The Gauls were Celtic peoples inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period. Their Gaulish language forms the branch of the Continental Celtic languages. The Gauls emerged around the 5th century BC as the bearers of the La Tène culture north of the Alps, Gaul was never united under a single ruler or government, but the Gallic tribes were capable of uniting their forces in large-scale military operations. They reached the peak of their power in the early 3rd century BC, after this, Gaul became a province of the Roman Empire, and the Gauls were culturally assimilated into a Gallo-Roman culture, losing their tribal identities by the end of the 1st century AD. The Gauls of Gallia Celtica according to the testimony of Caesar called themselves Celtae in their own language, the name Gaul itself may be derived from Latin Galli, or it may be derived from the Germanic word Walha. Gaulish culture developed out of the Celtic cultures over the first millennia BC, the Urnfield culture represents the Celts as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European-speaking people.
The spread of iron working led to the Hallstatt culture in the 8th century BC, the Hallstatt culture evolved into the La Tène culture in around the 5th century BC. The Greek and Etruscan civilizations and colonies began to influence the Gauls especially in the Mediterranean area, Gauls under Brennus invaded Rome circa 390 BC. Following the climate deterioration in the late Nordic Bronze Age, Celtic Gaul was invaded in the 5th century BC by tribes called Gauls originating in the Rhine valley. Gallic invaders settled the Po Valley in the 4th century BC, defeated Roman forces in a battle under Brennus in 390 BC and raided Italy as far as Sicily. A large number of Gauls served in the armies of Carthage during the Punic Wars, in the Aegean world, an invasion of Eastern Gauls appeared in Thrace, north of Greece, in 281 BC. However, according to the Roman legend of the gold of Delphi. One king Cerethrius invaded the Thracians, while another Gallic king Bolgios invaded Macedonia and Illyria where he killed the Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos, in 278 BC Gaulish settlers in the Balkans were invited by Nicomedes I of Bithynia to help him in a dynastic struggle against his brother.
They numbered about 10,000 fighting men and about the number of women and children. They were eventually defeated by the Seleucid king Antiochus I, in a battle where the Seleucid war elephants shocked the Galatians. While the momentum of the invasion was broken, the Galatians were by no means exterminated and continued to demand tribute from the Hellenistic states of Anatolia to avoid war,4,000 Galatians were hired as mercenaries by the Ptolemaic Egyptian king Ptolemy II Philadelphus in the 270 BC. According to Pausanias, soon after arrival the Celts plotted “to seize Egypt, ”, Galatians participated at the victorious in 217 BC Battle of Raphia under Ptolemy IV Philopator, and continued to serve as mercenaries for the Ptolemaic Dynasty until its demise in 30 BC. They sided with the renegade Seleucid prince Antiochus Hierax, who reigned in Asia Minor, after the defeat, the Galatians continued to be a serious threat to the states of Asia Minor
Alinda was an ancient inland city and bishopric in Caria, in Asia Minor, now a Latin Catholic titular bishopric. It is situated near Demircideresi, on a hilltop which commands the modern-day town of Karpuzlu, Aydın Province, in western Turkey, Alinda could have been an important city since the second millennium BC and has been associated with Ialanti that appears in Hittite sources. It was this fortress which was held by the exiled Carian Queen Ada and she greeted Alexander the Great here in 334 BC. The prior name of Alinda was restored by at least 81 BC and it appears as Alinda in Ptolemys Geographia of the 2nd century AD. Alinda remained an important commercial city, minting its own coins from the third century BC to the 3rd century AD, stephanus records that the city had a temple of Apollo containing a statue of Aphrodite by Praxiteles. Alinda has a necropolis of Carian tombs and has partially excavated. Alinda appears on Byzantine lists of bishoprics and it was a suffragan of the Metropolitan of Stauropolis, the capital of the Roman province of Caria, but was to fade
Atarneus was an ancient Greek city in the region of Aeolis, Asia Minor. It lies on the mainland opposite the island of Lesbos, northeast of the town of Dikili in modern-day Turkey, Atarneus flowered in the 4th century BC, when it was the seat of government of Hermias of Atarneus, ruling over the area from Atarneus to Assos. The city was deserted by inhabitants in the 1st century AD, the city is known by many for its association with the life of Aristotle. After the death of his father, Aristotle was cared for and educated by Proxenus of Atarneus, at the Academy Aristotle made friends with Hermias, who was to become the ruler of Atarneus. Indeed, after the death of Plato, Aristotle went to stay with Hermias, foss, C. S. Mitchell, G. Reger, R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies
Allianoi is an ancient spa settlement, with remains dating predominantly from the Roman Empire period located near the city of Bergama in Turkeys İzmir Province. The site is at a distance of 18 kilometers to the northeast of Bergama, Allianoi is directly inside the reservoir of the Yortanlı Dam, built by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works. One particularity of Allianoi is its being a recent historical discovery. No other writer of antiquity nor any epigraphic finding known had referred to Allianoi, during the excavations conducted in the forest to the west of Allianoi, a vessel of the type known as Yortan was found. On the hills of nearby, a high quantity of flintstones were found during surveys. Additionally, two axes were unearthed from an earth fill. These findings suggest some form of settlement at or near Allianoi. Because of the presence of hot springs, it is thought there must have been a thermal bath complex already in the Hellenistic period. No architectural material was found in Allianoi belonging to this period apart from a few archaeological, many of the edifices encountered at the site today date from this period.
Besides the thermal baths, the bridges, the streets, the insulae, the Connection Building, Allianoi was still densely populated during the Byzantine period. Nevertheless, as was the case with neighboring Pergamon, the fabric of the urban settlement had frayed. Some architectural elements of the Roman Period were re-used by the Byzantine settlers, utilizing the paved streets of the stoas and streets of the Roman period, succeeding Byzantine populations constructed simpler dwellings. The most important buildings of Allianoi, namely the thermal baths, a large church reminiscent of a basilica was built in the east, while chapels were constructed in and around the settlement. Metal and glass workshops were all traceable to this period, the site was known as Paşa Ilıcası in the Ottoman Period. While noted in the documentation of the vilayet of Aydın. The only traces of this period are a few shards of coins, in the beginning of the 20th century, the sub-governor of the region did start an effort to put the spa complex back to use and the big pool section has been partially refurbished.
Also, all along the Ottoman period and up to 1979, the bath complex was partially cleaned of accumulated silt in the beginning of the 20th century. Despite continuous flooding, the hot springs section was in use in the 1950s, in 1992, the Roman Bridge that was still in use was reconstructed with some distortions, disregarding the interests of conservationists
Beycesultan is an archaeological site in western Anatolia, located about 5 km southwest of the modern-day city of Çivril in the Denizli Province of Turkey. It lies in a bend of an old tributary of Büyük Menderes River and this large mound is almost 1 km in diameter and 25 m high. The settlement increased in size and prominence through the 3rd millennium, with notable religious, development peaked early in the 2nd millennium with the construction of a massive palace and associated structures. The palace was abandoned and destroyed circa 1700 BC, to this point, the orientation of Beycesultan was strongly influenced from the west, mainly the Aegean and Crete. After a few centuries of semi-abandonment, Beycesultan began to rise again, though smaller than the earlier city, the site was of impressive size. This second flowering of Beycesultan was completely destroyed circa 1200 BC as were many locations in Anatolia at that time, the site was the occupied, to a lesser scale, in the Byzantine and Ottoman period.
It has been hypothesized that is the Byzantine town and bishopry Ilouza, the site of Beycesultan consists of two mounds, divided by the old trading road. The maximum height of 25 meters is at the western mound, in early 1950s James Mellaart discovered specimens of champagne-glass style pottery in a Late Bronze Age context near the site. A search identified the höyük of Beycesultan upstream of the Menderes river, Seton Lloyd, along with James Mellaart, excavated Beycesultan on behalf of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara for six seasons from 1954 to 1959 with each dig lasting around two months. A renewed survey of the site and its region was conducted from 2002 to 2007 by Eşref Abay of the Ege University, work continues to the present in conjunction with Adnan Menderes University. While no epigraphic material has found as yet, a few seals have been recovered. The early excavators reported a row of houses that had been destroyed by fire. There was a palace whose plan suggested, which was cleared out before its destruction, At one entrance of the palace was a kind of bathroom, where visitors washed themselves before making their bows at court.
One odd feature of the chambers, floors raised about a yard above the ground. Beneath the floors were small passages and they suggest air ducts of a heating system, but nothing of the sort is known to have existed until 1,000 years later. Outside the palace, Most interesting was a row of little shops, one was a Bronze Age pub with sunken vats for the wine supply and a lavish supply of glasses for serving the customers. It had knucklebones, a game that did the duty of a modern bars chuck-a-luck. Cities of the ancient Near East Seton Lloyd and James Mellaart, the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Levels, Occasional Publication of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, no
Amorium was a city in Phrygia, Asia Minor which was founded in the Hellenistic period, flourished under the Byzantine Empire, and declined after the Arab sack of 838. It was situated on the Byzantine military road from Constantinople to Cilicia and its ruins and höyük are located under and around the modern village of Hisarköy,13 kilometers east of the district center, Emirdağ, Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey. Amorium is the Latinized version of its original Greek name Amorion, arab/Islamic sources refer to the city as ʿAmmūriye. Under Ottoman rule the site, which never regained importance, was called Hergen Kale, the city minted its own coins beginning between 133 BC to 27 BC until the 3rd century AD, indicating its maturity as a settlement and military importance during the pre-Byzantine period. Amorium must have been prestigious and prosperous, but early historical records that mention the city are strictly limited to a reference by Strabo, although it is expected that new discoveries will shed light on the citys Roman period and before.
The city was fortified by the emperor Zeno in the 5th century and its strategic location in central Asia Minor made the city a vital stronghold against the armies of the Arab Caliphate following the Muslim conquest of the Levant. The city was first attacked by Muʿāwiya in 646 and it capitulated to ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Khalid in 666 and was occupied by Yazid I in 669, retaken by Constans IIs general Andreas. Over the next two centuries, it remained a frequent target of Muslim raids into Asia Minor, especially during the sieges of 716 and 796. It became capital of the thema of Anatolikon soon after, in 742-743, it was the main base of Emperor Constantine V against the usurper Artabasdos, and in 820, an Amorian, Michael II, ascended the Byzantine throne, establishing the Amorian dynasty. This began the period of the citys greatest prosperity, when it became the largest city in Asia Minor, the town was rebuilt, but was burned by Thamal al-Dulafi in 931. Nonetheless, it remained an active Byzantine city at least into the 11th century, following the Battle of Manzikert, it was devastated by the Seljuks and a large proportion of its inhabitants were killed.
Emperor Alexios I Komnenos defeated the Seljuks at Amorium in 1116 and it remained an important place in the 12th-14th centuries according to al-Idrisi and Hamdallah Mustawfi. Amorium was a bishopric at latest by 431, when its bishop, the acts of the earlier First Council of Constantinople were signed by a priest, Tyrannus, of Amorium. Theophilus was part of the mission that Photius sent to Rome about 20 years earlier, in the Notitiae Episcopatuum of Pseudo-Epiphanius, Amorium appears as a suffragan of Pessinus, capital of Galatia Salutaris. It appears with the rank in another of the end of the 8th century. There is no longer any mention of the see in the 14th-century Notitiae Episcopatuum, no longer a residential bishopric, Amorium is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. Following the 838 sack,42 officers and notables of Amorium were taken as hostages to Samarra, refusing to convert to Islam, they were executed there in 845, and became canonized as the 42 Martyrs of Amorium.
Amoriums site was unknown, though its name appears on many maps of the 18th and 19th centuries
Cide, Karaağaç, is a town and district of the Kastamonu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 23,161 of which 5,834 live in the town of Cide, the district covers an area of 664 km2, and the town lies at an elevation of 403 m. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Cide was part of the Kastamonu Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire, media related to Cide at Wikimedia Commons District governors official website
Mangalia, is a city and a port on the coast of the Black Sea in the south-east of Constanța County, Romania. The municipality of Mangalia administers several summer time seaside resorts, Cap Aurora, Neptun, Saturn, the Greek town Callatis existed until mid 7th century under this name. Life in the town resumed from 10th century, in the 13th century Callatis came to be known as Pangalia The Vlachs called it Tomisovara and the Greeks - Panglicara. From 16th c. the town had acquired its present name Mangalia, a Greek colony named Callatis was founded in the 6th century BC by the city of Heraclea Pontica. Its first silver coinage was minted approximately 350 BC, in 72 BC, Callatis was conquered by the Roman general Lucullus and was assigned to the Roman province of Moesia Inferior. Throughout the 2nd century AD, the city built defensive fortifications, Callatis suffered multiple invasions in the 3rd century AD but recovered in the 4th century AD to regain its status as an important trade hub and port city.
From 7th to 11th century the city was under the rule of the First Bulgarian Empire, Mangalia is one of the southernmost resorts on the Romanian coast of the Black Sea. Spring comes early but is cool and autumn is long and warm, in summer, cloudiness is reduced and the duration of sunshine is of 10–12 hours a day. The sea breeze is stronger in summer. At the 2011 census,90. 6% of the residents were ethnic Romanians,4. 4% Turks,3. 6% Tatars,0. 5% Roma,0. 3% Lipovans. According to religion, for respondents for whom data is available,89. 5% were Romanian Orthodox,8. 3% Muslim,0. 9% Roman Catholic,0. 3% Pentecostal, and 1% other or none. The Mangalia Municipal Council, elected in the 2012 local government elections, is made up of 19 councilors, with the party composition, Mangalia is twinned with. - In, Ancient Greek Colonies in the Black Sea, dimitrios V. Grammenos and Elias K. Petropoulos
According to Anthony Snodgrass, the Archaic period in ancient Greece was bounded by two revolutions in the Greek world. The Archaic period saw developments in Greek politics, international relations, warfare and it laid the groundwork for the Classical period, both politically and culturally. The word archaic derives from the Greek word archaios, which means old and it refers to the period in ancient Greek history before the classical. The Archaic period was considered to have been less important and historically interesting than the classical period. More recently, Archaic Greece has come to be studied for its own achievements, with this reassessment of the significance of the Archaic period, some scholars have objected to the term archaic, due to its connotations in English of being primitive and outdated. No term which has suggested to replace it has gained widespread currency, however. Much of our evidence about the period of ancient Greece comes from written histories. By contrast, we have no evidence from the Archaic period.
We have written accounts of life in the period in the form of poetry, and epigraphical evidence, including parts of law codes, inscriptions on votive offerings, none of this evidence is in the quantity for which we have it in the classical period. What is lacking in evidence, however, is made up for in the rich archaeological evidence from the Archaic Greek world. Indeed, where much of our knowledge of classical Greek art comes from Roman copies, other sources for the period are the traditions recorded by Greek writers such as Herodotus. However, these traditions are not part of any form of history as we would recognise it today, Herodotus does not even record any dates before 480 BC. Politically, the Archaic period saw the development of the polis as the predominant unit of political organisation, many cities throughout Greece came under the rule of autocratic leaders, called tyrants. The period saw the development of law and systems of communal decision-making, with the earliest evidence for law codes, by the end of the Archaic period, both the Athenian and Spartan constitutions seem to have developed into their classical forms.
The Archaic period saw significant urbanisation, and the development of the concept of the polis as it was used in classical Greece. The urbanisation process in Archaic Greece known as synoecism – the amalgamation of small settlements into a single urban centre – took place in much of Greece in the eighth century BC. Both Athens and Argos, for instance, began to coalesce into single settlements around the end of that century and these two factors created a need for a new form of political organisation, as the political systems in place at the beginning of the Archaic period quickly became unworkable. Though in the part of the classical period the city of Athens was both culturally and politically dominant, it was not until the late sixth century that it became a leading power in Greece
Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16