Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or hostile shore at a designated landing beach. Through history the operations were conducted using ship's boats as the primary method of delivering troops to shore. Since the Gallipoli Campaign, specialised watercraft were designed for landing troops and vehicles, including by landing craft and for insertion of commandos, by fast patrol boats and from mini-submersibles; the term amphibious first emerged in the UK and the USA during the 1930s with introduction of vehicles such as Vickers-Carden-Loyd Light Amphibious Tank or the Landing Vehicle Tracked. Amphibious warfare includes operations defined by their type, purpose and means of execution. In the British Empire at the time these were called combined operations which were defined as "...operations where naval, military or air forces in any combination are co-operating with each other, working independently under their respective commanders, but with a common strategic object."
All armed forces that employ troops with special training and equipment for conducting landings from naval vessels to shore agree to this definition. Since the 20th century an amphibious landing of troops on a beachhead is acknowledged as the most complex of all military maneuvers; the undertaking requires an intricate coordination of numerous military specialties, including air power, naval gunfire, naval transport, logistical planning, specialized equipment, land warfare and extensive training in the nuances of this maneuver for all personnel involved. An amphibious operation is similar to but in many ways different from land and air operations. At its basic, such operations include phases of strategic planning and preparation, operational transit to the intended theatre of operations, pre-landing rehearsal and disembarkation, troop landings, beachhead consolidation and conducting inland ground and air operations. Within the scope of these phases a vital part of success was based on the military logistics, naval gunfire and close air support.
Another factor is the variety and quantity of specialised vehicles and equipment used by the landing force that are designed for the specific needs of this type of operation. Amphibious operations can be classified as tactical or operational raids such as the Dieppe Raid, operational landings in support of a larger land strategy such as the Kerch–Eltigen Operation, a strategic opening of a new Theatre of Operations, for example the Operation Avalanche; the purpose of amphibious operations is always limited by the plan and terrain. Landings on islands less than 5,000 km2 in size are tactical with the limited objectives of neutralising enemy defenders and obtaining a new base of operation; such an operation may be prepared and planned in days or weeks, would employ a naval task force to land less than a division of troops. The intent of operational landings is to exploit the shore as a vulnerability in the enemy's overall position, forcing redeployment of forces, premature use of reserves, aiding a larger allied offensive effort elsewhere.
Such an operation requiring weeks to months of preparation and planning, would use multiple task forces, or a naval fleet to land corps-size forces, including on large islands, for example Operation Chromite. A strategic landing operation requires a major commitment of forces to invade a national territory in the archipelagic, such as the Battle of Leyte, or continental, such as Operation Neptune; such an operation may require multiple naval and air fleets to support the landings, extensive intelligence gathering and planning of over a year. Although most amphibious operations are thought of as beach landings, they can take exploit available shore infrastructure to land troops directly into an urban environment if unopposed. In this case non-specialised ships can offload troops and cargo using organic or facility wharf-side equipment. Tactical landings in the past have utilised small boats, small craft, small ships and civilian vessels converted for the mission to deliver troops to the water's edge.
Preparation and planning the naval landing operation requires the assembly of vessels with sufficient capacity to lift necessary troops employing combat loading. The military intelligence services produce a briefing on the expected opponent which guides the organisation and equipping of the embarked force. First specially designed landing craft were used for the Gallipoli landings, armoured tracked vehicles were available for the Guadalcanal Campaign. Helicopters were first used to support beach landings during Operation Musketeer. Hovercraft have been in use for naval landings by military forces since the 1960s. Recorded amphibious warfare goes back to ancient times; the Sea Peoples menaced the Egyptians from the reign of Akhenaten as captured on the reliefs at Medinet Habu and Karnak. The Hellenic city states resorted to opposed assaults upon each other's shores, which they reflected upon in their plays and other expressions of art; the landing at Marathon by the ancient Persians on 9 September 490 BC, was the largest amphibious until eclipsed by the landings at Battle of Gallipoli.
