Kaiser Permanente is an American integrated managed care consortium, based in Oakland, United States, founded in 1945 by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser and physician Sidney Garfield. Kaiser Permanente is made up of three distinct but interdependent groups of entities: the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, Inc. and its regional operating subsidiaries. As of 2017, Kaiser Permanente operates in eight states and the District of Columbia, is the largest managed care organization in the United States; as of December 31, 2018 Kaiser Permanente had 12.2 million health plan members, 217,415 employees, 22,914 physicians, 59,127 nurses, 39 medical centers, 690 medical facilities. As of December 31, 2018, the non-profit Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Kaiser Foundation Hospitals entities reported a combined $2.5 billion in net income on $79.7 billion in operating revenues. Each Permanente Medical Group operates as a separate for-profit partnership or professional corporation in its individual territory, while none publicly reports its financial results, each is funded by reimbursements from its respective regional Kaiser Foundation Health Plan entity.
KFHP is one of the largest not-for-profit organizations in the United States. KP's quality of care has been rated and attributed to a strong emphasis on preventive care, its doctors being salaried rather than paid on a fee-for-service basis, an attempt to minimize the time patients spend in high-cost hospitals by planning their stay. However, Kaiser has had disputes with its employees' unions faced civil and criminal charges for falsification of records and patient dumping, faced action by regulators over the quality of care it provided to patients with mental health issues, has faced criticism from activists and action from regulators over the size of its cash reserves. Kaiser Permanente provides care throughout eight regions in the United States. Two or three distinct but interdependent legal entities form the Kaiser system within each region; this structure was adopted by Kaiser Permanente physicians and leaders in 1955. Each entity of Kaiser Permanente has its own management and governance structure, although all of the structures are interdependent and cooperative to a great extent.
There are multiple affiliated non-profits registered with the U. S. Internal Revenue Service. According to Form 990 governance questions, Kaiser Foundation Hospitals and Kaiser Foundation Health Plan do not have members with the power to appoint or elect board members, meaning that the board itself nominates and appoints new members. Chairman and CEO George Halvorson retired in December 2013, after serving since 2002. On November 5, 2012, the board of directors announced that Bernard J. Tyson, Kaiser's president and chief operating officer for the last two years, would replace Halvorson — the first time an African American was appointed to that position; the two types of organizations which make up each regional entity are: Kaiser Foundation Health Plans work with employers and individual members to offer prepaid health plans and insurance. The health plans are not-for-profit and provide infrastructure for and invest in Kaiser Foundation Hospitals and provide a tax-exempt shelter for the for-profit medical groups.
Permanente Medical Groups are physician-owned organizations, which provide and arrange for medical care for Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members in each respective region. The medical groups are for-profit partnerships or professional corporations and receive nearly all of their funding from Kaiser Foundation Health Plans; the first medical group, The Permanente Medical Group, formed in 1948 in Northern California. Permanente physicians become stockholders in TPMG after three years at the company. In addition, Kaiser Foundation Hospitals operates medical centers in California, Oregon and Hawaii, outpatient facilities in the remaining Kaiser Permanente regions; the hospital foundations are not-for-profit and rely on the Kaiser Foundation Health Plans for funding. They provide infrastructure and facilities that benefit the for-profit medical groups. Kaiser Permanente is administered through eight regions, including one parent and six subordinate health plan entities, one hospital entity, nine separate, affiliated medical groups: In addition to the regional entities, in 1996, the then-twelve Permanente Medical Groups created The Permanente Federation, a separate entity, which focuses on standardizing patient care and performance under one name and system of policies.
