Samuel A. Stouffer
Samuel Andrew Stouffer was a prominent American sociologist and developer of survey research techniques. Stouffer spent much of his career attempting to answer the fundamental question - How does one measure an attitude? Dr. Stouffer served as a professor of sociology at both the University of Chicago and Harvard University, directed the Laboratory of Social Relations at Harvard. Born in Sac City, Stouffer received a Bachelor of Arts at Morningside College, Sioux City in 1921 went on to earn a Master of Arts in English at Harvard University in 1923, he returned to Sac City in 1923 to manage and edit his father's newspaper, the Sac Sun, until 1926 when he sold it and started his doctoral studies. During that time, he married Ruth McBurney in 1924, with. Dr. Stouffer earned his PhD in sociology in 1930 at the University of Chicago, his dissertation was “An Experimental Comparison of Statistical and Case-History Methods of Attitude Research”. He served as a professor of sociology and social statistics at universities such as the University of Chicago, the University of London, the University of Wisconsin–Madison..
Stouffer and a distinguished team of social scientists working for the War Department surveyed over a half million American soldiers during World War II using interviews, over two hundred questionnaires, other techniques to determine their attitudes on everything from racial integration to their officers’ performance. Their answers always complex and also counterintuitive, reveal individuals both defining and defined by their society and their primary groups. Stouffer’s work in World War II led to the Expert and Combat Infantryman Badges, revision of pay scales, the demobilization point system, influenced what appeared in Yank, the Army Weekly, Stars & Stripes, Frank Capra’s “Why We Fight” propaganda films. Additionally, it was Stouffer and his colleagues who during their research for The American Soldier developed the important sociological concept of “relative deprivation”, which stated is the idea that one determines his status based on comparison with others; the research was published in 4 volumes: Volume I, The American Soldier: Adjustment During Army Life Volume II, The American Soldier: Combat and Its Aftermath Volume III, Experiments on Mass Communication Volume IV, Measurement and PredictionAfter Stouffer's death, the punch cards for the unclassified surveys used in The American Soldier were digitized by the Roper Center and are now available from the US National Archives.
A 2013 book by Joseph W. Ryan, Samuel Stouffer and the GI Survey: Sociologists and Soldiers during the Second World War has been recommended "for those seeking an understanding of the World War II roots of modern opinion polling, an examination of the effects the GI Survey had on wartime operations, an analysis of the place of The American Soldier in the historiography of sociology." It is an expanded version of his 2009 thesis.. In the summer of 1954, 500 interviewers under Professor Stouffer’s supervision polled a cross section of 6000 Americans to determine their attitudes on nonconformist behavior. Through both anecdotal and disciplined research data, Stouffer illuminated the attitudes of Americans to nonconformist behavior in general, to what liberals considered the intolerance of the McCarthy Era in particular. Although he found no “national neurosis”, what he did find was that Americans remained concerned about their day-to-day existence – an important discovery in the face of an mass-culture society.
He found differing levels of tolerance based on socio-economic factors. Among his other major works is Social Research. Professor Stouffer was a delegate to the International Conference on Population in Paris, 1938, President of the American Sociological Society 1952-3, President of the American Association of Public Opinion Research 1953-54, a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Association, Phi Beta Kappa, the American Statistical Association, the Sociological Research Association, the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, the Population Association of America, the Psychometric Association, the Harvard Club and Cosmos Club, he consulted with scores of private and public institutes, a partial listing of which includes: American Standards Association, Cooperative Test Service of the American Council on Education, University of California, American Economic Association, Population Association of America, Atomic Scientists of Chicago, National Committee on Atomic Information, The American Psychoanalytic Association.
