Sir Thomas Philip Winsor is a British lawyer and economic regulatory professional. He serves as Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Constabulary, a position he has held since 1 October 2012. Born in Broughty Ferry, Winsor practised law in various capacities from 1979 to 1999, he served as the Rail Regulator and International Rail Regulator for Great Britain from July 1999 to July 2004. He oversaw the collapse of the infrastructure manager for the British rail network. In October 2010, UK Home Secretary Theresa May MP appointed him to carry out a controversial, wide-ranging review of the remuneration and conditions of service of police officers and staff in England and Wales, the first for over 30 years. Following the final publication of the review in March 2012, the Home Secretary nominated him to serve as Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Constabulary in June 2012, the first to be appointed from outside the police service. Following confirmation hearings, he began his role in October 2012. In the 2015 New Year honours list, it was announced.
In July 2017, he was additionally appointed as the first Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Fire & Rescue Services, overseeing an expanded Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services. Winsor was born on 7 December 1957 in Broughty Ferry, Dundee to Thomas V M Winsor and Phyllis Bonsor, he was educated at Grove Academy state comprehensive school in Broughty Ferry. In 1976, he went to the University of Edinburgh to study law. After graduation in 1979, he served his two-year Scots legal apprenticeship with Dundee law firms Thorntons & Dickies, he practised for a year after that doing litigation in Dundee Sheriff Court. In 1982 he enrolled as a postgraduate student at the Centre for Petroleum and Mineral Law Studies of the University of Dundee under Professor T C Daintith, he received a Diploma in Petroleum Law in 1983. He became a Writer to the Signet in 1984; the leading Edinburgh law firm Dundas & Wilson employed him as a solicitor from 1983 until 1984. He moved to London and joined City law firm Norton Rose, specialising in energy law and project finance.
In 1991 he left Norton Rose to become a partner in City law firm Denton Hall. He worked on the design and implementation of the regulatory regime for the privatisation of the electricity industry in Northern Ireland. After the flotation of Northern Ireland Electricity on the London stock exchange in 1993, Winsor was seconded to the Government Legal Service, he served as chief legal adviser and general counsel to the first Rail Regulator, John Swift QC. The Rail Regulator was the statutory officer established by the Railways Act 1993 for the economic regulation of the British railway industry, about to be privatised. Winsor's secondment lasted two years and he returned to Denton Hall in August 1995. In July 1999, John Prescott MP, Secretary of State for the Environment and the Regions and Deputy Prime Minister, appointed Winsor as Chris Bolt's successor as Rail Regulator and International Rail Regulator. On his appointment after the British general election in 1997, Prescott had declared he was going to take a far tougher line with the privatised railway industry.
Prescott had been fiercely opposed to the privatisation in 1996 and was one of the'old Labour' stalwarts who wanted to renationalise the industry outright. Despite having said in opposition that its policy was a'publicly owned, publicly accountable railway', New Labour would not promise renationalisation if it could have afforded it. In its manifesto for the 1997 election, it had committed itself to a policy of increased accountability of the privatised companies to the public interest through tougher and more effective regulation; this was seen as an imaginative policy. If it was properly implemented, it could achieve all the government's objectives for a better performing, more efficient railway without the expense or controversy of renationalising the assets. At the Labour Party conference in September 1998, Prescott declared that he was going to carry out a'spring clean of the regulators'. Many commentators realised this meant the appointment of a tougher, more interventionist replacement for Swift.
Winsor's five-year term as Rail Regulator began on 5 July 1999. He announced a new regulatory agenda, one which contemplated holding the privatised railway companies much more to account, it involved radical changes to the regulatory and contractual matrix for the privatised industry. It replaced enforcement regulation with incentives, changed the financial and licensing environment in which the industry operated. Winsor's ability to pursue his new regulatory agenda was hampered by problems with Railtrack coming to a head shortly after he took office. One of Winsor's principal motivations in applying for the post of Rail Regulator had been his frustration with— some critics elevated it to a visceral hatred of—Railtrack's incompetence and how it impeded so much progress in the privatised railway, he was reported as being exasperated with the failure of his predecessor to hold Railtrack properly to account, to use the powers of the office to apply pressure on the company and to reform—increase—the powers of the Rail Regulator to make regulatory and contractual accountabilities more effective.
Winsor was critical of what he found when he took over the office of the Rail Regulator. He described it as a dysfunctional organisation, inward-looking and able to do the job it had been given by Parliament, he said changing this was all the more important because the ability of the train operators—Railtrack's direct customers—to apply pressure and secure fair terms and reasonable performance from the
British Transport Police
The British Transport Police is a national special police force that polices railways and light-rail systems in England and Wales, for which it has entered into an agreement to provide such services. Seventy five percent of the force's funding comes from Britain's privatised train companies. British Transport Police officers do not have jurisdiction in Northern Ireland unless working under mutual aid arrangements for the Police Service of Northern Ireland, in which case any duties performed on a railway will be incidental to working as a constable in Northern Ireland; as well as having jurisdiction across the national rail network, the BTP is responsible for policing: Croydon Tramlink Docklands Light Railway Emirates Air Line Glasgow Subway London Underground Midland Metro Sunderland line of the Tyne and Wear Metro This amounts to around 10,000 miles of track and more than 3,000 railway stations and depots. There are more than 1 billion passenger journeys annually on the main lines alone. In addition, British Transport Police in conjunction with the French border police - Police aux Frontières - police the international services operated by Eurostar.
It is not responsible for policing the rest of the Tyne and Wear Metro or the Manchester Metrolink or any other railway with which it does not have a service agreement. A BTP constable can act as a police constable outside of their normal railway jurisdiction as described in the "Powers and status of officers" section; as of September 2017, BTP had a workforce of 3,028 police officers, 1,530 police staff, 230 police community support officers, 30 designated officers and 330 special constables. In terms of officer numbers it is the largest of the three special police forces and the 11th largest police force in the United Kingdom overall. Since March 2014, the Chief Constable has been Paul Crowther OBE. From 1 April 2014, the divisional structure changed from the previous seven division structure to a four division structure - according to BTP this new structure will'deliver a more efficient force, generating savings to reinvest in more police officers across the railway network'. Based in Camden Town, London.
This division retains overall control of the other divisions and houses central functions including forensics, CCTV and major investigations. As of 2015, 393 police officers, 10 special constables and 946 civilian staff are based at FHQ. Divisional Commander: Chief Superintendent Martin FryThis division covers London and the South East and southern areas of England; this division is further divided into the following sub-divisions: North - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Jenny Gilmer Central - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Chris Horton South - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Will Jordan As of 2015, B Division houses the largest number of personnel of any BTP division: 1444 police officers, 101 special constables, 191 PCSOs and 361 civilian staff. Divisional Commander: Chief Superintendent Allan GregoryThis division covers the North East, North West, the Midlands, South West areas of England and Wales; this division is further divided into the following sub-divisions: Pennine - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Eddie Wylie Midland - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Sandra England Wales - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Andy MorganAs of 2015, C Division houses the second largest number of personnel within BTP: 921 police officers, 127 special constables, 132 PCSOs and 180 civilian staff.
Divisional Commander: Chief Superintendent John McBrideThis division covers Scotland. There are no sub-divisions within D Division; as of 2015, D Division is the smallest in terms of personnel housing 214 police officers, 24 special constables and 46 civilian staff. Prior to April 2014, BTP was divided into seven geographical basic command units which it referred to as'Police Areas': Scotland North Eastern North Western London North London Underground London South Wales & Western Prior to 2007, there was an additional Midland Area and Wales and West Area; the first railway employees described as "police" can be traced back to 30 June 1826. A regulation of the Stockton and Darlington Railway refers to the police establishment of "One Superintendent, four officers and numerous gate-keepers"; this is the first mention of Railway Police anywhere and was three years before the Metropolitan Police Act was passed. They were not, described as "constables" and the description may refer to men controlling the trains not enforcing the law.
