United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, one of the seven American uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation.
The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them. Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 318,415 active duty airmen, 140,169 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.
It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and win...in air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".
The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.
OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Bordentown, New Jersey
Bordentown is a city in Burlington County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 3,924; the population declined by 45 from the 3,969 counted in the 2000 U. S. Census, which had in turn declined by 372 from the 4,341 counted in the 1990 Census. Bordentown is located at the confluence of Blacks Creek and Crosswicks Creek; the latter is the border between Mercer Counties. Bordentown is 5.8 miles southeast of Trenton and 25.3 miles northeast of Philadelphia. It is included in the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area. Bordentown was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on December 9, 1825, from portions within Chesterfield Township, it was reincorporated as a city on April 3, 1867, separated from Chesterfield Township c. 1877. Thomas Farnsworth, an English Quaker, was credited with being the first European settler in the Bordentown area in 1682, when he moved his family up river from Burlington, he made a new home on the windswept bluff overlooking the broad bend in the Delaware River.
The Farnsworth's cabin was situated near the northwest corner of Park Street and Prince Street where an 1883 frame house now stands. "Farnsworth Landing" soon became the center of trade for the region. Farnsworth is the namesake of one of Bordentown's main streets, Farnsworth Avenue. Joseph Borden, for whom the city is named, arrived in 1717, by May 1740 founded a transportation system to carry people and freight between New York City and Philadelphia; this exploited Bordentown's natural location as the point on the Delaware River that provided the shortest overland route to Perth Amboy, from which cargo and people could be ferried to New York City. By 1776, Bordentown was full of patriots. Patience Lovell Wright, America's first female sculptor, was creating wax busts in King George's court in England. However, Bordentown became a rabble-rousing hotbed. In addition to Joseph Borden's son, who became a colonel during the war, patriots Francis Hopkinson, Colonel Kirkbride, Colonel Oakey Hoagland and Thomas Paine resided in the area.
Due to their well-published activity in Bordentown, the British retaliated. Hessians occupied the town in 1776, the British pillaged and razed the town during May and June 1778. Other notable people who have lived in the city include Clara Barton, who in 1852 started the first free public school in New Jersey and founded the American Red Cross. A recreation of her schoolhouse stands at the corner of Burlington streets; the Bordentown School operated from 1894 to 1955. Several years after the banishing of his family from France in 1816, arriving under vigilant disguise as the Count de Survilliers, Joseph Bonaparte, former King of Naples and Spain and brother to Napoleon I of France, established his residence in Bordentown, he lived there for 17 years, entertaining guests of great fame such as Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and the future 6th U. S. President, John Quincy Adams; the residents of Bordentown nicknamed the Count, "The Good Mr. Bonaparte", he built a lake near the mouth of Crosswicks Creek, about 200 yards wide and half a mile long.
On the bluff above it he built a new home, "Point Breeze". The current Divine Word Mission occupies its former site along Park Street. Today only vestiges of the Bonaparte estate remain. Much of it is the remains of a building remodeled in English Georgian Revival style in 1924 for Harris Hammon, who purchased the estate at Point Breeze as built in 1850 by Henry Becket, a British consul in Philadelphia. In addition to the rubble of this mansion and some hedges of its elaborate gardens, only the original tunnel to the river and the house of Bonaparte's secretary remain. Many descendants of Joachim Murat, King of Naples were born or lived in Bordentown, having followed their uncle Joseph there. After the Bonaparte dynasty was restored by Napoleon III, they moved back to France and were recognized as princes. In August 1831, master mechanic Isaac Dripps of Bordentown re-assembled the locomotive John Bull in just 10 days, it was built by Robert Stephenson and Company, in England, was imported into Philadelphia by the Camden and Amboy Railroad.
The next year it started limited service, the year after that regular service, to become one of the first successful locomotives in the United States. The John Bull is preserved at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. In 1866, Susan Waters moved into; this was a base from which she taught and produced over 50 of her works, many of which are painting of animals in natural settings and pastoral scenes. She was an early photographer. In 1876 she was asked to exhibit several of her works at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. In 1881, Rev. William Bowen purchased the old Spring Villa Female Seminary building and reopened it as the Bordentown Military Institute. In 1886, African-American Rev. Walter A. Rice established a private school for African-American children, the Manual Training and Industrial School for Colored Youth, in a two-story house at 60 West Street, which moved to Walnut Street on the banks of the Delaware, became a public school in 1894 under Jim Crow laws; the school, known as the Bordentown School, came to have a 400-acre, 30-building campus with two farms, a vocational/ technical orientation, a college preparatory program.