In 1565, the island of Malta was invaded by the Ottoman Turks during the Great Siege of Malta, forcing its defenders to retreat to the fortified cities. A strategic choke point in the Mediterranean Sea, its loss would have been so menacing for the Western European kingdoms that forces were urgently raised in order to relieve the island, but it took four months to train and move a 5,500-man amphibious force to lift the siege. Philip II, King of Spain de
Philip Jones (Royal Navy officer)
Admiral Sir Philip Andrew Jones, is a senior Royal Navy officer. After service in the South Atlantic in 1982 during the Falklands War, he commanded the frigates HMS Beaver and HMS Coventry, he went on to be Flag Officer, Northern England and Northern Ireland, Commander United Kingdom Maritime Forces and Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff before being appointed Fleet Commander and Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff. Jones took over as First Sea Lord on 8 April 2016. Jones was born on 14 February 1960, he is the son of Lilian Jones. He was educated at Birkenhead School, Mansfield College and the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. Jones joined the Royal Navy as a sub-lieutenant on 1 May 1980, he saw active service in the South Atlantic in the amphibious assault ship HMS Fearless in 1982 during the Falklands War and was promoted to lieutenant on 1 September 1982. He served as a watch keeping and navigation officer in various frigates and in the Royal Yacht Britannia from 1983 until 1988 from when he served as principal warfare officer in various frigates and with the maritime battle staff.
Promoted to commander on 1 February 1994, he was made commanding officer of the frigate HMS Beaver in 1994 and a member of the Directorate of Navy Plans in the Ministry of Defence in 1997. Promoted to captain on 31 December 1999, Jones became commanding officer of the frigate HMS Coventry as well as Captain of the 1st Frigate Squadron that same month, he went on to be Military Assistant to the Chief of Defence Logistics in 2002, Director of the Joint Maritime Operational Training Staff in 2003 and Assistant Chief of Staff to the Commander-in-Chief Fleet in 2004. Promoted to commodore on 13 December 2004, he become Commander Amphibious Task Group in August 2006. Appointed an Aide-de-camp to the Queen on 1 August 2006, he was promoted to rear admiral on 14 February 2008 and made Flag Officer, Northern England and Northern Ireland that same month. Following his appointment as Commander United Kingdom Maritime Forces in September 2008, he was given command of the European Union’s first naval task force assembled to protect international shipping in the waters off Somalia in December 2008.
He was made Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff in June 2009. Jones was appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath in the 2012 New Year Honours, he was promoted to vice admiral and appointed Deputy Commander-in-Chief Fleet and Chief of Staff Navy Command Headquarters on 13 December 2011. His post was re-designated Deputy Fleet Commander in April 2012 and he became Fleet Commander and Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff on 30 November 2012, it was reported on 29 January 2016 that Jones would be promoted admiral and assume the position of First Sea Lord in April 2016. Jones handed over his duties of Fleet Commander to Vice Admiral Ben Key on 10 February 2016 and took over as First Sea Lord on 8 April 2016. Jones was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in the 2014 Birthday Honours, he was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Hampshire in February 2019. In 1987 Jones married Elizabeth Collins, his interests include sports and hill walking. Jones has received Honorary Doctorates from Heriot-Watt University in 1993 and from the University of Liverpool in 2017
The sea, the world ocean or the ocean is the connected body of salty water that covers over 70 percent of the Earth's surface. It moderates the Earth's climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, it has been travelled and explored since ancient times, while the scientific study of the sea—oceanography—dates broadly from the voyages of Captain James Cook to explore the Pacific Ocean between 1768 and 1779. The word "sea" is used to denote smaller landlocked sections of the ocean and certain large landlocked, saltwater lakes such as the Caspian Sea and the Dead Sea; the most abundant solid dissolved in sea water is sodium chloride. The water contains salts of magnesium and potassium, amongst many other elements, some in minute concentrations. Salinity varies being lower near the surface and the mouths of large rivers and higher in the depths of the ocean. Winds blowing over the surface of the sea produce waves. Winds create surface currents through friction, setting up slow but stable circulations of water throughout the oceans.
The directions of the circulation are governed by factors including the shapes of the continents and the rotation of the earth. Deep-sea currents, known as the global conveyor belt, carry cold water from near the poles to every ocean. Tides, the twice-daily rise and fall of sea levels, are caused by the rotation of the Earth and the gravitational effects of the orbiting Moon, to a lesser extent of the Sun. Tides may have a high range in bays or estuaries. Submarine earthquakes arising from tectonic plate movements under the oceans can lead to destructive tsunamis, as can volcanoes, huge landslides or the impact of large meteorites. A wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, algae, plants and animals, live in the sea, which offers a wide range of marine habitats and ecosystems, ranging vertically from the sunlit surface waters and the shoreline to the enormous depths and pressures of the cold, dark abyssal zone, in latitude from the cold waters under the Arctic ice to the colourful diversity of coral reefs in tropical regions.
Many of the major groups of organisms evolved in the sea and life may have started there. The sea provides substantial supplies of food for humans fish, but shellfish and seaweed, whether caught by fishermen or farmed underwater. Other human uses of the sea include trade, mineral extraction, power generation and leisure activities such as swimming and scuba diving. Many of these activities create marine pollution; the sea is important in human culture, with major appearances in literature at least since Homer's Odyssey, in marine art, in cinema, in theatre and in classical music. Symbolically, the sea appears as monsters such as Scylla in mythology and represents the unconscious mind in dream interpretation; the sea is the interconnected system of all the Earth's oceanic waters, including the Atlantic, Indian and Arctic Oceans. However, the word "sea" can be used for many specific, much smaller bodies of seawater, such as the North Sea or the Red Sea. There is no sharp distinction between seas and oceans, though seas are smaller, are partly or wholly bordered by land.
However, the Sargasso Sea has no coastline and lies within a circular current, the North Atlantic Gyre. Seas are larger than lakes and contain salt water, but the Sea of Galilee is a freshwater lake; the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea states that all of the ocean is "sea". Earth is the only known planet with seas of liquid water on its surface, although Mars possesses ice caps and similar planets in other solar systems may have oceans, it is still unclear where Earth's water came from, seen from space, our planet appears as a "blue marble" of its various forms: oceans, ice caps, clouds. Earth's 1,335,000,000 cubic kilometers of sea contain about 97.2 percent of its known water and cover more than 70 percent of its surface. Another 2.15% of Earth's water is frozen, found in the sea ice covering the Arctic Ocean, the ice cap covering Antarctica and its adjacent seas, various glaciers and surface deposits around the world. The remainder form underground reservoirs or various stages of the water cycle, containing the freshwater encountered and used by most terrestrial life: vapor in the air, the clouds it forms, the rain falling from them, the lakes and rivers spontaneously formed as its waters flow again and again to the sea.
The sea's dominance of the planet is such that the British author Arthur C. Clarke once noted that "Earth" would have been better named "Ocean"; the scientific study of water and Earth's water cycle is hydrology. The more recent study of the sea in particular is oceanography; this began as the study of the shape of the ocean's currents but has since expanded into a large and multidisciplinary field: it examines the properties of seawater. The subfield dealing with the sea's motion, its forces, the forces acting upon it is known as physical oceanography. Marine biology studies the plants and other organisms inhabiting marine ecosystems. Both are informed by chemical oceanography, which studies the behavior of elements and molecules within the oceans: at the moment, the ocean's role in the carbon cycle and carbon dioxide's role in the increasing acid
Royal Navy officer rank insignia
Uniforms for naval officers were not authorised until 1748. At first the cut and style of the uniform differed between ranks and specific rank insignia only sporadically used. By the 1790s, the Royal Navy's first established uniform regulations had been published. Ranks could be indicated by embroidery on the cuffs, by arrangement of buttons or, after 1795, on epaulettes. However, there was no consistent system and insignia might differ between uniforms, were altered several times. Sometimes there was no specific indication of rank at all. Midshipmen received a white patch on the oldest badge still in use today; the modern system of gold rings on the cuffs originated on 11 April 1856. For the first time these were applied to all blue uniforms. On 16 April 1861 mates were commissioned as sub-lieutenants and lieutenants were divided into those of over eight years seniority and those under. In consequence on 5 September 1861 the lower ranks' rings were changed: and on 25 March 1863 to: On 30 October 1877 a lieutenant of eight years'/ seniority got an additional half-ring of 3⁄16in, increased to 1⁄4in in 1891, in 1914 became the new rank of lieutenant commander.
