The Australian pound was the currency of Australia from 1910 until 14 February 1966, when it was replaced by the Australian dollar. As with other £ sd currencies, it was subdivided into each of 12 pence; the first European settlement of Australia took place on 26 January 1788 at Port Jackson. The colony of New South Wales survived its first years and was neglected for much of the following quarter-century while the British government was preoccupied until 1815 with the Napoleonic Wars. One important British oversight during this period was the provision of adequate coinage for the new colony and, because of the shortage of any sort of money, the real means of exchange during the first 25 years of settlement was rum, the access to, controlled by the officers of the New South Wales Corps, who benefited most from access to land and imported goods. Though it did not solve the problem arising from the lack of coins, but in an attempt to put some order into the economy, in 1800, Governor Philip Gidley King issued a proclamation setting the value of a variety of foreign coins in the colony.
During this period, to protect the lucrative access to the imported rum, as well as other grievances, the officers, who came to be known as the "Rum Corps", deposed the governor in a standoff in 1808, referred to as the "Rum Rebellion". The New South Wales Corps was recalled soon after. Otherwise, the shortage of coinage persisted; the first coinage issued by the colony took place in 1813, was effected by punching the middle out of Spanish dollars. This process created two parts: a small coin, called the dump, a ring, called a holey dollar. One holey dollar was worth five shillings, one dump was worth one shilling and three pence; this was done in order to keep the coins in New South Wales. From 1817, when the first bank, the Bank of New South Wales, was established, private banks issued paper money denominated in pounds. Acceptance of private bank notes was not made compulsory by legal tender laws but they were used and accepted. In 1825, an Imperial order-in-council was issued with the purpose of introducing sterling coinage to all the British colonies.
This was due to the introduction of the gold standard in the UK in 1816, a decline in the supply of Spanish dollars, due to the revolutions taking place in Spanish South American colonies. Most of the dollars used had been minted in Lima, Mexico City, Potosí, which had become part of new Latin American republics, independent from Spain. In 1852, the Government Assay Office in Adelaide issued gold pound coins; these weighed more than sovereigns. From 1855, the Sydney mint issued half sovereigns and sovereigns, with the Melbourne mint beginning production in 1872. Many of the sovereigns minted in Australia were for use in India as part of a plan that the gold sovereign should become the imperial coin; as it turned out, India was too entrenched in the Rupee system, the gold sovereigns obtained by the treasury in India never left the vaults. Thus, in the lead-up to Federation, the currency used in the Australian colonies consisted of British silver and copper coins, Australian minted gold sovereigns and half sovereigns, locally minted copper trade tokens and private bank notes.
In addition, the Queensland government issued treasury notes and banknotes which were legal tender in Queensland. After Federation in 1901, the Australian government assumed power over currency matters and began overprinting the private issues that were in circulation, in preparation for the issue of a domestic currency. In 1910 the federal government passed the "Australian Notes Act" which prohibited the circulation of State notes and gave control over the issue of Australian notes to the Commonwealth Treasury. Passed in that year was the "Bank Notes Tax Act" which imposed a tax of 10% per annum on "all bank notes issued or re-issued by any bank in the Commonwealth after the commencement of this Act, not redeemed". In September 1910, the Labor Government of Prime Minister Andrew Fisher introduced a national currency, the Australian pound, with the passing of the Australian Notes Act 1910; the Act gave control over the issue of Australian notes to the Commonwealth Treasury and prohibited the circulation of state notes and withdrew their status as legal tender.
For the next three years, some of the earlier private banknotes were overprinted by the Treasury as a temporary measure and circulated as Australian banknotes until new designs were ready for Australia's first federal government-issued banknotes, which commenced in 1913. Blank note forms of 16 banks were supplied to the Australian Government in 1911 to be overprinted as redeemable in gold and issued as the first Commonwealth notes; the Commonwealth Bank Act 1920 gave note issuing authority to the Commonwealth Bank. In 1960, responsibility for note printing passed to the Reserve Bank of Australia; the new national currency was called the Australian pound, consisting of 20 shillings, each consisting of 12 pence. Monetary policy ensured; as such Australia was on the gold standard so long as Britain was. In 1914, the pound sterling was removed from the gold standard; when it was returned to the gold standard in 1925, the sudden increase in its value unleashed crushing deflationary pressures. Both the initial 1914 inflation and the subsequent 1926 deflation had far-reaching economic effect
Clapboard or clabbard called bevel siding, lap siding, weatherboard, with regional variation in the definition of these terms, is wooden siding of a building in the form of horizontal boards overlapping. Clapboard in modern American usage is a word for long, thin boards used to cover walls and roofs of buildings, it has been called clawboard and cloboard. In Australia and New Zealand, the term weatherboard is always used. An older meaning of clapboard is small, split pieces of oak imported from Germany for use as barrel staves, the name is a partial translation of Middle Dutch klapholt and related to German Klappholz. Clapboards were riven radially producing triangular or "feather-edged" sections, attached thin side up and overlapped thick over thin to shed water; the boards were radially sawn in a type of sawmill called a clapboard mill, producing vertical-grain clapboards. The more used boards in New England are vertical-grain boards. Depending on the diameter of the log, cuts are made from 4½" to 6½" deep along the full length of the log.
Each time the log turns for the next cut, it is rotated ⅝" until it has turned 360°. This gives the radially sawn clapboard its true vertical grain. Flat-grain clapboards are cut tangent to the annual growth rings of the tree; as this technique was common in most parts of the British Isles, it was carried by immigrants to their colonies in the Americas and in Australia and New Zealand. Flat-sawn wood does not hold paint as well as radially sawn wood. Chamferboards are an Australian form of weatherboarding using tongue-and-groove joints to link the boards together to give a flatter external appearance than regular angled weatherboards; some modern clapboards are made up of shorter pieces of wood finger jointed together with an adhesive. In North America clapboards were made of split oak and spruce. Modern clapboards are available in red pine. In some areas, clapboards were traditionally left as raw wood, relying upon good air circulation and the use of'semi-hardwoods' to keep the boards from rotting.
These boards go grey as the tannins are washed out from the wood. More clapboard has been tarred or painted—traditionally black or white due to locally occurring minerals or pigments. In modern clapboard these colors remain popular, but with a hugely wider variety due to chemical pigments and stains. Clapboard houses may be found in most parts of the British Isles, the style may be part of all types of traditional building, from cottages to windmills, shops to workshops, as well as many others. In New Zealand, clapboard housing dominates buildings before 1960. Clapboard, with a corrugated iron roof, was found to be a cost-effective building style. After the big earthquakes of 1855 and 1931, wooden buildings were perceived as being less vulnerable to damage. Clapboard is always referred to as'weatherboard' in New Zealand. Newer, cheaper designs imitate the form of clapboard construction as "siding" made of vinyl, fiber cement, or other man-made materials. Clinker Shiplap Siding § Wood siding Tongue and groove Research report containing photos of a clapboard roof in Virginia, U.
Brisbane School of Arts
Brisbane School of Arts is a heritage-listed school of arts at 166 Ann Street, Brisbane City, City of Brisbane, Australia. It was built from 1865 to 1985, it is known as former Servants Home. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992; this building was erected in 1865-66. Known as the Servants Home, it provided accommodation for single adult females who had migrated to Queensland and were awaiting employment as domestic servants. Designed by H Edwin Bridges, the building comprised two upper galleries. All four elevations were identical. A notable feature of the interior was the lantern above the void in the two upper floors which provided natural lighting to the building. A 6,000 imperial gallon tank under the roof service the building with water; the contractors were Forster. In 1873 the property was purchased by the trustees of the North Brisbane School of Arts for £1,000; the building was let to tenants for several years. In 1877 contractor Blair Cunningham added verandahs and other modifications designed by Richard Gailey for a cost of £1,377.
The new School of Arts building was opened on 17 May 1878. The North Brisbane School of Arts was established in 1849 and its first premises were located on the corner Queen and Creek Streets. During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, it played an important role in the cultural life of the community; the School of Arts provided a library for members, conducted public lectures, organised classes in a wide variety of subjects. To meet the needs for technical education classes, a hall was added to the rear in 1884; this space was used for the Brisbane Technical College which operated under the auspices of the School of Arts until 1902 when the Queensland Government took responsibility for technical education. The lending library was a major activity of the School of Arts. In 1908, to make room for an increase in the number of books, an extension, designed by Messrs Atkinson and McLay, was built beside the hall. Membership of the School of Arts declined during the 1920s and 1930s. To increase revenue, shops were built in front of the building in 1937.