In 1909, the religious order Poor C
Delanco Township, New Jersey
Delanco Township is a township in Burlington County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 4,283, reflecting an increase of 1,046 from the 3,237 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 79 from the 3,316 counted in the 1990 Census. Delanco was named for the Delaware Rancocas Creek, which border the community, it was called Del-Ranco or Delaranco, a syllabic abbreviation shortened to Delanco. It is a dry township. What is now Delanco Township was incorporated as Beverly Township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 1, 1859, within Willingboro Township. Delanco was a geographical place name by 1868, earlier. At its creation, Beverly Township included Beverly city, which separated as an independent municipality c. 1877. Portions of the township were taken to create Edgewater Park on February 26, 1924; the township's name was changed to Delanco Township as of December 20, 1926, based on the results of a referendum held on November 2, 1926.
In April 1861, the Sixth Massachusetts Militia passed through Delanco, on their way to Washington to defend the federal capital. According to the report of Colonel Edward F. Jones during their travel, James Brady was "taken insane" and left in Delanco Township, with J. C. Buck; when the regiment arrived in Baltimore, Maryland, it was attacked during the Baltimore riot of 1861. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 3.350 square miles, including 2.356 square miles of land and 0.994 square miles of water. The township borders Beverly, Edgewater Park Township, Willingboro Township, Delran Township, Riverside Township in Burlington County and borders the Delaware River, across it, Bensalem Township and the city of Philadelphia; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,283 people, 1,755 households, 1,240.785 families residing in the township. The population density was 1,817.9 per square mile. There were 1,853 housing units at an average density of 786.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the township was 82.79% White, 10.97% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 1.87% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.93% from other races, 2.85% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.55% of the population. There were 1,755 households out of which 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.3% were non-families. 23.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.87. In the township, the population was spread out with 19.7% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 30.6% from 45 to 64, 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.4 years. For every 100 females there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 91.3 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $77,357 and the median family income was $82,368.
Males had a median income of $56,333 versus $46,625 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $33,943. About 1.5% of families and 4.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.0% of those under age 18 and 1.9% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 3,237 people, 1,227 households, 892 families residing in the township; the population density was 1,301.1 people per square mile. There were 1,285 housing units at an average density of 516.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 95.89% White, 1.92% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.40% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.95% of the population. There were 1,227 households out of which 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families. 22.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.09. In the township the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males. The median income for a household in the township was $50,106, the median income for a family was $56,985. Males had a median income of $40,727 versus $28,144 for females; the per capita income for the township was $21,096. About 6.8% of families and 9.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.6% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over. Delanco Township is governed under the Township form of government; the Township Committee is the township's governing body and is responsible for formulating policies, approving the annual budget and enacting ordinances and resolutions to provide a legislative framework.
Voters approved a measure in 2000 that expanded the Township Committee from three to five members starting in 2002. The five-member Township Committee is elected directly by the voters at-large in partisan elections to serve thr
2004 United States House of Representatives elections
Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 109th Congress were held on November 2, 2004. The House of Representatives has 435 seats, it coincided with the reelection of President George W. Bush. In the 108th Congress, Republicans held 227 seats, Democrats held 205, with two Republican vacancies and one independent; as a result of this election, the 109th Congress began composed of 232 Republicans, 201 Democrats, one independent, one vacancy. The Republicans thereby built up their House majority by 3 seats. Democrats gained open seats in Colorado, South Dakota and New York and ousting incumbents in Georgia and Illinois. Republicans ousted an incumbent in Indiana. A pair of seats in Louisiana swapped party control. Republicans gained several redistricted seats in Texas. Notable freshmen included future Secretary of Health and Human Services Tom Price, future Governor of Louisiana Bobby Jindal, future Chair of the Democratic National Committee Debbie Wasserman Schultz; as of 2018, this is the last election in which someone, not from the Democratic or Republican party was elected to the House.
This is the most recent election in which Republicans made a net gain of seats in the House during a Presidential election year. On the same date were the 2004 Presidential election, the 2004 Senate election, many state gubernatorial elections. There were three special elections held in 2004, all of them separate from the November elections. Key to party abbreviations: AI=American Independent, C=Constitution, D=Democratic, G=Green, I=Independent, IP=Independence Party, PF=Peace and Freedom Party, L=Libertarian, R=Republican. On December 4, 2004, a run-off election was held to determine the winner of the 3rd and 7th Congressional districts. In the 3rd district, Charlie Melancon narrowly defeated Billy Tauzin III. In the 7th district, Charles Boustany defeated Willie Mount. Thus, both seats switched to the opposite party. All incumbents were re-elected. All seven incumbents who ran for re-election, none of whom faced viable challengers, were returned to Congress. None received less than 60% of the vote, one received over 80%.