Stouffer is described by his family and those who knew him well as a gentleman of warmth, restless energy, high standards, a puckish sense of humor. His academic lectures, through which he chain-smoked, were littered with allusions and quotations from Shakespeare, these would be accompanied by baseball statistics. Intellectually curious and impatient for survey results, Prof. Stouffer would sit by the IBM punched card sifting machine to see the raw answers to his queries.. In his few free hours he favored Mickey Spillane novels and listening to baseball on the radio, his correspondence reveals a clear thinking pragmatist with a deep sense of responsibility to his society and to his profess
W. I. Thomas
William Isaac Thomas was an American sociologist. With the help of Polish sociologist Florian Znaniecki, W. I. Thomas developed and influenced the use of empirical methodologies in sociological research and contributed theories to the sociology of migration. Thomas went on to formulate a fundamental principle of sociology, known as the Thomas theorem. Through his theorem, Thomas contended that, "If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences"; this microsociological concept served as a theoretical foundation for the field of symbolic interactionism, developed by Thomas's younger peers - at the University of Chicago. Thomas was born on a farm in the Elk Garden section of Russell County, Virginia on August 13, 1863, to his mother Sarah Price Thomas and his father Thaddeus Peter Thomas, a Methodist minister of Pennsylvania Dutch descent, his family moved to Knoxville, home of the University of Tennessee, when he was a boy, because his father wanted to improve the educational opportunities of his children.
Beginning in 1880, Thomas studied literature and classics at the University of Tennessee, where he obtained a B. A. became Adjunct Professor in English and Modern Languages. While at Knoxville, Thomas taught courses in Greek, French and Natural history. At the same time, he developed an interest in ethnology and social science after reading Herbert Spencer's Principles of Sociology. In 1888, Thomas married the first of Harriet Park. From 1888-1889, he attended the German universities of Berlin and Göttingen to pursue studies of classic and modern languages. During his time in Germany, he furthered his interest in ethnology and sociology under the influence of German scholars such as Wilhelm Wundt. Upon his return to the United States in 1889, Thomas taught at Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio from 1889 to 1895 as a professor of English and sociology. In 1894, Thomas was invited to teach a class in sociology at the University of Chicago, whose preeminent sociology department is seen as the founding location of the discipline in the United States.
The next year, he relocated to the University of Chicago permanently in order to pursue graduate studies in sociology and anthropology in the university's new department of sociology, where he finished his Ph. D. thesis, On a Difference in the Metabolism of the Sexes, in 1896. After the completion of this work, he returned to Europe to conduct field studies in various ethnic and cultural problems in preparation for the writing of a comparative work on European nationalities that he never completed. For nearly the next 25 years, Thomas taught sociology and anthropology at the University of Chicago, becoming instructor in 1895, assistant professor in 1896, associate professor in 1900, professor in 1910. From 1895 until 1917, he co-edited the American Journal of Sociology. 1907 saw the publication of Thomas's first major work and Society. Despite a biological bias that would nowadays be considered sexist by many, the book was progressive for its time. In "Sex and Society", Thomas speculated that women's intellect might be superior to men's "due to their superior cunning" and "superior endurance".
For the next decade Thomas conducted research and began collaborating with Florian Znaniecki in 1913 to write The Polish Peasant in Europe and America. This work utilized an empirical methodological framework, groundbreaking at the time and introduced the ideas of Social Organization/Disorganization. In 1918, Thomas was arrested and mired in scandal due to his relationship with the wife of a U. S. army officer. Though charges under the Mann Act were dropped, Thomas's moral and academic reputation was permanently damaged and he was dismissed by the University of Chicago before his trial reached a verdict. Thomas went on to lecture at the New School for Social Research in New York City where he was able to make connections with a younger generation of sociologists who would help Thomas restore his reputation. 1923 saw Thomas release his first work under his own name since his scandal. The Unadjusted Girl examines female delinquency in terms of transactional and casual sex, through the lens of socialization and how young women are imbued by society to conceive of sex and how this affects their behaviors and outcomes.
Thomas conceives of this socialization as a "definition of one's situation" and is his earliest known application of the Thomas theorem. In 1927, Thomas was elected president of the American Sociological Society, he belonged to a group referred to as the earlier psychological school of sociologists along with Franklin Henry Giddings, E. A. Ross, Charles Cooley, Ellsworth Faris. Thomas never did use it as lecture material. In 1928, Thomas co-authored The Child in America alongside research assistant Dorothy Swaine Thomas; this work explores how communal expectations of adjustment or maladjustment of children informs behavior problems in children and how the definition of these children's situations affects how they conceive their own maturation and behavior. This work marks the first use of the Thomas theorem verbatim. In 1935, after his divorce from Harriet Park, Thomas married Dorothy Swaine Thomas, 36 years his junior. In 1936, Pitirim A. Sorokin, chairman of the sociology department at Harvard University, invited Thomas to become a visiting lecturer.