Around the same time, The Permanente Company was chartered as a vehicle to provide investment opportunities for the for-profit Permanente Medical Groups. One of the ventures of the Permanente Company is Kaiser Permanente Ventures, a venture capital firm that invests in emerging medical technologies; the history of Kaiser Permanente dates to 1933 and a tiny hospital in the town of Desert Center, California. At that time, Henry J. Kaiser and several other large construction contractors had formed an insurance consortium called Industrial Indemnity to meet their workers' compensation obligations. Dr. Sidney Garfield had just finished his residency at Los Angeles County-USC Medical Center at a time when jobs were scarce. Soon enough, Garfield's new hospital was in a precarious financial state, due in part to Garfield's desire to treat all patients regardless of abi
Lincoln University (Pennsylvania)
Lincoln University is public black university in Oxford, Pennsylvania. Founded as a private university in 1854, it has been a public institution since 1972 and was the United States' first degree-granting HBCU, its main campus is located on 422 acres near the town of Oxford in southern Chester County, Pennsylvania. The university has a second location in Philadelphia. Lincoln University provides undergraduate and graduate coursework to 2,000 students; the University is a member-school of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund. While a majority of Lincoln University students are African Americans, the university has a long history of accepting students of other races and nationalities. Women have received degrees since 1953 and made up 60% of undergraduate enrollment in 2015. In 1854 Rev. John Miller Dickey, a Presbyterian minister, his wife, Sarah Emlen Cresson, a Quaker, founded Ashmun Institute named Lincoln University, in Hinsonville, they named it after a religious leader and social reformer. They founded the school for the education of African Americans, who had few opportunities for higher education.
John Miller Dickey was the first president of the college. He encouraged some of his first students: James Ralston Amos, his brother Thomas Henry Amos, Armistead Hutchinson Miller, to support the establishment of Liberia as a colony for African Americans.. Each of the men became ordained ministers. In 1866, a year after the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, Ashmun Institute was renamed Lincoln University; the college attracted talented students from numerous states during the long decades of legal segregation in the South. As may be seen on the list of notable alumni, many went on to achievements in careers in academia, public service, the arts and many other fields. In 1945 Dr. Horace Mann Bond, an alumnus of Lincoln, was selected as the first African-American president of the university. During his 12-year tenure, he continued to do social science research, helped support the important civil rights case of Brown v. Board of Education, decided in 1954 by the US Supreme Court, he established an important relationship with the collector Albert C.
Barnes, who ensured Lincoln University had a role in the management of his art collection, the Barnes Foundation. From 1854 to 1954, Lincoln University graduates accounted for 20 percent of black physicians and over 10 percent of black lawyers in the United States. In 1972 Lincoln University formally associated with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a state-related institution. In 2013, the University refined its name and brand as Lincoln University to emphasize its distinction as the nation's first HBCU, as well as to distinguish itself from other universities of the same name in Missouri and New Zealand, as well as Lincoln Memorial in Tennessee. In November 2014, University president Robert R. Jennings resigned under pressure from faculty and alumni after comments relating to issues of sexual assault. Jennings was the subject of a couple of no-confidence votes by faculty and the alumni association in October 2014. On May 11, 2017, the Lincoln University board of trustees announced the appointment of Dr. Brenda A. Allen and vice chancellor for academic affairs at Winston-Salem State University as Lincoln's new president.
A 1981 alumna of Lincoln, Allen's inauguration was announced for October, 2017. According to U. S. News & World Report, Lincoln University ranks number 20th out of 81 in the 2013 magazine's first ranking of undergraduate education at HBCUs, it is ranked as a Tier One school on the list. Lincoln University shares its No. 20th ranking with Alabama A&M University. In 2012 the US News & World Best Colleges Report rated Lincoln as a Tier Two University overall. Lincoln University's International and Study Abroad Program had student participation in Service Learning Projects in the countries of Ecuador, Spain, Costa Rica, France, Zambia, Ghana, Russia, Thailand, the Czech Republic and South Africa The Lincoln-Barnes Visual Arts program is a collaboration between Lincoln University and the Barnes Foundation, it established a Visual Arts program that leads to a Bachelor of Fine Arts, most a Pan-Africana Studies major has been added to the list undergraduate majors available at the institution. Lincoln University offers 23 undergraduate minors.