In addition, the two seats vacated by retiring Republicans were both reclaimed by Republicans despite Democratic hopes to gain at least one seat in the vulnerable 8th district. United States elections, 2004 United States gubernatorial elections, 2004 United States presidential election, 2004 United States Senate elections, 2004 108th United States Congress 109th United States Congress United States Election 2004 Web Archive from the U. S. Library of Congress
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Burlington County, New Jersey
Burlington County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. The county is the second largest in New Jersey by total area behind Ocean County which has a total area of 915.40 sq mi and its county seat is Mount Holly. As of the 2017 Census Bureau estimate, the county's population was 448,596, making it the 11th-largest of the state's 21 counties, representing a 0.1% decrease from the 2010 United States Census, when the population was enumerated at 448,734, in turn an increase of 25,340 from the 423,394 enumerated in the 2000 Census. The most-populous place was Evesham Township, with 45,538 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Washington Township covered 102.71 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality in Burlington County. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $55,227, the tenth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 228th of 3,113 counties in the United States; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 158th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009.
Burlington County is part of the Delaware Valley area, located east of the Delaware River. However, the county stretches across the state, its southeast corner reaches tidal estuaries leading to southern New Jersey's Great Bay, which separates the county from the Atlantic Ocean. Anglo-European records of Burlington County date to 1681, when its court was established in the Province of West Jersey; the county was formed on May 17, 1694, "by the union of the first and second Tenths." The county was named for a town in England. Burlington County was the seat of government for the Province of West Jersey until its amalgamation with East Jersey in 1702, forming the Province of New Jersey; the county was much larger and was partitioned to form additional counties as the population increased. In 1714 one partition to the north became Hunterdon County, which itself was partitioned to form three additional counties; the county seat had been in Burlington but, as the population increased in the interior, away from the Delaware River, a more central location was needed, the seat of government was moved to Mount Holly in 1793.
Increasing industrialization led to improvements in transportation which increased to profitability of agriculture in the county. Population increases in the coastal communities due to successful international trade and ship repair led to road improvements throughout the county. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 819.84 square miles, including 798.58 square miles of land and 21.26 square miles of water. Most of the land in the county is alluvial plain with little relief. There are a few anomalous hills, such as Apple Pie Hill and Arney's Mount, the highest of not only the entire county but among the highest in South Jersey at 240 feet above sea level; the low point is sea level along the Mullica rivers. The majority of the land is dotted with rivers and wetlands; some of the largest and most important rivers in Burlington County include Rancocas Creek, Assiscunk Creek, Pennsauken Creek, Mullica River, Batsto River and Wading River. The county borders Atlantic County, Camden County, Mercer County, Monmouth County and Ocean County in New Jersey.
Average temperatures in the county seat of Mount Holly have ranged from a low of 22 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −25 °F was recorded in February 1934 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.92 inches in February to 4.87 inches in August. Burlington County has a humid-subtropical / humid continental transition climate, with cold winters and hot summers. Severe weather is common in the warm months. Hurricanes have been known to strike Burlington County on occasion. Tornadoes are uncommon in the county. Severe thunderstorms, are quite common during the warm season. Snowfall is typical in the winter, with the snowfall averages in the county ranging from about 18 to 22 inches; the climate and weather of Burlington county is moderated by the nearby Atlantic Ocean, rain is common year-round. The county seat receives about 41 inches of rain per year. Another interesting weather phenomena that occurs in Burlington County is radiative cooling in the Pine Barrens, a large pine forest and reserve that takes up a good portion of Southern and Eastern Burlington County.
Due to sandy soil, on clear and dry nights these areas might be 10 to 15 °F colder than the surrounding areas, there is a shorter frost-free season in these places. The sandy soil of the Pinelands loses heat much faster than the other soils or urban surfaces in the region, so achieves a much lower temperature at night than the rest of the county; this effect is far less pronounced on moist, cloudy, or windy nights, as these three factors reduce the radiative cooling of the sandy soil. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 448,734 people, 166,318 households, 117,254.190 families residing in the county. The population density was 561.9 per square mile. There were 175,615 housing units at an average density of 219.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 73.84% White, 16.60% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 4.32% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.05% from other races, 2.92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.42% of the population.
There were 166,31