Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is a member of the U. S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency, which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection abroad, the FBI is a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, more than 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and areas across the nation.
At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache offices and 15 sub-offices in U. S. consulates across the globe. These foreign offices exist for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not conduct unilateral operations in the host countries; the FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a limited domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of the BOI or BI for short, its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D. C. In the fiscal year 2016, the Bureau's total budget was $8.7 billion. The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state and international agencies and partners.
The FBI's top priorities are: Protect the United States from terrorist attacks Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes Combat public corruption at all levels Protect civil rights, Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises Combat major white-collar crime Combat significant violent crime Support federal, state and international partners Upgrade technology to enable, further, the successful performances of its missions as stated above In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that America was under threat from anarchists; the Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them.
The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th Century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U. S. Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would have its own staff of special agents; the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26, 1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service, to work for a new investigative agency.
Its first "Chief" was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908; the bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation; the following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation before becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. In the same year, its name was changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, FBI, he was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure.
But as detailed below, his proved to be a controversial tenure as Bureau Director in its years. After Hoover's death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years. Early homicide investigations of the new age
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
African American–Jewish relations
African Americans and Jewish Americans have interacted throughout much of the history of the United States. This relationship has included publicized cooperation and conflict, and—since the 1970s—has been an area of significant academic research. Cooperation during the Civil Rights Movement was strategic and significant, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1964; the relationship has featured conflict and controversy related to such topics as the Black Power movement, affirmative action, the role of American and Caribbean-based Jews in the Atlantic slave trade. During the colonial era, Jewish immigrants to British America were merchants from London, they settled in cities such as Providence, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Savannah, Georgia becoming part of local societies. They were slaveholders when, the local practice. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, millions of Ashkenazi Jews from Germany and Eastern Europe immigrated to the U. S. for social and economic opportunities due to the widespread pogrom in their homelands.
They settled in cities across the Northeast and Midwest where manufacturing industries were in dire need of workers, such as New York City, Chicago, Cleveland and Philadelphia. Jewish immigrants entered northeastern and midwestern cities in the same period when blacks were migrating in the hundreds of thousands from the rural South in the Great Migration. In the early 1900s, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms". Stressing the similarities rather than the differences between the Jewish and Black experience in America, Jewish leaders emphasized the idea that both groups would benefit the more America moved toward a society of merit, free of religious and racial restrictions; the American Jewish Committee, the American Jewish Congress, the Anti-Defamation League were central to the campaign against racial prejudice. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
About 50 percent of the civil rights attorneys in the South during the 1960s were Jews, as were over 50 percent of the Whites who went to Mississippi in 1964 to challenge Jim Crow Laws. Marcus Garvey was an early promoter of pan-Africanism and African redemption, led the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League, his push to celebrate Africa as the original homeland of African Americans, led many Jews to compare Garvey to leaders of Zionism. An example of this was that Garvey wanted World War I peace negotiators to turn over former German colonies in southwest Africa to blacks. In that period stressing self-determination for former colonies, Zionists were promoting a "return of Jews" after 2,000 years to the historic homeland of Israel. At the same time, Garvey criticized Jews in his columns in his newspaper Negro World, for trying to destroy the black population of America; the publicized lynching of Leo Frank, a Jew, in Georgia in 1915 by a mob of Southerners caused many Jews to "become acutely conscious of the similarities and differences between themselves and blacks."
Some had an increased sense of solidarity with blacks, as the trial exposed widespread anti-Semitism in Georgia. The trial pitted Jews against blacks because Frank's defense attorneys suggested black janitor Jim Conley was guilty of the murder of the white girl, they called him a "dirty, black, lying, nigger." Many historians since the late 20th century have concluded. In the early 20th century, Jewish daily and weekly publications reported on violence against blacks, compared the anti-black violence in the South to the pogroms endured by Jews in the Russian Empire, they were inspired by principles of justice, by a desire to change racist policies in United States. During the first few decades of the 20th century, the leaders of American Jewry expended time and their economic resources for black endeavors, supporting civil rights, social service, organizing. Historian Hasia Diner notes that "they made sure that their actions were well publicized" as part of an effort to demonstrate increasing Jewish political clout.