Thomas accepted the invitation and remained in Harvard until 1937. After leaving Harvard, Thomas withdrew into retirement. Thomas spent his time in New York City
Willingboro Township, New Jersey
Willingboro Township is a township in Burlington County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 31,629 reflecting a decline of 1,379 from the 33,008 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 3,283 from the 36,291 counted in the 1990 Census. Abraham Levitt and Sons purchased and developed Willingboro land in the 1950s and 1960s as a planned community in their Levittown model. With residential development, the 1950 population of 852 climbed to 11,861 in 1960; the community used the name "Levittown, New Jersey" in 1958, "Levittown Township" from 1959 to 1963. Willingboro was one of the original nine divisions in the organization of Burlington County within West Jersey, was formed as the "Constabulary of Wellingborrow" on November 6, 1688. At the time, it included present day New Jersey; the original name of Wellingborough was after the community in England, the hometown of Thomas Ollive, who led the original settlers into what would become Willingboro Township.
Other spellings were used at different times. After the establishment of the United States and the State of New Jersey, the community was formally incorporated as "Willingborough Township", one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships, on February 21, 1798, by the New Jersey Legislature when it enacted "An Act incorporating the Inhabitants of Townships, designating their Powers, regulating their Meetings", P. L. 1798, p. 289. This makes Willingboro one of the oldest townships in the State. Portions of the township were taken to form Beverly borough and Beverly Township. In the 1950s and 1960s, Willingboro was the location for a massive residential development by Levitt & Sons; the town was to be Levitt & Sons' third and largest Levittown development, following similar projects in New York and Pennsylvania. Levitt acquired the great majority of the land in Willingboro; the first Levittown homes were sold in June 1958, at which time the community was known as Levittown, New Jersey. The town's name was changed from the original Willingboro to "Levittown Township" by a referendum of township residents held on November 3, 1959.
Willingboro was less than 12 miles from Levittown and this caused confusion. A referendum held on the issue on November 5, 1963, changed the name back to Willingboro; the name change was passed by a narrow margin of 3,123 to 3,003. In retaliation, Levitt refused to donate any more schools to the fast-growing community; when homes for the new Levittown were first being sold in 1958, Levitt and Sons had a policy against sales to African Americans. W. R. James, an African-American officer in the Army's Criminal Investigation Division, was stationed at nearby Fort Dix and applied to purchase a Levittown home. On June 29, 1958, an agent of Levitt and Sons told him that the new Levittown development would be an all-white community. James filed suit against the company challenging their policy. A friend of his, who worked at the New Jersey Division of Civil Rights, said that it was illegal in New Jersey to discriminate in federally-subsidized housing. At the time, de facto racial segregation in housing existed in many areas in the United States.
Levittown was receiving mortgage insurance from the Federal Housing Administration. But as of 1958, the law had not been tested. James sued Levitt in a case that went to the New Jersey Supreme Court, which upheld lower court rulings in favor of James. James was not the first African American to move into Willingboro. Given James' success in his suit and Vera Williams purchased a house and moved into the community in 1960, the first African-American family in Willingboro. James moved into Millbrook Park in 1960, he served as head of the local chapter of the NAACP and became a minister. An elementary school in Willingboro was named in his honor. Following the court case, Levitt developed a thorough integration program; the company set up an integration committee headed by an African American. Lett created a five-point program, which included the announcement by community leaders of Levitt's plan to desegregate housing, a thorough briefing program for Levitt employees, government officials, the police and the press.