Specific reference to "constables" rather than mere "policemen" is made by the BTP website article "A History of Policing the Railway" which states "The London and Liverpool Railway Companion of 1838 reports "Each Constable, besides being in the employ of the company, is sworn as a County Constable". Further reference is made by the BTP to "an Act of 1838...which according to J. R. Whitbread in The Railway Policeman was the first legislation to provide for any form of policing of the railway whilst under construction, i.e. to protect the public from the navvies more or less." The modern British Transport Police was formed by the British Transport Commission Act 1949 which combined the already-existing police forces inherited from the pre-nationalisation railways by British Railways, those forces having been formed by powers available under common law to parishes and other bodies to ap
Historical Enquiries Team
The Historical Enquiries Team was a unit of the Police Service of Northern Ireland set up in September 2005 to investigate the 3,269 unsolved murders committed during the Troubles between 1968 and 1998. It was wound up in September 2014; the team had three objectives: To work with families of those, killed. To ensure that cases were conducted to modern policing standards, To carry out the work in such a way that the wider community had confidence in the outcomes. Working with families was at the heart of the HET objectives, with a family liaison process in place, the HET undertaking to provide each affected family with a copy of the relevant report, it was headed by Commander David Cox of the London Metropolitan Police, consisted of a team of 100 investigators and supporting staff, a budget of £30 million. HET was split into two distinct teams: Investigation; the Review team was staffed by police officers employed and seconded from outside Northern Ireland, while the Investigation team has been recruited locally.
The team aimed to fulfil its mandate by 2011. However, the investigators - along with the Police Ombudsman - agreed that they would require further time to work through the outstanding cases. Cases were handles in chronological order. On 29 January 2008, it was announced that the Team would reopen files on 124 deaths resulting from fatal shootings by British Army soldiers between 1970 and 1973. At that time, under an agreement between the British Army and the Royal Ulster Constabulary, military witnesses to deaths were initially interviewed by the Royal Military Police instead of the RUC. Doubts had since been raised about the effectiveness of these investigations. In February 2008 it was confirmed in the House of Commons that the Historical Enquiries Team was to examine all deaths attributed to The Troubles from January 1969 to the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, equating to 3,268 deaths which occurred in 2,516 incidents, or'cases'. At that time 1,039 cases had been allocated to the HET business process, the team had a total of 175 staff.
Major reforms to the structure and resourcing of PSNI announced in September 2014 meant the closure of the Historical Enquiries Team, to be replaced by'a much smaller unit' within PSNI. The HET has investigated several of the most controversial killings during the Troubles, including the killing of Terry Herdman in 1973, who had friends in the IRA and was accused of being an informer, he was hence killed by the IRA as they regarded him as a "liability". The Historical Enquiries Team report on the 1975 Miami Showband killings, an ambush on civilians travelling in a minibus, confirmed Mid-Ulster UVF leader Robin "Jackal" Jackson's involvement and identified him as an RUC Special Branch agent; the HET said the killings raised "disturbing questions about collusive and corrupt behaviour" between loyalist paramilitaries and British state forces. The HET report on the 1976 Kingsmill massacre, an ambush on civilians travelling in a minibus, stated that the organization that carried out the act, the South Armagh Republican Action Force, included members of the Provisional IRA despite that organization being on a ceasefire.
The HET report said that the 10 all male victims of the massacre, 4 of which belonged to the Orange Order, were targeted because they were from the Protestant community, that their murder was a sectarian response to the shooting of 7 Catholics in the Reavey and O'Dowd killings that occurred the night before but that it was planned before that event. This is in line with the contemporary statement issued by the spokesman for SARAF. In the fatal shooting of Aidan McAnespie on 21 February 1988, the British Army soldier claimed that his hands were wet, causing him to inadvertently fire his machine gun when he was moving inside a sanger; the report called this the "least version" of what happened. Damien Walsh was murdered while working at a coal supply business in Twinbrook in 1993; the HET reported that undercover British soldiers were watching as UFF loyalists murdered the Catholic teenager but were too far away to intervene. William McGreanery was shot by a British soldier in Derry in 1971 when he was walking past an observation point.
An investigation by the HET into Mr MrGreanery's death found that he was not carrying a firearm and he posed no threat to the soldiers, despite earlier claims that he was. Majella O'Hare from Whitecross was on her way to confession on August 14, 1976, when she was hit in the back by a bullet. A HET report backed an earlier RUC investigation which found that the British soldier who shot her was not returning fire, as he had claimed. A HET report into the loyalist murders of three brothers from south Armagh in 1976 exonerated them and their family of any links to paramilitarism; the brothers - John Martin and Anthony Reavey who were all Catholic - were shot dead by six masked men who burst into their home in Whitecross in January 1976. In the Sean Graham bookmakers' shooting, five Catholic civilians were killed in a mass shooting perpetrated by the UDA, who opened fire on the bookmakers' shop on Ormeau Road in 1992; the HET report confirmed one of the guns used by the UDA gang had been returned to them by RUC officers.