In 1919 the admiral's narrow stripe was reduced to 1⁄2in, but as King George V had not approved the change, the Royal Family continued to wear the wider ring. In 1931 all the 1⁄2in rings were all increased to 9⁄16in; the curl was introduced in 1856, but only the military and navigating branches wore it. Other branches had plain rings, from 1863 with coloured distinction cloth below them; until 1891 officers of the'civil' branches had single-breasted coats with different arrangements of buttons. Engineer officers received the curl in 1915 and all other officers in 1918. At the same time they received other things such as oak leaves on the peaked cap, the prerogative of the military branch. In 1955 it was announced that the distinction cloth worn between the stripes of officers of the non-executive branches of the Royal Navy was to be abolished, except for those who must be recognisable as non-combatant under the Geneva Convention; the residual use of distinction cloth for non-combatants is therefore: Scarlet – medical Orange – dental Salmon pink – wardmasters Silver grey - civilian officers from Royal Corps of Naval Constructors Dark green – civilian officers when required to wear uniform bFrom 1955 to 1993 there was a rank of acting sub-lieutenant, with the same rank insignia as a sub-lieutenant.
Naval pilots in the Fleet Air Arm have wings above the curl. Other Fleet Air Arm officers had a letter'A' inside the curl. From 1795 rank badges could be shown on epaulettes; the system changed several times, but after 1864 was as follows: Sub-lieutenants and commissioned warrant officers wore scales and the same device as a lieutenant. Epaulettes of the military branch were gold throughout with silver devices, while those of the civil branches had a silver edging and gold devices. Instead of the baton and sword or foul anchor, civil branch epaulettes substituted a star. Navigating branch epaulettes were the same as the military branch, but with crossed plain anchors in place of the foul anchor; the epaulette stars had eight points, quite unlike the Order of the Bath stars worn by army officers.cIn 1891 the admiral of the fleet changed to a crown above two crossed batons within a wreath, similar to the badge of a field marshal. In 1891 shoulder-straps were introduced for use on white uniforms and on the greatcoat, more in "shirt sleeve order".
For these commodores first class and above used the same badge as on their epaulettes, commodores second class and below used their rank rings. From 1926 only commodores had other captains one. Epaulettes were not worn after 1939. In 2001,d the shoulder boards on dress uniforms were changed and are currently: Warrant officers first received their uniforms in 1787; the navigators and pursers were commissioned in 1843 and their insignia are described above. In 1865 chief gunners and carpenters were given a single 1⁄2in ring, with the curl, though the carpenters lost the curl in 1879. In 1891 ordinary warrant officers of 10 years' standing were given a half-ring of 1⁄4in, with or without curl as above. In 1918 this ring, with the curl, was extended to all non-commissioned warrant officers. In 1949 WOs and CWOs became "commissioned branch officers" and "senior commissioned branch officers" and were admitted to the wardroom, but their insignia remained the same. In 1956 they were integrated into the line officers as sub-lieutenants and lieutenants, class distinctions disappeared from the uniform.
From 1863 officers were commissioned in the Royal Naval Reserve this was for serving merchant navy officers only. They had rings each formed from two 1⁄4in wavy lines intersecting each other; the curl was formed into a 6-pointed star. The lieutenant commander's half-ring was straight, but only 1⁄8in wide; the commodore had the same star for a curl. Midshipmen had a blue collar patch. Officers of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve for civilians, had single wavy rings 1⁄4in wide, with the curl a squarish shape; the lieutenant commander's narrow ring was straight, but after 1942 was waved also. This system of rank insignia is worn by officers in the Sea Cadets. Midshipmen in the RNVR had a maroon collar patch. In 1951 both reserves lost their distinctive insignia and got normal straight stripes like the regulars, but with a letter'R' inside the curl; the two organisations were merge
Uniforms of the Royal Navy
The uniforms of the Royal Navy have evolved since the first uniform regulations for officers were issued in 1748. The predominant colours of Royal Navy uniforms are navy white. Since reforms in 1997 male and female ratings have worn the same ceremonial uniform. RN uniforms have served as the template for many maritime/naval uniforms throughout the world in the British Empire and Commonwealth; the uniforms of the Royal Naval Reserve, Royal Fleet Auxiliary, the Maritime Volunteer Service, the Sea Cadet Corps, the Navy branch of the Combined Cadet Force and the Volunteer Cadet Corps as well as modern uniforms of Trinity House, the Royal Australian Navy, the Royal New Zealand Navy and Royal Malaysian Navy are identical to RN uniforms, with the exception of flashes at shoulder height and on rank slides. Royal Canadian Navy uniforms are very similar, though the traditional sailor suit is no longer used and some distinctly Canadian rank insignia and titles are used. Uniform regulations for officers were first issued by Lord Anson in 1748, remained unchanged for nearly twenty years.