In 1955 a brick upper storey was added to the shops with connections to the School of Arts building. The verandahs were removed at this time. In 1966 trusteeship of the property was transferred to the Brisbane City Council which continued to operate a public library at the site until 1981. In 1983 the front offices and shops were demolished and restoration work undertaken; the building was re-opened on 13 February 1985 and is let to various community groups. The School of Arts building is a two-storey masonry building; the lower level is of coursed rubble masonry with red brick quoins and string courses. The upper two levels of the building are brick, with the arched headed openings symmetrically arranged; the rolled iron hipped. The entry stairs and front and side verandahs contain timber balustrades of diagonal crossed pieces and circular brackets below the eaves; the verandah roof drops in a shallow curve from below the eaves brackets of the main roof to its gutter line. The double height lecture hall and three classrooms have face brick with timber floors, roof trusses, corrugated galvanised iron roof.
The library extension is constructed in a similar manner and consists of a double height room with a lantern roof light. The building was restored in 1984-1985. Few interior fittings and furnishings remain, but the organisation of the internal space is intact. Rooms on the ground floor are used for exhibitions while the first floor contains offices and a craft gallery. Original roof strutting is visible in the uppermost floor of the 1860s section and staircases and fireplaces have been retained; the tiered seating and balconies in the first floor of the lecture hall remain. Brisbane School of Arts was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992 having satisfied the following criteria; the place is important in demonstrating the pattern of Queensland's history. The School of Arts is significant for its association with the North Brisbane School of Arts which played a prominent role in the cultural life of Brisbane during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; the place demonstrates uncommon or endangered aspects of Queensland's cultural heritage.
The building remains as a rare surviving example of an inner-city masonry building of the 1860s. The place has a special association with the life or work of a particular person, group or organisation of importance in Queensland's history; the School of Arts is significant for the successful integration of the extensions under various architects the verandahs designed by Richard Gailey. This Wikipedia article was based on "The Queensland heritage register" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. The geo-coordinates were computed from the "Queensland heritage register boundaries" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. Media related to Brisbane School of Arts at Wikimedia Commons Brisbane School of Arts building 1879 Queensland's first chemist: John Henry Pepper To Sir with Love "Exhibition poster background
Shire of Herberton
The Shire of Herberton was a local government area of Queensland. It was located on the Atherton Tableland, a plateau forming part of the Great Dividing Range west of the city of Cairns; the shire, administered from the town of Herberton, covered an area of 9,607.0 square kilometres, existed as a local government entity from 1895 until 2008, when it amalgamated with several other councils in the Tableland area to become the Tablelands Region. Tinaroo Division was created on 3 September 1881 under the Divisional Boards Act 1879, was responsible for a large area which included Herberton. On 15 September 1888, the Borough of Herberton was established to manage the affairs of the town of Herberton. On 11 May 1895, the borough was abolished and the entire Herberton region separated from Tinaroo to become the Herberton Division. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, Herberton Division became the Shire of Herberton on 31 March 1903. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the Shire of Herberton merged with the Shires of Atherton and Mareeba to form the Tablelands Region.
The Shire of Herberton included the following settlements: Herberton Evelyn Innot Hot Springs Kalunga Millstream Moomin Mount Garnet Ravenshoe Tumoulin Wairuna Wondecla 1908: Charles Harding 1927: F. A. Grigg
Geology is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, the processes by which they change over time. Geology can include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science. Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, the processes that have shaped that structure, it provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, the Earth's past climates. Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, numerical modelling.
In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, providing insights into past climate change. Geology is a major academic discipline, it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering; the majority of geological data comes from research on solid Earth materials. These fall into one of two categories: rock and unlithified material; the majority of research in geology is associated with the study of rock, as rock provides the primary record of the majority of the geologic history of the Earth. There are three major types of rock: igneous and metamorphic; the rock cycle illustrates the relationships among them. When a rock solidifies or crystallizes from melt, it is an igneous rock; this rock can be weathered and eroded redeposited and lithified into a sedimentary rock. It can be turned into a metamorphic rock by heat and pressure that change its mineral content, resulting in a characteristic fabric.
All three types may melt again, when this happens, new magma is formed, from which an igneous rock may once more solidify. To study all three types of rock, geologists evaluate the minerals; each mineral has distinct physical properties, there are many tests to determine each of them. The specimens can be tested for: Luster: Measurement of the amount of light reflected from the surface. Luster is broken into nonmetallic. Color: Minerals are grouped by their color. Diagnostic but impurities can change a mineral’s color. Streak: Performed by scratching the sample on a porcelain plate; the color of the streak can help name the mineral. Hardness: The resistance of a mineral to scratch. Breakage pattern: A mineral can either show fracture or cleavage, the former being breakage of uneven surfaces and the latter a breakage along spaced parallel planes. Specific gravity: the weight of a specific volume of a mineral. Effervescence: Involves dripping hydrochloric acid on the mineral to test for fizzing. Magnetism: Involves using a magnet to test for magnetism.
Taste: Minerals can have a distinctive taste, like halite. Smell: Minerals can have a distinctive odor. For example, sulfur smells like rotten eggs. Geologists study unlithified materials, which come from more recent deposits; these materials are superficial deposits. This study is known as Quaternary geology, after the Quaternary period of geologic history. However, unlithified material does not only include sediments. Magmas and lavas are the original unlithified source of all igneous rocks; the active flow of molten rock is studied in volcanology, igneous petrology aims to determine the history of igneous rocks from their final crystallization to their original molten source. In the 1960s, it was discovered that the Earth's lithosphere, which includes the crust and rigid uppermost portion of the upper mantle, is separated into tectonic plates that move across the plastically deforming, upper mantle, called the asthenosphere; this theory is supported by several types of observations, including seafloor spreading and the global distribution of mountain terrain and seismicity.
There is an intimate coupling between the movement of the plates on the surface and the convection of the mantle. Thus, oceanic plates and the adjoining mantle convection currents always move in the same direction – because the oceanic lithosphere is the rigid upper thermal boundary layer of the convecting mantle; this coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the convecting mantle is called plate tectonics. The development of plate tectonics has provided a physical basis for many observations of the solid Earth. Long linear regions of geologic features are explained as plate boundaries. For example: Mid-ocean ridges, high regions on the seafloor where hydrothermal vents and volcanoes exist, are seen as divergent boundaries, where two plates move apart. Arcs of volcanoes and earthquakes are theorized as convergent boundaries, where one plate subducts, or moves, under another. Transform boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault system, resulted in widespread powerful earthquakes.
Plate tectonics has provided a mechan
A gable is the triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches. The shape of the gable and how it is detailed depends on the structural system used, which reflects climate, material availability, aesthetic concerns. A gable wall or gable end more refers to the entire wall, including the gable and the wall below it. A parapet made of a series of curves or horizontal steps may hide the diagonal lines of the roof. Gable ends of more recent buildings are treated in the same way as the Classic pediment form, but unlike Classical structures, which operate through trabeation, the gable ends of many buildings are bearing-wall structures. Thus, the detailing can be misleading. Gable style is used in the design of fabric structures, with varying degree sloped roofs, dependent on how much snowfall is expected. Sharp gable roofs are a characteristic of the classical Greek styles of architecture; the opposite or inverted form of a gable roof is a butterfly roof. While a front-gabled building faces the street with its gable, a side-gabled building faces it with its cullis, meaning the ridge is parallel to the street.
The terms are used in city planning to determine a building in its urban situation. Front-gabled buildings are considered typical for German city streets in the medieval gothic period, while Renaissance buildings, influenced by Italian architecture are side-gabled. In America, front-gabled houses, such as the gablefront house, were popular between the early 19th century and 1920. A wimperg, in German and Dutch, is a Gothic ornamental gable with tracery over windows or portals, which were accompanied with pinnacles, it was a typical element in Gothic architecture in cathedral architecture. Wimpergs had crockets or other decorative elements in the Gothic style; the intention behind the wimperg was the perception of increased height. The gable end roof is a poor design for hurricane regions, as it peels off in strong winds; the part of the roof that overhangs the triangular wall often creates a trap that can catch wind like an umbrella. Winds blowing against the gable end can exert tremendous pressure, both on the triangular wall and on the roof edges where they overhang the triangular wall, causing the roof to peel off and the triangular wall to cave in.
Anne of Green Gables, a novel by Canadian author Lucy Maud Montgomery, based in Canada The House of the Seven Gables The Seven Lamps of Architecture, John Ruskin's influential opinion on truth in architecture Bell-gable Cape Dutch architecture Crow-stepped gable Dutch gable Facade Gablet roof Hip roof List of roof shapes Tympanum Pugin, Augustus. A series of ornamental timber gables, from existing examples in England and France of the 16th Century. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Gable". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. Cambridge University Press. P. 380. Lexicon of architecture
The Atherton Tableland is a fertile plateau, part of the Great Dividing Range in Queensland, Australia. The Atherton Tablelands is a diverse region, covering an area of 64,768 square kilometres and home to 45,243 people; the main population centres on the Atherton Tablelands are Atherton. Smaller towns include Malanda, Kuranda, Millaa Millaa, Dimbulah, Mt Garnet, Mt Molloy and Yungaburra; the principal river flowing across the plateau is the Barron River. It was dammed to form an irrigation reservoir named Lake Tinaroo. Tinaroo Hydro, a small 1.6 MW Hydroelectric power station is located near the spillway. This area is a distinct physiographic section of the larger North Queensland Highlands province, which in turn is part of the larger East Australian Cordillera physiographic division. South of the Tablelands is the Bellenden Ker Range. About 100 million years ago, the eastern edge of the Australian continent extended much further to the east, before tectonic forces fractured the eastern margin, pulling it apart.
At the same time rising mantle material caused a doming up of the continental crust. As the eastern part of the continent broke away, it sank below sea level. Since that time, the uplifted western portion has been eroding westwards, creating the abrupt Great Escarpment, which separates the coastal plain to the east from the uplifted tablelands to the west. From over 4 million to less than 10,000 years ago, a series of volcanic eruptions occurred over the Atherton Tablelands; the oldest eruptions created large sloping “shield volcanoes” that produced extensive basalt flows. These flows filled the pre-existing valleys, producing a flat tableland surface, instead of the more dissected landscape that would have existed previously. About one million years ago, the style of eruption changed; the lavas became more gas-charged, throwing fragmented lava into the air which built the numerous, small scoria cones, such as the Seven Sisters, near Yungaburra. Some of the rising magma interacted with groundwater, producing violent eruptions that led to the formation of maar volcanoes, such as Lake Eacham and Lake Barrine.
Although all the volcanoes in the Atherton Basalt Province are regarded as being extinct and volcanism has been waning over time, given the recent activity, it is possible that further eruptions could occur in the future. The Atherton Tableland Region has a long history of indigenous occupation. Aspects of traditional Aboriginal land use and culture have been documented from the period of first contact to the present. Aboriginal people with ties to the region seek to maintain their culture today, despite a long period of forced removal from their lands following European occupation in the late 19th-early 20th century. Atherton was explored by a European, J. V. Mulligan, in 1875. In 1877, John Atherton settled near the town; the area was explored for its mining potential where deposits of tin and gold were found. A pioneering pastoralist, John Atherton was the first to find tin deposits in Northern Queensland. Local legend has it that Tinaroo Creek received its name from Atherton who shouted, "Tin!
Hurroo!" when he first made his discovery. Atherton and his friends, William Jack and John Newell, discovered the famous lode, which became the Great Northern Tin Mine. A rush of miners from the Hodgkinson’s Goldfields followed; the construction of a dray road through the Tableland brought a secondary rush, this time timber cutters to mine the red gold of the rainforest. Redcedar cutters camps were Prior Pocket, Oonda Swamp & Ziggenbein's Pocket. Although tin was a major part in the Tablelands, timber is what Atherton owes its existence to with large areas of red cedar, maple, black bean, white beech and red tulip oak being milled for buildings. Before the town of Atherton developed, a full-blown Chinatown sprang into existence; the Chinese had moved from the Palmer River Goldfields to the Atherton area, where the big timber stands had been cleared to make way for farming. The Chinese were considered pioneers of agriculture in North Queensland as 80% of crop production on the Tablelands was grown by them and they played a vital role in opening up the area for settlement.
After the crops, they turned to dairying. As the population of Chinatown increased, small shops appeared, wells were sunk to supply water, there were cooks, herbalists and merchants etc; the rough straw huts were replaced by sawn timber houses with corrugated iron roofs. By 1909, Chinatown had become the largest concentration of Chinese on the Tablelands with a population of 1100. Today, the Hou Wang Temple remains as one of the few reminders of the former Chinese population of the Atherton Tablelands. In the Second World War, Australian troops were camped around the district prior to being sent to the front and again on their return. Many soldiers were interred at the war cemetery in Atherton. Crops grown in and around Atherton include banana, corn/maize, strawberries, macadamia nuts and mangoes and citrus. Tobacco was grown until October 2006 when it was ended by a Government buyout. Dairying and poultry are present on the Tableland. Tourism is the second largest economic driver to the Atherton Tablelands economy, with Tinaroo Dam and extensive trail network being the focal point.
Atherton and Mareeba are the largest towns in the area. Herberton, Kuranda, Millaa Millaa, Tolga, Chillagoe and Ravenshoe are located on the Atherton Tablelands; the tableland contains several small remnants of the rainforest which once covered it