Lincoln University main campus is 422 acres with 56 buildings totaling over one million gross square feet. There are fifteen residence halls; the dormitories range from small dorms such as Alumni Hall, built in 1870. A $40.5 million, four-story, 150,000-square-foot Science and General Classroom High Technology Building was completed in December 2008. A $26.1 million 60,000-square-foot International Cultural Center began construction on April 10, 2008, was completed in 2010. The $28 million Health and Wellness Center is a 105,000 square feet facility that opened in September 2012; the facility contains basketball courts, locker rooms, track, rock climbing wall, health clinic and healthy eating café. An on-campus football stadium with concession stands, a separate locker room, storage facilities opened in August 2012. A separate practice field with Field Turf II is located near the Health and Wellness Center, where six new lighted tennis courts are located. New baseball and softball fields are adjacent to the foo
Eric Michael Garcetti is an American politician serving as the 42nd and current Mayor of Los Angeles since 2013. A member of the Democratic Party, he was first elected in the 2013 election and won reelection in 2017. A former member of the Los Angeles City Council, Garcetti served as council president from 2006 to 2012, he is the city's first elected Jewish mayor, its youngest mayor in history, its second consecutive Mexican American mayor. Garcetti was born on February 4, 1971 at Good Samaritan Hospital in Los Angeles and was raised in Encino, in the San Fernando Valley, he is Gil Garcetti, a former Los Angeles County district attorney. Garcetti's paternal grandfather, was born in Parral, Mexico. Salvador was brought by his family to the United States as a child after his father, Massimo "Max" Garcetti, was murdered by hanging during the Mexican Revolution. Max had immigrated to Mexico from Italy, where he became a judge, his paternal grandmother, Juanita Iberri, was born in Arizona, one of 19 children born to an immigrant father from Sonora, Mexico and an Arizona-born mother whose father and mother were both Mexican.
Garcetti's maternal grandparents were from Russian Jewish immigrant families. His maternal grandfather, Harry Roth and ran the clothing brand Louis Roth Clothes. Garcetti attended elementary school at UCLA Lab School University Elementary School. While in high school, he was a member of the Junior State of America, a national civic engagement and political debate organization for students. Garcetti majored in political science and urban planning and received a Bachelor of Arts from Columbia University in 1992 as a John Jay Scholar. During that time, he served on the student council, was president of the St. Anthony Hall fraternity and literary society, founded the Columbia Urban Experience, co-wrote and performed in three years of the Varsity Show, a student-written musical, whose past co-writers include Richard Rodgers, Oscar Hammerstein II, Lorenz Hart, he received a Masters of International Affairs from the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University, graduating in 1993.
He met his future wife while they were both studying as Rhodes Scholars at The Queen's College, Oxford. He studied for a PhD in ethnicity and nationalism at the London School of Economics. Prior to his election to the Los Angeles City Council, Garcetti was a visiting instructor of international affairs at the University of Southern California and an assistant professor of diplomacy and world affairs at Occidental College, his academic work focused on ethnic nationalism in Southeast Asia and Northeast Africa. During this time, he published articles and chapters of books on post-conflict societies, Eritrean nationalism, non-violent action, he has served on the California board of Human Rights Watch, serves on the advisory board for Young Storytellers, an arts education nonprofit organization based in Los Angeles. City Council District 13 was left vacant after incumbent Jackie Goldberg was elected to the State Assembly in 2000. Garcetti ran for the open seat and was elected in 2001, narrowly defeating former city councilmember Michael Woo.
He was re-elected again in 2005 and 2009. Garcetti served as council president from January 1, 2006 to January 12, 2012, he was elected by his colleagues to succeed succeeded Alex Padilla, who resigned after being elected to the California State Senate. He was one of the first elected officials in Los Angeles to hold "office hours" each month, where constituents can meet with him face-to-face, he implemented a "Constituent Bill of Rights" that ensures that constituents' phone calls are returned within a single workday, that constituents are included in all land-use decisions in their neighborhood, that all constituent concerns are tracked on a computer system that details all actions taken on that particular case. He ensured that the meetings started on time, all past meetings were made available online, he has helped more than 1,500 local constituents learn about the governmental process by hosting Government and Planning 101 courses throughout the city. In 2004, Garcetti authored Proposition O, a county stormwater bond which sought to clean the city's waterways.