The officers themselves advocated its adoption, as they "wished to be recognised as being in the service of the Crown." The "best uniform", consisting of an embroidered blue coat with white facings, worn unbuttoned with white breeches and stockings, was worn for ceremonial occasions. In 1767 the best uniform was abolished and replaced by the working rig, with a simpler "undress" uniform for day-to-day use. By 1795, as a result of the French Revolutionary Wars, a plain blue "undress" coat had been introduced for everyday use, epaulettes were introduced. By 1846, all officers wore epaulettes; the white facings came and went over the years becoming scarlet. Though stripes of lace on the cuffs had been used to distinguish the different ranks of admiral since 1795, the first version of current rank insignia, consisting of stripes with a "curl" in the top one, was introduced for all officers in 1856. In 1825, the white breeches were replaced by trousers for officers serving in the United Kingdom, although the practice of wearing white trousers with naval uniforms continued for officers serving overseas until 1939.
Throughout the nineteenth century, there was great variation in uniform. For service in tropical climates, a white tunic and trousers were introduced in 1877. During World War II, a blue working dress on the lines of battledress was approved. Caps were to have white tops all year around, blue caps were abolished in 1956; the distinctive white collar patch of the midshipman first appeared in 1758. Uniform for ratings was first established by the Admiralty in 1857. Prior to this, most seamen wore "slops", or ready-made clothing sold to the ship's crew by a contractor. On one occasion in 1853, the commanding officer of HMS Harlequin paid for his boat crews to dress as harlequins, an incident which may have contributed to the Admiralty's decision to adopt a standard uniform. A number of changes have been introduced since the introduction of the first rating uniform, notably the removal of the blue jacket in 1890, the replacement of bell-bottoms by flared trousers in 1977. In 1997 there was a major standardisation programme, meaning that all ratings now wear the same ceremonial uniform for the first time in history.
Present-day Royal Navy officers and ratings have several different uniforms. This is worn only by a few senior Officers. In addition, in the past several members of the Royal Family below flag rank, it consists of a navy blue double-breasted tailcoat with standing collar faced white with gold edging, worn with gold shoulder boards, gold laced blue trousers. Officers of the rank of Admiral of the Fleet, officers holding the appointments of First Sea Lord, Chief of the Defence Staff, Commander in Chief Fleet, Second Sea Lord or the Defence Services Secretary wear a full dress sword belt embroidered with oak leaves, it is worn at state occasions. Introduced in 1960, it is the same Full Dress uniform worn for ceremonial occasions before that date only with the cocked hat replaced by the peaked hat and the epaulettes replaced by shoulder boards, without the cuff slash and gold lace on the rear pockets; the ceremonial day coats worn by women button up the opposite way, the tricorn hat is worn instead of the peaked cap.
This is the formal uniform worn on ceremonial occasions. For all commissioned officers it consists of a double-breasted, navy blue reefer jacket with four rows of two buttons, it is divided into 1A, 1B, 1C. Female personnel may wear skirts except when carrying a rifle, it was introduced in 1889 and was known as the'undress coat'. This mess dress is worn in
Royal Navy Police
The Royal Navy Police is the service police branch of the Royal Navy and Royal Marines. Members of the RNP enforce law and maintain order as outlined in the Armed Forces Act 2006; the Royal Navy Police was known as the Royal Navy Regulating Branch until 2007, when the service was renamed the Royal Navy Police in a change brought about by the Armed Forces Act 2006. Members are, still known as "Regulators"; the RNP subsumed the Royal Marines Police in 2009, although for operational purposes the majority of the two cadres of personnel are employed within their respective areas of the service. The RNP provide a Troop strength unit of Royal Marines to 3 Commando Brigade to provide policing services as part of the UK Landing force; the motto of the RNP is "Ne Cede Malis" which translates from Latin into English as'Do not yield to adversity' or'Do not give in to evil'. The RNP is the smallest of all police branches in the three services, with its provost marshal holding the rank of commander; the Royal Navy has always, in another, had the need to maintain order and discipline.