Lett recommended an attempt to discourage anti-integration activities known as "Operation Hothead". Lett created a Human Relations Council to oversee possible disputes in community. James served as a member of that committee; the committee tried to solve problems of juvenile delinquency in the township. It opposed; the curfew was dropped, but reintroduced later. One area that the committee oversaw was the practice of blockbusting; the African-American population of Willingboro increased throughout the 1960s. By 1970, African Americans represented about 11% of the population. During the early 1970s, several homeowners said they were approached by local real estate agents and told that their neighborhood was becoming African-American and home values could decline if they did not sell quickly. While the Human Relations Council could not prove these claims, it made recommendations to help foster better relations between ethnic communities in the township and calm concerns; the township in 1974 enacted an ordinance that prohibited the posting of
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
High culture encompasses the cultural objects of aesthetic value, which a society collectively esteem as exemplary art. It may include intellectual works considered to be of supreme philosophical, historical, or literary value, as well as the education which cultivates such aesthetic and intellectual pursuits. In popular usage, the term high culture identifies the culture of an upper class or of a status class. Sociologically, the term high culture is contrasted with the term low culture, the forms of popular culture characteristic of the less-educated social classes, such as the barbarians, the Philistines, hoi polloi. In European history, high culture was understood as a cultural concept common to the humanities, until the mid-19th century, when Matthew Arnold introduced the term high culture in the book Culture and Anarchy; the Preface defines culture as "the disinterested endeavour after man’s perfection" pursued and achieved by effort to "know the best, said and thought in the world". Such a literary definition of high culture includes philosophy.
Moreover, the philosophy of aesthetics proposed in high culture is a force for moral and political good. Critically, the term "high culture" is contrasted with the terms "popular culture" and "mass culture". In Notes Towards the Definition of Culture, T. S. Eliot said that high culture and popular culture are necessary and complementary parts of the culture of a society. In The Uses of Literacy, Richard Hoggart presents the sociologic experience of the working-class man and woman in acquiring the cultural literacy, at university, which facilitates social upward mobility. In the U. S. Harold Bloom and F. R. Leavis pursued the definition of high culture, by way of the Western canon of literature. Media theorist Steven Johnson writes that, unlike popular culture, "the classics—and soon to be classics—are" in their own right descriptions and explanations of the cultural systems that produced them." He says that "a crucial way in which mass culture differs from high art" is that individual works of mass culture are less interesting than the broader cultural trends which produced them.
History of high culture in the West The high culture of the West originated in the classical-world traditions of intellectual and aesthetic life in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. In the classical Greco-Roman tradition, the ideal mode of language was published and preserved in works of elevated style. Certain forms of language used by authors in valorized epochs were held up in antiquity and the Renaissance as eternal valid models and normative standards of excellence; this form of education was known to the Greeks as παιδεία, translated by the Romans into Latin as humanitas since it reflected a form of education aiming at the refinement of human nature, rather than the acquisition of technical or vocational skills. Indeed, the Greco-Roman world tended to see such manual and technical labor as subordinate to purely intellectual activities. From the idea of the "free" man with sufficient leisure to pursue such intellectual and aesthetic refinement, arose the classical distinction between the "liberal" arts which are intellectual and done for their own sake, as against the "servile"or "mechanical" arts which were associated with manual labor and done to earn a living.
This implied an association between high culture and the upper classes whose inherited wealth provided such time for intellectual cultivation. The leisured gentleman not weighed down by the necessity of earning a living, was free to devote himself to activities proper to such a "free man" – those deemed to involve true excellence and nobility as opposed to mere utility. During the Renaissance, the classical intellectual values of the rediscovered Græco–Roman culture were the cultural capital of the upper classes, aimed at the complete development of human intellectual and moral faculties; this ideal associated with humanism, was communicated in Renaissance Italy through institutions such as the Renaissance court schools. Renaissance humanism soon spread through Europe becoming much of the basis of upper class education for centuries. For the ambitious man and woman who means to rise in society, The Book of the Courtier, by Baldasare Castiglione, instructs the reader to acquire and possess knowledge of the Græco–Roman Classics, being education integral to the social-persona of the aristocrat.
A key contribution of the Renaissance was the elevation of painting and sculpture to a status equal to the liberal arts The early Renaissance treatises of Leon Battista Alberti were instrumental in this regard. The evolution of the concept of high culture was defined in educational terms as critical study and knowledge of the Græco–Roman arts and humanities which furnished much of the foundation for European cultures and societies. However, aristocratic patronage through most of the modern era was pivotal to the support and creation of new works of high culture across the range of arts and literature; the subseque
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933. Between 2008 and 2012, Newsweek experienced financial difficulties, leading to the cessation of print publication and a transition to all-digital format at the end of 2012; the print edition was relaunched in March 2014. Revenue declines prompted an August 2010 sale by owner The Washington Post Company to audio pioneer Sidney Harman—for a purchase price of one dollar and an assumption of the magazine's liabilities; that year, Newsweek merged with the news and opinion website The Daily Beast, forming The Newsweek Daily Beast Company. Newsweek was jointly owned by the estate of Harman and the diversified American media and Internet company IAC. In 2013, IBT Media announced it had acquired Newsweek from IAC. IBT Media rebranded itself as Newsweek Media Group in 2017, but returned to IBT Media in 2018 after making Newsweek independent. News-Week was launched in 1933 by Thomas J. C. Martyn, a former foreign-news editor for Time, he obtained financial backing from a group of U.
