and August 1 in Lansing and nominated Harley Mikkelson for governor and Lynn Meadows for lieutenant governor. The 2010 U. S. Taxpayers Party of Michigan convention was held on June 26 in Michigan. In a nearly unanimous vote, Stacey Mathia and Chris Levels were formally nominated as candidates of the U. S. Taxpayers Party of Michigan for the offices of governor and lieutenant governor. According to Stacey Mathia's official press release, "The Convention applauded Mathia's agenda to institute Law-Abiding Constitutional Government and State Sovereignty in order to free the People of Michigan from the political oppression of big government operating outside of its authority."The press release stated, "Chris Levels, is well known as a radio talk show host on WSNL in the Flint, Michigan area. His last minute nomination speech will be available on Mathia's website; the USTPM Convention gave him a standing applause."
On August 12, it was reported. The first debate would be sponsored by WOOD-TV in Grand Rapids; the second debate would be held October 7 and be broadcast on 55 radio and TV stations throughout the state. The third debate would be held October 21 and would be sponsored by WXYZ-TV, WWJ and Crain's Detroit Business. In early September, Bernero offered Snyder a deal of eight debates. Snyder proposed a counter-offer of three debates. A Detroit Free Press editorial was critical of Snyder for not agreeing to debates. Bernero called Snyder a wimp for not agreeing to debate him. An impromptu debate developed after Bernero crashed a town hall meeting Snyder was hosting in Westland on September 13; the two sides agreed to an hour-long