Malevizi is a municipality in Heraklion regional unit, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the village Gazi, the municipality has an area of 291.907 km2. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Malevizi, the municipal unit Gorgolainis and parts of Paliani and Heraklion
Dia, pronounced locally Ntia, is an uninhabited island off the northern coast of the Greek island of Crete. The island is approximately 7 nautical miles north of Heraklion, Dia is part of the community of Elaia within the municipal unit of Gouves, Heraklion regional unit, by the municipality of Elias. The island was known as Standia, by juncture loss in the phrase στήν Δία. It was the port of Crete for centuries. The islet looks like a giant lizard when viewed from the city of Heraklion, there is a legend that a giant lizard tried to destroy the island of Crete, but Zeus turned it in to stone with a thunderbolt, thus creating the island. The island is visible from Cretes capital city of Heraklion, as it would have been in the time of the Minoan kingdom, from the capital of Knossos, because of this, it was sometimes identified as the island that Theseus escaped to after killing the Minotaur. Dia is part of the European Network of Nature 2000 and is a hunting ground. There are a number of protected plants such as Carlina diae, in 1976, Jacques Cousteau carried out underwater exploration around Dia and found the remains of an ancient port in the waters between Heraklion and Dia
Tylisos is a town and a former municipality in the Heraklion regional unit, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Malevizi, the municipal unit has an area of 131.064 km2. It is an ancient Minoan peak sanctuary and town, the Municipality of Tylisos was created in 1999 and includes 11 villages. The economy is based on agriculture, mainly cultivation and olive cultivation. At the same time stock farming of sheep and chickens, Tylisos was excavated 1909-1913 by Joseph Hadzidakis, 1953-1955 by Nicholas Platon and in 1971 by A. Kanta. The town was in use Early Minoan II to Late Minoan IIIA, structures include houses, a cistern and an aqueduct with clay pipes. Excavation finds have included a pithos with Linear A inscriptions, stone horns, there are a significant number of caves including the Kamilari Cave, Hainospilios Cave, Trapeza Cave and Arkaliospilio. There are two gorges which are namely, the Almiros gorge, the Gonies gorge, agrotourism is a very popular among visitors all year round.
Arolithos village, Ktima Kares and Agrotikon are the most visited sites for this, the Archaeology of Ritual, Los Angeles, Cotsen Institute of Archaeology UCLA publications, pp. 9–22 Minoan Crete, Tylissos page
Viannos is a municipality in the Heraklion regional unit, Greece. The municipality has an area of 221.539 km2, the seat of the municipality is in Ano Viannos. In September 1943, German occupation forces inflicted heavy loss of life, in late July 2012, the area was hit by wildfires which caused severe damage in crops and livestock. The province of Viannos was one of the provinces of the Heraklion Prefecture and its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Viannos, except a few villages that were part of the province Pediada
Vehicle registration plates of Greece
Greek vehicle registration plates are composed of three letters and four digits per plate. The letters represent the district that issues the plates while the numbers begin from 1000 to 9999, similar plates with digits beginning from 1 to 999 are issued for motorcycles which exceed 50 cc. With the exception of Athens and Thessaloniki, all districts are represented by the first 2 letters, the final letter in the sequence changes in Greek alphabetical order after 9,000 issued plates. For example, Patras plates are ΑΧΑ-1000, where ΑΧ represents the Achaia prefecture of which Patras is the capital, when ΑΧΑ-9999 is reached the plates turn to ΑΧΒ-1000 and this continues until ΑΧΧ is finished. Only the letters from the intersection between the Latin and Greek alphabets by glyph appearance are used, namely Α, Β, Ε, Ζ, Η, Ι, Κ, Μ, Ν, Ο, Ρ, Τ, Υ, Χ. This is because Greece is a party to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic. The rule applies in a way in Russia, Belarus and Herzegovina. Combinations used for residents are L-NNNN and are limited.