S. stockholders "which included Ward Cheney, of the Cheney silk family, John Hay Whitney, Paul Mellon, son of Andrew W. Mellon". Paul Mellon's ownership in Newsweek represented "the first attempt of the Mellon family to function journalistically on a national scale." The group of original owners invested around $2.5 million. Other large stockholders prior to 1946 were public utilities investment banker Stanley Childs and Wall Street corporate lawyer Wilton Lloyd-Smith. Journalist Samuel T. Williamson served as the first editor-in-chief of Newsweek; the first issue of the magazine was dated February 17, 1933. Seven photographs from the week's news were printed on the first issue's cover. In 1937 News-Week merged with the weekly journal Today, founded in 1932 by future New York Governor and diplomat W. Averell Harriman, Vincent Astor of the prominent Astor family; as a result of the deal and Astor provided $600,000 in venture capital funds and Vincent Astor became both the chairman of the board and its principal stockholder between 1937 and his death in 1959.
In 1937 Malcolm Muir took over as editor-in-chief. He changed the name to Newsweek, emphasized interpretive stories, introduced signed columns, launched international editions. Over time the magazine developed a broad spectrum of material, from breaking stories and analysis to reviews and commentary; the magazine was purchased by The Washington Post Company in 1961. Osborn Elliott was named editor of Newsweek in 1961 and became the editor in chief in 1969. In 1970, Eleanor Holmes Norton represented sixty female employees of Newsweek who had filed a claim with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that Newsweek had a policy of only allowing men to be reporters; the women won, Newsweek agreed to allow women to be reporters. The day the claim was filed, Newsweek's cover article was "Women in Revolt", covering the feminist movement. Edward Kosner became editor from 1975 to 1979 after directing the magazine's extensive coverage of the Watergate scandal that led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974.
Richard M. Smith became chairman in 1998, the year that the magazine inaugurated its "Best High Schools in America" list, a ranking of public secondary schools based on the Challenge Index, which measures the ratio of Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate exams taken by students to the number of graduating students that year, regardless of the scores earned by students or the difficulty in graduating. Schools with average SAT scores above 1300 or average ACT scores above 27 are excluded from the list. In 2008, there were 17 Public Elites. Smith resigned as board chairman in December 2007. During 2008–2009, Newsweek undertook a dramatic business restructuring. Citing difficulties in competing with online news sources to provide unique news in a weekly publication, the magazine refocused its content on opinion and commentary beginning with its May 24, 2009, issue, it shrank its subscriber rate base, from 3.1 million to 2.6 million in early 2008, to 1.9 million in July 2009 and to 1.5 million in January 2010—a decline of 50% in one year.
Meacham described his strategy as "counterintuitive" as it involved discouraging renewals and nearly doubling subscription prices as it sought a more affluent subscriber base for its advertisers. During this period, the magazine laid off staff. While advertising revenues were down 50% compared to the prior year, expenses were diminished, whereby the publishers hoped Newsweek would return to profitability; the financial results for 2009 as reported by The Washington Post Company showed that advertising revenue for Newsweek was down 37% in 2009 and the magazine division reported an operating loss for 2009 of $29.3 million compared to a loss of $16 million in 2008. During the first quarter of 2010, the magazine lost nearly $11 million. By May 2010, Newsweek was put up for sale; the sale attracted international bidders. One bidder was Syrian entrepreneur Abdulsalam Haykal, CEO of Syrian publishing company Haykal Media, who brought together a coalition of Middle Eastern investors with his company.