When at sea the captain was the king's representative, his rule was kept by the first lieutenant, assisted by a person known as thee Ship's Marshal, supported by a number of ship's corporals. Ship's marshals were abolished and replaced by the master at arms rate, introduced in about 1699, a tradition that continues right up to the present day. On punishment day, at six bells in the forenoon watch, the order was given,"All hands to witness punishment"; the master at arms presented the offender to the captain, who questioned him about the offence and delivered a verdict. The officer of the offender's division was asked. If their reply did not satisfy the captain, he ordered the man's punishment. Other than the actual act of flogging. A. A. was responsible for ensuring. The M. A. A. was accountable to the lieutenant at arms for the duties of the ship's corporals, the supervision of sentries, the guard, training the ship's company in the use of small arms. Another duty that the M. A. A performed was, at around 9 pm, to patrol the ship and check that all lanterns and fires were out, that no men were intoxicated.
An early form of evening rounds. In September 1944, the Admiralty concluded that the organisation for the maintenance of discipline on shore in the main naval port areas was unsatisfactory. Colonel D. H. C. Shepherd, R. M. the naval provost marshal in Malta, carried out a study into the requirement for a naval provost organisation. He reported that the system of landing ships' patrols in major naval base areas was unsatisfactory because the petty officers and leading ratings in charge, lacked the knowledge and experience to deal with incidents, being unable to render lucid written reports, avoided taking action wherever possible; the men detailed for patrol disliked the duty intensely believing it to be a form of punishment. The Shepherd report recommended the introduction of a leading patrolman rating to become the junior member of the Regulation Branch and borne for provost duties, the creation of a provost organisation to operate within the major naval port areas. Admiralty Fleet Order 6681/44 of 21 December 1944 implemented the proposals of the Shepherd report.
As a result of the Shepherd report, regulating branch training, which hitherto had been carried out in the barracks of the main ports, was centralised. In 1945, a Royal Navy Regulating School was established at Beechwood Camp in Devon to train all regulating ratings and to maintain branch records. In 1946, the school moved to Fort Wallington near Portsmouth in 1947 to HMS Cicero in Essex in 1948 to HMS Excellent, where it remained until November 2005; the role of the leading patrolman was to augment naval patrols on shore, assist in regulating duties as necessary. In 1968 leading patrolmen were renamed leading regulators. In 2007 the Royal Navy Regulating Branch was renamed the Royal Navy Police in a change brought about by the Armed Forces Act 2006; the work of the RNP encompasses dealing with routine disciplinary matters, investigation of crime, crime prevention, advice to the command on general security and close protection matters. As such, members of the RNP are employed in both uniformed and plainclothes roles, on ships, within shore establishments and in 3 Commando Brigade and other Royal Marine units.
Individuals posted on ships and within shore establishments are responsible, through their chain of command for: Maintenance of good order and discipline Investigating breaches of service discipline Investigation of crime Evidence gathering Crime reduction initiatives Liaison with territorial police forces and special police forces in the UKAlthough members of the RNP are not warranted constables, the force as a whole is subject to inspection by HM Inspectorate of Constabulary, in the same way as the UK's civilian police forces. The RNP have jurisdiction over members of the Royal Navy subject to service discipline, as well as having reciprocal powers to deal with service personnel of the other two branches of the Armed Forces; the RNP have jurisdiction over some civilians in certain circumstances, as defined by the Armed Forces Act 2006. The Royal Navy Police is headed by the provost marshal, based at HMS Excellent, responsible for the management of the service, the assurance of professional standards delivered by the RNP in the course of their duties.
RN and RM police are posted on ships and shore establishments with regional headquarters in Portsmouth and Faslane and Special Investigat