Julius Rosenwald was a Jewish philanthropist who donated a large part of his fortune to supporting education of blacks in the South by providing matching funds for construction of schools in rural areas. Jews played a major role in the NAACP in its early decades. Jews involved in the NAACP included Joel Elias Spingarn, Arthur B. Spingarn, founder Henry Moskowitz. More Jack Greenberg was a leader in the organization. Following the Civil War, Jewish shop-owners and landlords engaged in business with black customers and tenants filling a need where white business owners would not venture; this was true in most regions of the South, where Jews were merchants in its small cities, as well as northern urban cities such as New York, where they settled in high numbers. Jewish shop-owners tended to be more civil than other whites to black customers, treating them with more dignity. Blacks had more immediate contact with Jews than with other whites. In 1903, black historian W. E. B. Du Bois interpreted the role of Jews in the South as successors to the slave-barons: The Jew is the heir of the slave-baron in Dougherty [County, G
Walter Philip Reuther was an American leader of organized labor and civil rights activist who built the United Automobile Workers into one of the most progressive labor unions in American history. He saw labor movements not as narrow special interest groups but as instruments to advance social justice and human rights in democratic societies, he leveraged the UAW's resources and influence to advocate for workers' rights, civil rights, women's rights, universal health care, public education, affordable housing, environmental stewardship, nuclear nonproliferation, democratic trade unionism around the world. He survived two attempted assassinations, including one at home where he was struck by a 12-gauge shotgun blast fired through his kitchen window, he was the fourth president of the UAW, serving from 1946 until his untimely death in 1970. A household name during his life, Reuther's legacy is all but forgotten to history. A powerful ally of Martin Luther King, Jr. and the civil rights movement, Reuther marched with King in Selma, Birmingham and Jackson.
When King and others including children were jailed in Birmingham and King authored his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail, Reuther arranged $160,000 for the protestors' release. He helped organize and finance the March on Washington on August 28, 1963, delivering remarks from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial shortly before King gave his historic "I Have a Dream" speech on the National Mall, he served on the board of directors for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and was one of the founders of Americans for Democratic Action. An early supporter of Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers, he asked Robert F. Kennedy to visit and support Chavez. A lifetime environmentalist, Reuther played a critical role in funding and organizing the first Earth Day on April 22, 1970. According to Denis Hayes, the principal national organizer of the first Earth Day, "Without the UAW, the first Earth Day would have flopped!"As the leader of five million autoworkers including retirees and their families, Reuther was influential inside the Democratic Party.
During World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt consulted Reuther, referring to him as "my young red-headed engineer." He was considered by John F. Kennedy for Vice President in 1960, he was instrumental in spearheading the creation of the Peace Corps and in marshaling support for the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Medicare and Medicaid, the Fair Housing Act. He met weekly in 1964 and 1965 with President Lyndon B. Johnson at the White House to discuss policies and legislation for the Great Society and War on Poverty; the Republican Party was wary of Reuther, leading presidential candidate Richard Nixon to say about John F. Kennedy during the 1960 election, "I can think of nothing so detrimental to this nation than for any President to owe his election to, therefore be a captive of, a political boss like Walter Reuther." Conservative politician Barry Goldwater declared that " was more dangerous to our country than Sputnik or anything Soviet Russia might do."Reuther was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and recognized by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.
Murray Kempton, a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, wrote, "Walter Reuther was one man who could reminisce about the future." A. H. Raskin, labor editor of The New York Times, wrote, "If the speed of a man's mind could be measured in the same way as the speed of his legs, Walter Reuther would be an Olympic champion." George Romney, Governor of Michigan, once said, "Walter Reuther is the most dangerous man in Detroit because no one is more skillful in bringing about the revolution without seeming to disrupt the existing forms of society." Reuther was born on September 1907, in Wheeling, West Virginia, to Anna and Valentine Reuther. His father Valentine was a horse-drawn beer wagon driver and Socialist union organizer who at age 11 had emigrated from Germany. Walter was one of five children, oldest to youngest: Ted, Roy, Christine. Valentine would facilitate debates every Sunday for his sons, training them to think on their feet about social issues of the day such as yellow journalism, child labor, women's suffrage, civil rights.
Reuther recalled, "At my father's knee we learned the philosophy of trade unionism. We got the struggles, the hopes and the aspirations of working people every day." As a child, he and Victor accompanied their father on a visit to a jail to meet Eugene V. Debs, being incarcerated for his pacifism during World War I; the Reuthers learned not to waste. To save money, Walter's mother Anna would make underwear for her sons out of used flour sacks; when Valentine was blinded by an exploding bottle, Walter began doing odd jobs to bring in family income at the age of nine. He dropped out of high school during his junior year and worked in a local factory to help support the family, he learned firsthand about inadequate worker safety when a 400 pound die that he and three other men were lifting fell and severed his big toe. From an early age, the Reuther boys received lessons on racism. One day they saw local boys throwing rocks at Negros being transported north through their hometown in open railways cars.