A 2013 report into the HET by the UK's Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary found that the HET was not reviewing all of the historical cases within its remit in a consistent manner, that some cases involving deaths caused by members of the police and military were'being reviewed with less rigour in some areas' than non-sta
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country. Statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy. Statutes are rules made by legislative bodies. In all countries, newly enacted statutes are published in a Government gazette, distributed so that everyone can look up the statutory law. A universal problem encountered by lawmakers throughout human history is how to organize published statutes; such publications have a habit of starting small but growing over time, as new statutes are enacted in response to the exigencies of the moment. Persons trying to find the law are forced to sort through an enormous number of statutes enacted at various points in time to determine which portions are still in effect; the solution adopted in many countries is to organize existing statutory law in topical arrangements within publications called codes ensure that new statutes are drafted so that they add, repeal or move various code sections. In turn, in theory, the code will thenceforth reflect the current cumulative state of the statutory law in that jurisdiction.
In many nations statutory law is subordinate to constitutional law. The term statute is used to refer to an International treaty that establishes an institution, such as the Statute of the European Central Bank, a protocol to the international courts as well, such as the Statute of the International Court of Justice and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Statute is another word for law; the term was adapted from England in about the 18th century. In the Autonomous Communities of Spain, the autonomy statute is a legal document similar to a state constitution in a federated state; the autonomies statutes in Spain have the rank of "Ley Organica", a category of special laws reserved only for the main institutions and issues and mentioned in the Constitution. Leyes Organicas rank between ordinary laws; the name was chosen, among others. In biblical terminology, statute refers to a law given without any justification; the classic example is the statute regarding the Red Heifer. The opposite of a chok is a mishpat, a law given for a specified reason, e.g. the Sabbath laws, which were given because "God created the world in six days, but on the seventh day He rested".
That which upholds, supports or maintains the regulatory order of the universe meaning the Law or Natural Law. This is a concept of central importance in Indian religion. Constitution Legislation Legislature Organic statute Statutory law Super statute
Isle of Man Constabulary
The Isle of Man Constabulary is the national police service of the Isle of Man, an island of 80,000 inhabitants, situated equidistant from Northern Ireland, Wales and England. The force has about 236 officers in its establishment; as the Isle of Man is not a part of the United Kingdom, the Constabulary is responsible to the Minister of Home Affairs of the Isle of Man Government. The service volunteers itself for inspection by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary for England and Wales; the force is split into five neighbourhood policing teams. Northern NPT covers the North of the island: Ramsey, Bride, Lezayre, Jurby. Western NPT covers Patrick, German and Peel. Southern NPT covers the airport, Castletown, Port St Mary, Port Erin. Eastern NPT covers Braddan, Laxey and Onchan. Douglas NPT covers the borough of Douglas; each NPT is controlled by an inspector who has established a partnership with the local community to help solve issues affecting the local area. A major event for the force is the annual TT races.
The constabulary's headquarters are in Douglas. The present Chief Constable is Gary Roberts. In terms of uniform, the force looks similar to police in the United Kingdom, apart from the Isle of Man custodian helmets worn by male constables and sergeants. White helmets were introduced in 1960 as a summer alternative to the older black helmets. White helmets were used as a summer option in other police forces, but this practice ceased in the UK in 1969 and in New Zealand in the 1990s; the white helmet is now worn year round by officers on foot patrol. Officers on mobile patrol tend to wear peaked caps. Officers of the rank of sergeant and above may carry a "signalling stick"; this is in effect an additional rank indicator. Until recently constables "acting up" in the rank of sergeant were referred to as "carrying the stick". If the "acting" was only short term, the stick was the only indicator of their additional responsibilities; the Isle of Man Constabulary have started to use social media, predominantly Twitter.