Voters approved the bond with just over 76% of the vote, making it the largest clean water bond in the United States. In 2005, Garcetti helped, he authored two of the nation's most far-reaching municipal green building ordinances: the first requires all city buildings to be built to the LEED-certified standard, the second mandates that all commercial buildings of more than 50,000 sq ft in Los Angeles be built to a LEED standard. He supported changes in the city's landscape ordinance and plumbing codes to promote water conservation. In July 2010, Garcetti council president, weakened a 2009 lawn watering ordinance, allowing watering three days per week instead of two; the ordinance restricting watering to two days a week had been passed 13 months earlier by Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa. While it helped the city cut its water use and cope with ongoing drought, the measure was unpopular and was accused of causing pressure fluctuations and water main breaks. A Los Angeles Times editorial said that the city council's changes to the watering ordinance was a "death knell for one of the best collective environmental efforts made by the citizens of Los Angeles".
Garcetti worked to have Historic Filipinotown desingated a Preserve America Community. He championed renovating the Hollywood Palladium by Live Nation Entertainment, at risk of being demolished, he has faced public scrutiny f
Wilshire Center, Los Angeles
Wilshire Center is a neighborhood in Central Los Angeles, California. As defined by the Los Angeles Department of City Planning's Wilshire Community Plan, adopted September 19, 2001, Wilshire Center is a "Regional Commercial Center...generally bounded by 3rd Street on the north, 8th Street on the south, Hoover Street on the east, Wilton Place on the west”. Services provided by the business improvement district are limited to the commercial area between Wilton Place, Hoover Street, Third Street and Eighth Street. Google Maps defines Wilshire Center with the same boundaries that the City of Los Angeles uses: Third Street on the North, Eighth Street on the South, Hoover Street on the East and Wilton Place on the West. Wilshire Center is served by city buses, including several Rapid lines, three subway stations along Wilshire Boulevard; the Metro Purple Line, which begins at Union Station in Downtown Los Angeles, has stations at Vermont and Western Avenues, where it terminates The Vermont station is a stop on the Metro Red Line, which continues north through Hollywood to North Hollywood.
Wilshire Boulevard is named for Henry Gaylord Wilshire—a millionaire who in 1895 began developing a 35-acre parcel stretching westward from Westlake Park for an elite residential subdivision. A socialist, Wilshire donated to the city a strip of land for a boulevard on the conditions that it would be named for him and ban public transit, railroad lines, commercial or industrial trucking and freight trains. A Los Angeles Times overview of the area referred to "the corridor's former glory as a haven for blue-chip corporations and fine shopping."In the early 1900s, steam-driven motorcars started sharing Wilshire Boulevard with horse-drawn carriages. At the turn of the century, Germain Pellissier raised sheep and barley between Normandie and Western Avenues. Reuben Schmidt purchased land east of Normandie for his dairy farm. In the mid-1990s, it had a reputation for "crime and grime," and many businesses had left the area, but by 2001 it had recovered; the Los Angeles Times noted that: "Another sign of the district's popularity emerged this summer with the opening of a plush, $35-million spa and golf complex called Aroma Wilshire Center just east of Western Avenue that caters to the city's affluent Korean population, many of them entrepreneurs who own businesses in the area."
Distinguished high-rise apartment buildings and hotels were erected along Wilshire Boulevard. The lavish Ambassador Hotel was built in 1921 on 23 acres of the former site of Reuben Schmidt's dairy farm. In 1929, the Academy Awards ceremony was moved from the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel to the Ambassador Hotel, it closed in 1989 and, despite efforts of historic preservationists, has been demolished. The site is owned by the Los Angeles Unified School District, which in 2010 opened the Robert F. Kennedy Community Schools and a small park on the site, it is the most expensive public school in the United States. The area nearby became the site of elegant New York-style apartment buildings such as the Asbury, the Langham, the Fox Normandie, the Picadilly, the Talmadge, the Gaylord, the Windsor. Many film stars lived in these buildings. A recent building boom has increased the supply of apartments and condominiums in the area, older office buildings have been converted into apartments and condos. Large apartment buildings have been constructed at the Metro stops at Wilshire/Western and Wilshire/Vermont.