Their father gave them a stern warning to never treat another human being like that. The Reuther boys never forgot that lesson, spending the rest of their lives fighting for racial and economic equality for all people. In 1927, at the age of 19, Reuther left Wheeling for Detroit and argued himself into an expert tool and die maker job at Ford Motor Company that required 25 years experience; the foreman was baffled that at h
Adam Clayton Powell Jr.
Adam Clayton Powell Jr. was a Baptist pastor and an American politician, who represented Harlem, New York City, in the United States House of Representatives. He was the first person of African-American descent to be elected from New York to Congress. In 1928 Oscar Stanton De Priest of Illinois was the first black person to be elected to Congress in the 20th century. Re-elected for nearly three decades, Powell became a powerful national politician of the Democratic Party, served as a national spokesman on civil rights and social issues, he urged United States presidents to support emerging nations in Africa and Asia as they gained independence after colonialism. In 1961, after 16 years in the House, Powell became chairman of the Education and Labor Committee, the most powerful position held by an African American in Congress; as Chairman, he supported the passage of important social and civil rights legislation under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. Following allegations of corruption, in 1967 Powell was excluded from his seat by Democratic Representatives-elect of the 90th United States Congress, but he was re-elected and regained the seat in the 1969 ruling by the Supreme Court of the United States in Powell v. McCormack.
He retired from electoral politics. Powell was born in 1908 in New Haven, the second child and only son of Adam Clayton Powell Sr. and Mattie Buster Shaffer, both born poor in Virginia and West Virginia, respectively. His sister Blanche was 10 years older, his parents were of mixed race with European ancestry. They and their ancestors were classified as mulatto in 19th-century censuses. Powell's paternal grandmother's ancestors had been free persons of color for generations before the Civil War. By 1908, Powell Sr. had become a prominent Baptist minister, serving as a pastor in Philadelphia, being called as the lead pastor at a Baptist church in New Haven. Powell Sr. had worked his way out of poverty and through Wayland Seminary, a black college, postgraduate study at Yale University and Virginia Theological Seminary. In the year of his son's birth in New Haven, Powell Sr. was called as the pastor of the prominent Abyssinian Baptist Church in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City. He led the church for decades through major expansion, including fundraising for and the construction of an addition to accommodate the increased membership of the congregation during the years of the Great Migration, as many African Americans moved north from the South.
That congregation grew to a community of 10,000 persons. Due to his father's achievements, Powell grew up in a wealthy household in New York City; because of his mixed European ancestry, Adam was born with hazel eyes, fair skin and blond hair, such that he could pass for white. However, he did not play with that racial ambiguity until college, he attended Townsend Harris High School studied at City College of New York before starting at Colgate University in upstate as a freshman. The four other African-American students at Colgate at the time were all athletes. For a time, Powell passed as white, using his appearance to escape racial strictures at college; the other black students were dismayed to discover. Encouraged by his father to become a minister, Powell became more serious about his studies at Colgate, where he earned his bachelor's degree in 1930. After returning to New York, Powell began his graduate work and in 1931 earned an M. A. in religious education from Columbia University. He became a member of Alpha Phi Alpha, a fraternity started for blacks.
Trying to bolster his black identity, Powell would say that his paternal grandparents were born into slavery. However, his paternal grandmother, Sally Dunning, was at least the third generation of free people of color in her family. In the 1860 census, she is listed as a free mulatto, as were her mother and siblings. Sally never identified the father of Adam Clayton Powell Sr. born in 1865. She appeared to have named her son after her older brother Adam Dunning, listed on the 1860 census as a farmer and the head of their household. In 1867 Sally Dunning married a mulatto freedman. All the family members were listed under the surname Dunning in the 1870 census; the family changed its surname to Powell when they moved to Kanawha County, West Virginia, as part of their new life there. According to Charles V. Hamilton, a 1991 biographer of Powell, Anthony Bush "decided to take the name Powell as a new identity", this is how they were recorded in the 1880 census. Adam Jr.'s mother Mattie Buster Shaffer was of mixed race, with African-American and German ancestry.