During the tenure of Mike Culverhouse, the force was involved in the Manx Bugging Scandal, all senior officers except the Chief Constable were either suspended, retired or dismissed due to the uncovering of widespread bugging. The rank structure of the Isle of Man Constabulary follows the practice of United Kingdom county territorial police forces, except that there are no ranks of chief superintendent or assistant chief constable. There are one superintendent and three chief inspectors, who take responsibility for local neighbourhood policing, island-wide policing, motorsport policing; the last of these covers the TT races and associated motorsports activities. Chief Constable Gary Roberts, 2013 – present Chief Constable Mike Langdon, 2008–2013 Deputy Chief Constable Gary Roberts, 2008–2013 Chief Constable Mike Culverhouse, 1999–2007 Deputy Chief Constable Mike Langdon, 2005–2007 Deputy Chief Constable Neil Kinrade, 2000–2005 Deputy Chief Constable Alan Cretney 1995-2000 Chief Constable Robin Oake, 1986–1999 Deputy Chief Constable Alan Cretney 1995-2000 Chief Constable Frank Weedon, 1972–1986 Chief Constable Christopher Beaty-Pownall, 1955–1972 Superintendent Alfred Kelly MBE Chief Constable Major John Young, 1936–1954 Chief Constable Colonel H W Madoc MVO, 1911–1936 Deputy Chief Constable John Thomas Quilliam, -1920 Chief Constable William Freeth, MVO 1888–1911 Chief Constable Lieutenant Colonel William Paul, 1878–1888 Deputy Chief Constable William Boyde Deputy Chief Constable John Cain Deputy Chief Constable Thomas Cringle Deputy Chief Constable Richard Duke Deputy Chief Constable Charles Joshua Faragher Deputy Chief Constable William Faragher Isle of Man Ambulance Service Isle of Man Civil Defence Corps Isle of Man Coastguard Isle of Man Constabulary Isle of Man Fire and Rescue Service St John Ambulance non-governmental charity Isle of Man Airport Police Aerial roof markings Fraud Squad Isle of Man Airport Police Official website
England and Wales
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four nations of the United Kingdom. "England and Wales" forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows a single legal system, known as English law. The devolved National Assembly for Wales was created in 1999 by the Parliament of the United Kingdom under the Government of Wales Act 1998 and provides a degree of self-government in Wales; the powers of the Assembly were expanded by the Government of Wales Act 2006, which allows it to pass its own laws, the Act formally separated the Welsh Government from the Assembly. There is no equivalent body for England, directly governed by the Parliament and the government of the United Kingdom. During the Roman occupation of Britain, the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit, with the exception of the land to the north of Hadrian's Wall – though the Roman-occupied area varied in extent, for a time extended to the Antonine/Severan Wall.
At that time, most of the native inhabitants of Roman Britain spoke Brythonic languages, were all regarded as Britons, divided into numerous tribes. After the conquest, the Romans administered this region as the province of Britain. Long after the departure of the Romans, the Britons in what became Wales developed their own system of law, first codified by Hywel Dda when he was king of most of present-day Wales. However, after the Norman invasion of Wales in the 11th century, English law came to apply in the parts of Wales conquered by the Normans. In 1283, the English, led by Edward I, with the biggest army brought together in England since the 11th century, conquered the remainder of Wales organised as the Principality of Wales; this was united with the English crown by the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284. This aimed to replace Welsh criminal law with English law. Welsh law continued to be used for civil cases until the annexation of Wales to England in the 16th century; the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 consolidated the administration of all the Welsh territories and incorporated them into the legal system of the Kingdom of England.
Prior to 1746 it was not clear whether a reference to "England" in legislation included Wales, so in 1746 Parliament passed the Wales and Berwick Act. This specified that in all prior and future laws, references to "England" would by default include Wales; the Wales and Berwick Act was repealed in 1967, although the statutory definition of "England" created by that Act still applies for laws passed before 1967. In new legislation since 1967, what was referred to as "England" is now "England and Wales", while references to "England" and "Wales" refer to those political divisions. England and Wales are treated as a single unit for some purposes, because the two form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England; the continuance of Scots law was guaranteed under the 1706 Treaty of Union that led to the Acts of Union 1707, as a consequence English law—and after 1801, Irish law—continued to be separate. Following the two Acts of Union, Parliament can restrict the effect of its laws to part of the realm, the effect of laws, where restricted, was applied to one or more of the former kingdoms.