Gloria Swanson's husband, Herbert Somborn, opened the Brown Derby Restaurant, a hat-shaped building at Wilshire and Alexandria, in 1926. The hat now sits on top of a restaurant in a mini-mall. In 1929, the elegant Art-Deco Bullocks Wilshire was built at Wilshire and Westmoreland as the city's first branch department store in the suburbs, it now houses the library of Southwestern Law School. A section of Germain Pellessier's sheep farm became the site of the Pellessier Building and Wiltern Theatre, which began construction at the corner of Wilshire and Western in 1929; the theater, operated by Warner Brothers, opened in 1931. In 1929, the Chapman Market drew motorcars to the world's first drive-through grocery store at Sixth St and Alexandria; the San Francisco-based I. Magnin opened a store in 1939 at New Hampshire. In 2001, David Y. Lee was the largest landlord in the district, owning 20 buildings comprising about 7 million square feet of space in Mid-Wilshire and three buildings in nearby Park Mile.
In 1952, on the driving range on the south side of Wilshire between Mariposa and Normandie, the first three 12-story Tishman Plaza buildings were built in 1952, designed by Claude Beelman. Insurance companies began locating their West Coast headquarters in Wilshire Center because of tax incentives provided by the State; some 22 high-rise office buildings were erected on Wilshire Boulevard from 1966 to 1976 to provide office space for such companies as Getty Oil Co. Ahmanson Financial Co. Beneficial Standard Life Insurance and Equitable Life Insurance; the Chapman Park Hotel, built in 1936, was torn down to make way for the 34-story Equitable Plaza office building erected in 1969. By 1970, firms such as CNA, Pacific Indemnity, Pierce National Life were starting construction of their own high-rise buildings. Southwestern University School of Law moved from its downtown location of 50 years to a four-story campus just south of Wilshire Boulevard on Westmoreland in 1973. In the 1970s and 1980s, commerce moved to the city's less congested Westside as well as the San Fernando Valley, businesses and afflu
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
Cleveland is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 385,525, making it the 51st-largest city in the United States, the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U. S. with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States; the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie 60 miles west of the Ohio-Pennsylvania state border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, it became a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services and biomedicals. Cleveland is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cleveland residents are called "Clevelanders".
The city has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City". Cleveland was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city, they named it "Cleaveland" after General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio; the first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes trade; the area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, via the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836. In 1836, the city located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854; the city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business. Cleveland emerged in the early 20th century as an important American manufacturing center, its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.
S. Other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker; because of its significant growth, Cleveland was known as the "Sixth City" of the US during this period. By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nation's fifth-largest city; the city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders, its industrial jobs had attracted waves of European immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as both black and white migrants from the rural South. In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937; the exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.
Following World War II, Cleveland continued to enjoy a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s; as a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed "City of Champions" in sports at this time. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population. Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra; the city's population reached its peak of 914,808, in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. By the 1960s, the economy slowed, residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following the subsidized highways. In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans worked in numerous cities to gain constitutional rights and relief from racial discrimination.
As change lagged despite federal laws to enforce rights and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland and numerous other industrial cities. In Cleveland, the Hough Riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966; the Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes. Industrial restructuring in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous
Mid-City, Los Angeles
Mid-City is a neighborhood in Central Los Angeles, California. Attractions include restaurants and a post office named for singer Ray Charles, who had his recording studio in Mid-City; the neighborhood hosts eleven private schools. The Crenshaw/LAX Line from north-south is proposed to serve this area; the City of Los Angeles Department of Transportation has posted Mid-City signage to mark the area. City installed signs are at the following intersections: Hoover Street and Washington Boulevard, Vermont Avenue and Pico Boulevard, Western Avenue and Pico Boulevard, Normandie Avenue and the Santa Monica Freeway, La Brea Avenue and the Santa Monica Freeway. Google Maps outlines an area labeled “Mid-City” that runs from Hoover Street on the East to La Cienega Boulevard & Robertson Boulevard on the West; the North is bordered by Olympic Boulevard and the Santa Monica Freeway is on the South. The Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times states as follows: Mid-City is bounded on the north by Pico Boulevard, on the east by Crenshaw Boulevard, on the south by the Santa Monica Freeway, on the southwest by Washington and National boulevards, on the west by Robertson Boulevard and on the northwest by Cadillac Avenue and La Cienega Boulevard.
