Hepatitis F virus

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Hepatitis F is a hypothetical virus linked to hepatitis. Several hepatitis F candidates emerged in the 1990s; however none of these claims were substantiated.[1][2][3]

In 1994, Deka et al. reported that novel viral particles had been discovered in the stool of post-transfusion, non-hepatitis A, non-hepatitis B, non-hepatitis C, non-hepatitis E patients.[4] Injection of these particles into the bloodstream of Indian rhesus monkeys caused hepatitis, and the virus was named hepatitis F or Toga virus. Further investigations failed to confirm the existence of the virus, and it was delisted as a cause for infectious hepatitis.[3][5]

A subsequently-discovered virus thought to cause hepatitis was named Hepatitis G virus, though its role in hepatitis has not been confirmed and it is now considered synonymous with GB virus C and is an "orphan virus" with no causal links to any human disease.[6]


  1. ^ Uchida, T. (1993). "Genetic Variations of the Hepatitis B Virus and Their Clinical Relevance". Microbiol. Immunol. 37 (6): 425–39. doi:10.1111/j.1348-0421.1993.tb03233.x. PMID 7694049.
  2. ^ Fagan, E. A. (1994). "Acute Liver Failure of Unknown Pathogenesis: The Hidden Agenda". Hepatology. 19 (5): 1307–12. doi:10.1002/hep.1840190532. PMID 8175156.
  3. ^ a b Bowden, S. (2001). "New Hepatitis Viruses: Contenders and Pretenders". J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 16 (2): 124–31. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1746.2001.02405.x. PMID 11207890.
  4. ^ Deka N, Sharma MD, Mukerjee R (1994). "Isolation of the novel agent from human stool samples that is associated with sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis". J. Virol. 68 (12): 7810–5. PMC 237242. PMID 7966570.
  5. ^ Kelly, D.; Skidmore, S. (2002). "Hepatitis C-Z: recent advances". Arch. Dis. Child. 86 (5): 339–43. doi:10.1136/adc.86.5.339. PMC 1751087. PMID 11970925.
  6. ^ Lefrère J. J.; Laperche, S.; Roudot-Thoraval, F. (April 2008). "Hepatitis G Virus: A Suitable Marker of in vivo Efficacy for Pathogen Inactivation". Vox Sang. 95 (1): 76–8. doi:10.1111/j.1423-0410.2008.01050.x. PMID 18393946.