Her parents were freed after the American Civil War. Powell's parents married in West Virginia. Numerous freedmen had migrated there in the late 19th century for work. After ordination, Powell began assisting his father with charitable services at the church and as a preacher, he increased the volume of meals and clothing provided to the needy, began to learn more about the lives of the working class and poor in Harlem. During the Great Depression in the 1930s, Powell, a handsome and charismatic figure, became a prominent civil rights leader in Harlem, he recounted these experiences in a 1964 interview with Robert Penn Warren for the book Who Speaks for the Negro?. He developed a formidable public following in the community through his crusades for jobs and affordable housing; as chairman of the Coordinating Committee f
Johanna "Hannah" Cohn Arendt was an American philosopher and political theorist. Her many books and articles on topics ranging from totalitarianism to epistemology have had a lasting influence on political theory. Arendt is considered one of the most important political philosophers of the twentieth century. Arendt was born in Hanover, Germany but raised in Königsberg in a secular merchant Jewish culture by parents who were politically progressive, being supporters of the Social Democrats, her father died when she was seven, so she was raised by her mother and grandfather. After completing her secondary education, she studied at the University of Marburg under Martin Heidegger, with whom she had a brief affair, he had a lasting influence on her thinking, she obtained her doctorate in philosophy in 1929 at the University of Heidelberg with Karl Jaspers. Hannah Arendt married Günther Stern in 1929, but soon began to encounter increasing antisemitism in 1930s Nazi Germany. Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, while researching antisemitic propaganda for the Zionist Federation of Germany in Berlin that year, Arendt was denounced and imprisoned by the Gestapo.
On release, she fled Germany, living in Switzerland before settling in Paris. There she worked for Youth Aliyah. Divorcing Stern in 1937, she married Heinrich Blücher in 1940, but when Germany invaded France in 1940 she was detained by the French as an alien, despite having been stripped of her German citizenship in 1937, she made her way to the United States in 1941 via Portugal. She settled in New York, she became a writer and editor and worked for the Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, becoming an American citizen in 1950. With the publication of The Origins of Totalitarianism in 1951, her reputation as a thinker and writer was established and a series of seminal works followed; these included The Human Condition in 1958, Eichmann in Jerusalem and On Revolution in 1963. She taught while declining tenure-track appointments, she died of a heart attack in 1975, at the age of 69, leaving her last work, The Life of the Mind, unfinished. Her works cover a broad range of topics, but she is best known for those dealing with the nature of power and evil, as well as politics, direct democracy and totalitarianism.
In the popular mind she is best remembered for the controversy surrounding the trial of Adolf Eichmann, her attempt to explain how ordinary people become actors in totalitarian systems, considered an apologia, for the phrase "the banality of evil". She is commemorated by institutions and journals devoted to her thinking, the Hannah Arendt Prize for political thinking, on stamps, street names and schools, amongst other things. Hannah Arendt was born Johanna Cohn Arendt in 1906 into a comfortable educated secular family of German Jews in Linden, Prussia, in Wilhelmine Germany, her family were merchants of Russian extraction from the East Prussian capital. Arendt's grandparents were members of the Reform Jewish community there. Hannah's paternal grandfather, Max Arendt, was a prominent businessman, local politician, one of the leaders of the Königsberg Jewish community and a member of the Centralverein deutscher Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens. Like other members of the Centralverein he saw himself as a German and disapproved of the activities of Zionists, such as the young Kurt Blumenfeld, a frequent visitor to their home and would become one of Hannah's mentors.
Of Max Arendt's children, Paul Arendt was an engineer and Henriette Arendt was a policewoman who became a social worker. Hannah was the only child of Paul and Martha Arendt, who were married on April 11, 1902, she was named after her paternal grandmother. The Cohns had come to Königsberg from nearby Russian territory in 1852, as refugees from anti-Semitism, made their living as tea importers; the Arendts had reached Germany from Russia a century earlier. Hannah's extended family contained many more women, who shared the loss of children. Hannah's parents were better educated and politically more to the left than her grandparents, both being members of the Social Democrats, rather than the German Democratic Party that most of their contemporaries supported. Paul Arendt was educated at the Albertina. Though he worked as an engineer, he prided himself on his love of Classics, he collected a large library. Martha Cohn, a musician, had studied for three years in Paris. In the first four years of their marriage, the Arendts lived in Berlin, where they were supporters of the socialist journal Sozialistische Monatshefte.
At the time of Hannah's birth, Paul Arendt was employed by an electrical engineering firm in Linden, they lived in a frame house on the market square. The Arendt family moved back to Königsberg because of Paul's deteriorating health. Hannah's father suffered from a prolonged illness with syphilis and had to be institutionalized in the Königsberg psychiatric hospital in 1911. For years Hannah had to have annual WR tests for congenital syphilis, he died on October 1913, when Hannah was seven, leaving her mother to raise her. They lived at Hannah's grandfather's house at Tiergartenstrasse 6, a leafy residential street adjacent to the Königsberg Tiergarten, in the