It is flanked by Carthay and Mid-Wilshire to the north, Arlington Heights to the east, Culver City and West Adams to the south, Palms to the southwest, Beverlywood to the west and Pico-Robertson to the northwest. The 2000 U. S. census counted 52,197 residents in the 3.47-square-mile neighborhood—an average of 15,051 people per square mile, among the highest population densities in Los Angeles County. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 55,016; the median age for residents was 31, about average for the county. Mid-City was said to be "highly diverse" when compared to the city at large, with a diversity index of 0.637. The ethnic breakdown in 2000 was: Latinos, 45.2%. Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 35.1% of the residents who were born abroad, a figure, considered average for the city and county. The median household income in 2008 dollars was $43,711, considered average for the city; the percentage of households earning $20,000 or less was high, compared to the county at large.
The average household size of 2.8 people was just about average for Los Angeles. Renters occupied 68.9% of the housing units, home- or apartment owners the rest. The percentages of never-married men and never-married women were among the county's highest; the census found 2,748 families headed by single parents, the 23.4% rate being considered high for both the city and the county. Smaller neighborhoods within Mid-City include: Reynier Village. Rocha House, the 13th Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, is located in the village. Lafayette Square, it was designated by the city as a Los Angeles Historic Preservation Overlay Zone in 2000. Brookside Crestview Little Ethiopia Picfair Village Wellington Square Victoria Park Arlington Heights As part of their long-range plans, the Los Angeles County MTA has proposed the Metro Crenshaw/LAX Line, which would place a rail transit station in Mid-City; the proposed rail stop is at the intersection of Pico and San Vicente Boulevards—site of the old Vineyard Junction.
That same intersection was a former rail stop of the Pacific Electric Red Car lines more than 50 years ago. The Pacific Electric Red Car lines heading west from downtown Los Angeles diverged at Vineyard Junction. One line continued on to Beverly Hills; the old Vineyard Junction site is now occupied by the end terminal for the Santa Monica Big Blue Bus. The Crenshaw Light Rail Line would allow Mid-City residents to easy access to the city's east/west rail lines: the Purple Line along Wilshire Boulevard, the Expo Line from Downtown Los Angeles to Downtown Santa Monica, the Green Line from Norwalk to Redondo Beach and soon near LAX; the Mid-City alignment is unfunded, part of the Crenshaw Corridor's "Northern Feasibility Study". DASH Midtown serves the Mid-City area. Nate Holden Performing Arts Center - Located at 4718 West Washington Boulevard, the center is the home of the Ebony Repertory Theater Company; the Del Mar Theater - Located at 5036 W. Pico Boulevard, the theater's blue and yellow neon facade was re-lit in 2003 as part of the non-profit "Pico Revitalization Project".
The Comedy Union - Located at 5040 W. Pico Boulevard, The Comedy Union is a comedy club that showcases black comedians; the Mint - Located at 6010 W. Pico Boulevard, The Mint is a music club, established in 1937. Past performers include Macy Gray, The Wallflowers, Natalie Cole. Beth Chayim Chadashim - recognized by the Los Angeles Conservancy for its "cultural significance" as the world's first lesbian and gay synagogue Roscoe's House of Chicken and Waffles - Local branch of the restaurant chain. United States Post Office, Ray Charles Station - An existing post office at 4960 West Washington Boulevard was renamed in honor of singer Ray Charles in 2005. Gladys Jean Wesson Park, 2508 S W Blvd Vineyard Recreation Center, 2942 Vineyard Ave Mascot Park, Mascot Street and Pickford Street Washington Irving Pocket Park, 4103 W. Washington Blvd Mid-City has an aquatic gym in the name of Eleanor Green Roberts Aquatic Center located on 4526 W Pico Blvd Mid-city residents aged 25 and older holding a four-year degree amounted to 16.8% of the population in 2000, about average for both the city and the county.
These are the elementary or secondary schools within the neighborhood's boundaries: The Los Angeles Unified School District operates public schools: Hamilton High School, 2955 Robertson Boulevard Saturn Stre