Thus, most laws applicable to England applied to Wales. However, Parliament now passes laws applicable to Wales and not to England, a practice, rare before the middle of the 20th century. Examples are the Welsh Language Acts 1967 and 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998. Measures and Acts of the National Assembly for Wales passed since the Government of Wales Act 2006 apply in Wales but not in England. Following the Government of Wales Act, effective since May 2007, the National Assembly for Wales can legislate on matters devolved to it. Following a referendum on 3 March 2011, the Welsh Assembly gained direct law-making powers, without the need to consult Westminster; this was the first time in 500 years that Wales had its own powers to legislate. Each piece of Welsh legislation is known as an Act of the Assembly. For a company to be incorporated in the United Kingdom, its application for registration with Companies House must state "whether the company's registered office is to be situated in England and Wales, in Scotland or in Northern Ireland", which will determine the law applicable to that business entity.
A registered office must be specified as "in Wales" if the company wishes to use a name ending cyfyngedig or cyf, rather than Limited or Ltd. or to avail itself of certain other privileges relating to the official use of the Welsh language. Outside the legal system, the position is mixed; some organisations combine as "England and Wales", others are separate. In sports, cricket has a combined international team administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board, who govern the sport across both nations, whilst football, rugby union, rugby league, the Commonwealth Games and other sports have separate national representative teams for each country. A few Welsh association football clubs, most notably Cardiff City F. C. and Swansea City F. C. play in the English football league system, while The New Saints F. C. which represents places on both sides of the border, plays in the Welsh football league system. Some religious denominations organise on the basis of England and Wales, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, but small denominations, e.g. the Evangelical Presbyterian Church.
Prior to the disestablishment of the Church in Wales in 1920, the Anglican churc
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland known internationally as the UK Parliament, British Parliament, or Westminster Parliament, domestically as Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is bicameral but has three parts, consisting of the Sovereign, the House of Lords, the House of Commons; the two houses meet in the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the inner boroughs of the capital city, London. The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual, consisting of the most senior bishops of the Church of England, the Lords Temporal, consisting of life peers, appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister, of 92 hereditary peers, sitting either by virtue of holding a royal office, or by being elected by their fellow hereditary peers.
Prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords performed a judicial role through the Law Lords. The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections to 650 single member constituencies held at least every five years under the first-past-the-post system; the two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster in London. By constitutional convention, all government ministers, including the Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or, less the House of Lords and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature. Most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. However, the Leader of the House of Lords must be a peer; the Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, both Acts of Union stating, "That the United Kingdom of Great Britain be represented by one and the same Parliament to be styled The Parliament of Great Britain".
At the start of the 19th century, Parliament was further enlarged by Acts of Union ratified by the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland that abolished the latter and added 100 Irish MPs and 32 Lords to the former to create the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 formally amended the name to the "Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland", five years after the secession of the Irish Free State in 1922. With the global expansion of the British Empire, the UK Parliament has shaped the political systems of many countries as ex-colonies and so it has been called the "Mother of Parliaments". However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it in reference to the political culture of "England" rather than just the parliamentary system. In theory, the UK's supreme legislative power is vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and the powers of the House of Lords are limited to only delaying legislation.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created on 1 January 1801, by the merger of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union 1800. The principle of ministerial responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century—the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice. Members of the House of Commons were elected in an antiquated electoral system, under which constituencies of vastly different sizes existed. Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, could elect two members, as could the borough of Dunwich, which had completely disappeared into the sea due to land erosion. Many small constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, were controlled by members of the House of Lords, who could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters. During the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, the electoral system for the House of Commons was progressively regularised.
No longer dependent on the Lords for their seats, MPs grew more assertive. The supremacy of the British House of Commons was reaffirmed in the early 20th century. In 1909, the Commons passed the so-called "People's Budget", which made numerous changes to the taxation system which were detrimental to wealthy landowners; the House of Lords, which consisted of powerful landowners, rejected the Budget. On the basis of the Budget's popularity and the Lords' consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament Bill, which sought to restrict the powers of the House of Lords; when the Lords refused to pass the bill, Asquith countered with a promise extracted from the King in secret before the second general election of 1910 and requested the creation of several hundred Liberal peers, so as to erase the Conservative majority in the House of Lords. In the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill.
The Parliament Act 1911, as it became, prevented the Lords from blocking a money bill, allowed them to delay any other bill for a maximum of three sessions, after which it could become law over their objections. However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, t