Until 2003, taxis used L-NNNN, the plate was aligned with the prefecture, when number plates were introduced to Greece, they were numbered and in the late 1950s the system was L-NNN and LL-NNN. The letters were Greek letters and Latin letters, respectively, in 1956, the system was NNNNNN. In 1972, they became lettered and the system was LL-NNNN while trucks used L-NNNN, in 1983, the system was LLL-NNNN and the first two letters are prefecture letters. In 2004, the euroband was added, the first 2 of 3 letters of a licence plate usually represent the prefecture where the car was registered. Π. — Disabled in war ΔΟΚ — Test plates ΔΣ — Corps Diplomatique or foreign delegation Ε. Α. or ΕΛ. ΑΣ. — Hellenic Police ΛΣ — Coast Guard ΞΑ — Foreign missions ΕΣ — Hellenic Army ΠΑ — Hellenic Air Force ΠΝ — Hellenic Navy ΠΣ — Fire Guard ΠΚ — President of the Government, i. e
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1100 BC. It preceded the Mycenaean civilization of Ancient Greece, the civilization was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Arthur Evans. It has been described as the earliest of its kind in Europe, the term Minoan, which refers to the mythical King Minos, originally described the pottery of the period. Minos was associated in Greek mythology with the labyrinth and the Minotaur, according to Homer, Crete once had 90 cities. The Minoan period saw trade between Crete and Aegean and Mediterranean settlements, particularly the Near East and artists, the Minoan cultural influence reached beyond Crete to the Cyclades, Egypts Old Kingdom, copper-bearing Cyprus and the Levantine coast, and Anatolia. Some of its best art is preserved in the city of Akrotiri on the island of Santorini, although the Minoan language and writing systems remain undecipherable and are subjects of academic dispute, they apparently conveyed a language entirely different from the Greek.
The reason for the end of the Minoan period is unclear, theories include Mycenaean invasions from mainland Greece, the term Minoan refers to the mythical King Minos of Knossos. Its origin is debated, but it is attributed to archeologist Arthur Evans. Minos was associated in Greek mythology with the labyrinth, which Evans identified with the site at Knossos. However, Karl Hoeck had already used the title Das Minoische Kreta in 1825 for volume two of his Kreta, this appears to be the first known use of the word Minoan to mean ancient Cretan, Evans said that applied it, not invented it. Hoeck, with no idea that the archaeological Crete had existed, had in mind the Crete of mythology, although Evans 1931 claim that the term was unminted before he used it was called a brazen suggestion by Karadimas and Momigliano, he coined its archaeological meaning. Instead of dating the Minoan period, archaeologists use two systems of relative chronology, the first, created by Evans and modified by archaeologists, is based on pottery styles and imported Egyptian artifacts.
Evans system divides the Minoan period into three eras, early and late. These eras are subdivided—for example, Early Minoan I, II and III, another dating system, proposed by Greek archaeologist Nicolas Platon, is based on the development of architectural complexes known as palaces at Knossos, Phaistos and Kato Zakros. Platon divides the Minoan period into pre-, proto-, neo-, the relationship between the systems in the table includes approximate calendar dates from Warren and Hankey. The Thera eruption occurred during a phase of the LM IA period. Efforts to establish the volcanic eruptions date have been controversial, the eruption is identified as a natural event catastrophic for the culture, leading to its rapid collapse. Although stone-tool evidence exists that hominins may have reached Crete as early as 130,000 years ago, evidence for the first anatomically-modern human presence dates to 10, the oldest evidence of modern human habitation on Crete are pre-ceramic Neolithic farming-community remains which date to about 7000 BC
In geography and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. A settlement can range in size from a number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Settlements may include hamlets, villages and cities, a settlement may have known historical properties such as the date or era in which it was first settled, or first settled by a particular people. In the field of geospatial predictive modeling, settlements are a city, village ghost or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work. The oldest remains that have found of constructed dwellings are remains of huts that were made of mud. The Natufians built houses, in the Levant, around 10,000 BC, remains of settlements such as villages become much more common after the invention of agriculture. Landscape history studies the form of settlements – for example whether they are dispersed or nucleated, urban morphology can thus be considered a special type of cultural-historical landscape studies.
Settlements can be ordered by size, centrality or other factors to define a settlement hierarchy, geoscience Australia defines a populated place as a named settlement with a population of 200 or more persons. The Committee for Geographical Names in Australasia used the term localities for rural areas, the Bulgarian Government publishes a National Register of Populated Places. The Canadian government uses the term populated place in the Atlas of Canada, Statistics Canada uses the term localities for historical named locations. The Croatian Bureau of Statistics records population in units called settlements, the Census Commission of India has a special definition of census towns. The Central Statistics Office of the Republic of Ireland has a definition of census towns. There are various types of inhabited localities in Russia, Statistics Sweden uses the term localities for various densely populated places. The common English-language translation is urban areas, the UK Department for Communities and Local Government uses the term urban settlement to denote an urban area when analysing census information.