Haykal claimed his bid was ignored by Newsweek's bankers, Allen & Co. The magazine was sold to audio pioneer Sidney Harman on August 2, 2010, for $1 in exchange for assuming the magazine's financial liabilities. Harman's bid was accepted over three competitors. Meacham left the magazine upon completion of the sale. Sidney Harman was the
American Sociological Association
The American Sociological Association, founded in 1905 as the American Sociological Society, is a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the discipline and profession of sociology. Most members work in academia, but about 20 percent work in government, business, or non-profit organizations; the ASA holds its own annual academic conference, the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting. The 103rd ASA Annual Meeting in Boston in August 2008 attracted 5,458 attendees. ASA publishes several academic journals; the best known is the American Sociological Review and the newest one is Contexts, a magazine designed to share sociology with other fields and the public. In 2010, ASA's membership went beyond 14,000 and consists of various sociology-related professionals: academics as well as other practitioners. ASA is the largest professional association of sociologists in the world larger than the International Sociological Association; the mission of the ASA is to advance sociology as a scientific discipline and as a profession serving the public good.
The American Sociological Association was founded in December 1905 at Johns Hopkins University by a group of fifty people. The first president of the association was Lester Frank Ward; the American Sociological Association is governed by a code of ethical standards. In 1970, the first ASA code of ethics was written. Since 1970, the code of ethics has been revised; the Committee on Professional Ethics worked to write this code and upon completing and approving it in 1997, the code focused on three goals. These three goals were to make the code more educative, easier to use, more helpful for sociologists to understand ethical issues. In 1993, then-doctoral student Rik Scarce was jailed for more than five months as a result of following the ASA's code of ethics. Scarce's Ph. D. research was on the radical environmental movement. Based on an FBI investigation of an Animal Liberation Front break-in, federal prosecutors argued in court that Scarce may have engaged in conversations with individuals believed to be involved with the incident.
Prosecutors demanded that Scarce testify to a federal grand jury about those conversations, but Scarce refused to answer three dozen questions, citing the ASA Code of Ethics and the First Amendment as his reasoning for remaining unresponsive. Scarce's refusal to answer resulted in a contempt of court citation and 159 days spent in jail, he was never suspected of wrongdoing and—in keeping with contempt of court practice—he was never read his Miranda rights, arrested, or tried. In early 2010, ASA publicly expressed outrage over a controversy involving Frances Fox Piven and Glenn Beck, asking Fox News to stop Beck's comments. An article written by Piven concerning mobilization of unemployed individuals had spurred the commentary by Beck. ASA suggests in their public statements that the line should be drawn at name calling and that political commentators should instead rely on gathering evidence related to the topics and drawing the proper conclusions. In January 2012, a United States district court ordered Boston College to turn over material from the "Belfast Project", an oral history project pertaining to the violence in Northern Ireland.
Boston College filed an appeal in February 2012. ASA became involved in the case to help protect human participants from the subpoena of confidential project research data; the statement by the ASA council cited the potential damage this ruling would have on social science research by stifling the ability to study controversial topics. ASA is looking for an affirmation by the court for confidentiality in research. ASA style is a accepted format for writing university research papers that specifies the arrangement and punctuation of footnotes and bibliographies. Standards for ASA style are specified in the ASA Style Guide, designed to aid authors in preparing manuscripts for ASA journals and publications; the association publishes the following academic journals: It publishes Footnotes, a newsletter aimed at the association's members. Footnotes is published five times per year. Officers of the association are: President President-Elect Vice-President Vice-President-Elect Secretary Council-Members-At Large The following persons have been president of the American Sociological Association: The following persons have been president of the American Sociological Association: Rose Laub Coser 1986 There are five different types of membership categories: Regular membership Student members Associate members International associate members Emeritus membersASA Members may join special interest sections at an additional cost to their membership.
The association comprises the following specialist sections: The Annual Meeting of the ASA is held each August to provide opportunity for professionals involved in the study of society to share knowledge and new directions in research and practice. It provides networking outlets for 4,600 presenters; the meeting covers 600 program sessions. All ASA Committees and Task Forces meet during the annual meeting; the ASA Council and several Constitutional Committees meet mid-year during the winter months in Washington D. C. Regional Associations associated with the ASA are: District of Columbia Sociological Society Eastern Sociological Society Mid-South Sociological Association Mid-West Sociological Society New England Sociological Association North Central Sociological Association Pacific Sociological Association Southern Sociological Society Southwestern Sociological AssociationThe ASA is aligned with various state-based associations, international associations, cause-oriented associations, a