The Registrar General for Scotland defines settlements as groups of one or more contiguous localities, the Scottish settlements are used as one of several factors defining urban areas. A populated place is not incorporated and by definition has no legal boundaries. However, a place may have a corresponding civil record. Census − a statistical area delineated locally specifically for the tabulation of Census Bureau data, civil − a political division formed for administrative purposes
Lasithi is the easternmost regional unit on the island of Crete, to the east of Heraklion. Its capital is Agios Nikolaos, the major towns being Ierapetra, Sitia. The mountains include the Dikti in the west and the Thrypti in the east, the Sea of Crete lies to the north and the Libyan Sea to the south. To the east of the village of Elounda lies the island of Spinalonga, formerly a Venetian fortress, on the foot of Mount Dikti lies the Lasithi Plateau, famous for its windmills. Vai is well known for its datepalm forest, thanks to stunning beaches and its mild climate year-long, Lasithi attracts many tourists. Mass tourism is served by places like Vai, Agios Nikolaos, more off-beat tourism can be found in villages on the south coast like Myrtos, Makrys Gialos or Makrigialos and Koutsouras. Lasithi is home to a number of ancient remains, Fournou Korifi, Pyrgos and Gournia are ruins of Minoan date and Itanos were Doric towns. The history of Lasithi can be traced over at least three millennia, the region has considerable ancient history antecedents, including the Dorian era settlement of Olous and Lato.
The regional unit Lasithi is subdivided into four municipalities, the prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit, except Viannos area that belonged to Lasithi but was annexed to Heraklion prefecture in 1932. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, before 2006, Lasithi was divided into 4 provinces, Province of Mirambelos - Neapolis Province of Lasithi - Tzermiado Province of Ierapetra - Ierapetra Province of Sitia - Sitia GR-90/E65, NW, Cen. S Ieropotamos River Geographical profile of Lasithi
Rethymno (regional unit)
Rethymno is one of the four regional units of Crete, Greece. Its capital is the city of Rethymno, today its main income is tourism. The countryside is based economically on agriculture and herding, the regional unit Rethymno is subdivided into 5 municipalities. These are, Agios Vasileios Amari Anogeia Mylopotamos Rethymno The Rethymno prefecture was created while Crete was still an autonomous state, as a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the Rethymno regional unit was created out of the former prefecture. The prefecture had the territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, Rethymno Province - Rethymno Agios Vasileios Province - Spili Amari Province - Amari Mylopotamos Province - Perama Note, Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece
Lyctus or Lyttos, was one of the most considerable cities in ancient Crete, which appears in the Homeric catalogue. Lyttos is now a village in the municipality of Minoa Pediada, according to Hesiod, Rhea gave birth to Zeus in a cave of Mount Aegaeon, near Lyttos. The cave has been identified since the nineteenth century as Psychro. The inhabitants of this ancient Doric city called themselves colonists of Sparta, according to Polybius, Lyctus was the oldest city on Crete. In the Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III, theres a list of Aegean place names, according to some scholars, the name was mentioned in Linear B texts as ru-ki-to. In 344 BCE, Phalaecus the Phocian assisted the Cnossians against their neighbors the Lyctians, the Lyctians, at a still period, were engaged in frequent hostilities with Cnossus, and succeeded in creating a formidable party in the island against that city. The Cnossians, taking advantage of their absence on a distant expedition, surprised Lyctus, the citizens, on their return, abandoned it, and found refuge at Lampa.
Polybius, on occasion, bears testimony to the high character of the Lyctians. They afterwards recovered their city by the aid of the Gortynians, who gave them a place called Diatonium, Lyctus was sacked by Metellus at the Roman conquest, but was existing in the time of Strabo at a distance of 80 stadia from the Libyan sea. The site still bears the name of Lytto, where ancient remains are now found, the harbor of Chersonesos served as the port for Lyctus trade. The town of Arsinoe belonged to Lyctos during the Hellenistic period, according to Stephanus of Byzantium, some scholars locate this Arsinoe at the site of the older city of Rhithymna. Others place it near the village of Malia, Crete, at Chersonesos above, the decoration of the coins issued at Lyctus is usually an eagle flying, with the epigraph ΛΥΤΤΙΩΝ. War against Lyctus This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography