SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hercle

In Etruscan religion, the son of Tinia and Uni, was a version of the Greek Heracles, depicted as a muscular figure carrying a club and wearing a lionskin. He is a popular subject in Etruscan art bronze mirrors, which show him engaged in adventures not known from the Greek myths of Heracles or the Roman and classical myths of Hercules. In the Etruscan tradition, Uni grants Hercle access to a life among the immortals by offering her breast milk to him. Hercle was the first man elevated to a godhood through his deeds and Etruscan aristocrats tried to identify with this ascension, as reflected in artwork and literature. Hercle is sometimes identified by name. Since Etruscan literature has not survived, the meaning of the scenes in which he appears can only be interpreted by comparison to Greek and Roman myths, through information about Etruscan myths preserved by Greek and Latin literature, or through conjectural reconstructions based on other Etruscan representations. Hercle, depicted as a nude youth and carrying his club, presents the winged baby Epeur to Tinia, as Turan and Thalna look on.

List of Etruscan mythological figures

Hong Kong Strategic Route and Exit Number System

The Hong Kong Strategic Route and Exit Number System is a system adopted by the Transport Department of the Hong Kong Government to organise the major roads in the territory into Routes 1 to 10 for the convenience of drivers. When the system was first implemented in 2004, the government launched a major campaign to promote it to the public. One of the slogans was "Remember the Numbers; the system comprises nine major series of roads in Hong Kong, numbered Routes 1 to 5 and 7 to 10, which can be classified into three categories: the three north-south routes, the five east-west routes and the New Territories Circular Road. The route numbers are represented as black on yellow "road-shields" on overhead roadsigns; the entirety of the system offers some level of limited access, with a significant portion being expressway. The system implements exit numbering with the exits of each route are numbered sequentially. Exit numbers are indicated by white in black rectangular boxes on roadside signs. There are no traffic lights on the expressways.

Traffic interchange with other roads is via slip roads, maximising vehicular flow and land space usage. There are some stack interchanges; the Strategic Route System has traffic lights on only a few roads, such as Waterloo Road and Kwun Tong Road. The road surface is asphalt; the lanes are separated by white dashed lines, while unbroken white lines are used to mark the edges of the median and shoulder. The shoulder is reserved for stops due to breakdowns and emergencies, motorists are prohibited by law from travelling on it. Lanes are numbered from right with lane 1 being the closest to the median. Crash barriers, cat's eyes and rumble strips are used to ensure road safety. Signs mark the end of an expressway at its entry and exit points respectively; these expressways do not have rest areas. The speed limits for most vehicles on the Hong Kong highways are 110 km/h for North Lantau Expressway, 100 km/h for the New Territories roads and West Kowloon Highway, 80 km/h for the most expressways and 70 km/h, due to the older ones such as Island Eastern Corridor, East Kowloon Corridor, West Kowloon Corridor and Tsuen Wan Road.

A speeding offence less than 10 km/h over the speed limit is not enforced - many drivers in Hong Kong travel within this range. Cameras will shoot when it is with their fines imposed; as stipulated by the Laws of Hong Kong Cap 374 s 40 and, medium goods vehicles, heavy goods vehicles and buses or any vehicle driven by a driver with a probationary driving licence shall travel no faster than the speed limit of the road or 70 km/h, whichever is slower. Many vehicles of these types ignore this and follow the speed limit of the road on the Hong Kong highways, thereby committing speeding offence. However, this law is not enforced - cameras are not tuned to be triggered differently by these types of vehicle; the three north-south routes are Route 1, Route 2, Route 3. They connect Hong Kong Island, metro Kowloon and the New Territories via a series of flyovers and tunnels, they pass through the three tunnels crossing Victoria Harbour, their sequence of numbering follows the order of opening dates of the three tunnels: Route 1: Cross-Harbour Tunnel Route 2: Eastern Harbour Tunnel Route 3: Western Harbour Crossing The five east-west routes — Route 4, Route 5, Route 7, Route 8 and Route 10 — are numbered from south to north.

The pattern indicates that Route 6 will most be built between Routes 5 and 7. Route 4 runs along the north shore of Hong Kong Island, connecting the eastern and western ends of the island, whereas Routes 5 and 7 link southern New Territories with parts of Kowloon. Route 8 provides direct access to Chek Lap Kok Airport, was extended to Sha Tin in 2008. Route 10 provides access to the border crossing at Shenzhen. Route 4: Routes 7 and 8 Route 5: Tsuen Wan - Ngau Tau Kok section of Route 2 Route 7: Route 4 Route 8: Route 9 Route 10 The circular route, Route 9, circumscribes the New Territories, with the exit at the Shing Mun Tunnels in Sha Tin as the starting point of exit-numbering, it links up the network of expressways and trunk roads in the New Territories into a large ring. Route 9: Route 5 + Fo Tan - Lok Ma Chau section of Route 1 + Tsuen Wan - Lok Ma Chau section of Route 2 In parallel with route numbering, the junctions between routes and exits from routes are labelled with exit numbers.

On every route, exits are numbered from one end to the other with ascending consecutive integers with a mixture of alphabet-suffixed labels. The first generation of the route number system in Hong Kong was envisaged in the 1968 Hong Kong Long Term Road Study by Freeman, Wilbur Smith & Associates, in which trunk routes were given single-digit numbers, distributors with double-digit ones. Included in the road study was an unnumbered Western Harbour Crossing, which in the plan involved a bridge crossing the Victoria Harbour between Cherry Street in Mong Kok and Kennedy Town, by way of Stonecutters Island and Green Island. Numbered routes included in the study were: 1: Aberdeen to Fanling, via Aberdeen Tunnel, Cross Harbour Tunnel, Lion Rock Tunnel

Richard Price (American anthropologist)

Richard Price is an American anthropologist and historian, best known for his studies of the Caribbean and his experiments with writing ethnography. Price attended the Fieldston School, he received both Bachelors and Ph. D. degrees from Harvard University, having conducted fieldwork in Peru, with Sally Price in Martinique, Mexico and for two years among the Saamaka Maroons of Suriname. A year studying with Claude Lévi-Strauss in Paris and another in Amsterdam working with Dutch scholars of Maroons preceded his five years of teaching in the Department of Anthropology at Yale University. In 1974, he moved to Johns Hopkins University to found the Department of Anthropology, where he served three terms as chair, before leaving in 1986 for two years of teaching in Paris. A decade of freelance teaching, while based in Martinique, ended with an appointment as Duane A. and Virginia S. Dittman Professor of American Studies and History at the College of William and Mary, he has continued fieldwork with Maroons, notably in French Guiana and Suriname, as well as with his Martiniquan neighbors, into the present.

Since the 1990s, he has worked with Saramaka Maroons in defense of their human rights, twice testifying as expert witness on behalf of the Saamakas in cases that they won before the Inter-American Court for Human Rights in Costa Rica. Price's early contributions, influenced by his teachers Clyde Kluckhohn, Evon Z. Vogt, Sidney W. Mintz, included the first conceptualization of Maroon communities throughout the Americas in a comparative framework, his demonstration that people considered “without history,” such as Saamaka Maroons, in fact possessed rich and deep historical consciousness has influenced historians as well as anthropologists. For this work in what he calls “ethnographic history,” Price's books have won numerous awards: First-Time won the Elsie Clews Parsons Prize of the American Folklore Society and Alabi’s World won the Albert J. Beveridge Award of the American Historical Association, the Gordon K. Lewis Award of the Caribbean Studies Association, the School of American Research's prestigious J. I.

Staley Prize. An essay written in 1973 with Sidney Mintz, The Birth of African-American Culture, has had considerable influence on Afro-Americanist historians and anthropologists, sometimes inciting strong controversy about the extent to which enslaved Africans and their descendants “retained” aspects of their home cultures and societies and the extent to which they created new cultural and social forms in the Americas. Price's Travels with Tooy, an ethnography of the imaginaire of a Saamaka healer, attempts to transcend this dichotomy by demonstrating that historical processes of creolization involved people making creative uses of their varied, specific African heritages in the process of nation-building in the New World. In 2008, Travels with Tooy won the Victor Turner Prize in Ethnographic Writing, in 2009, the Gordon K. and Sybil Lewis Award for Caribbean Scholarship and the Clifford Geertz Prize in the Anthropology of Religion. Price's Rainforest Warriors tells the story of the Saamaka struggle to protect their territory against the encroachments of the State of Suriname.

In 2012, the book won the Best Book Prize of the American Political Science Association in the field of human rights and the Senior Book Prize of the American Ethnological Society. Several of Price's books have been written with anthropologist and art critic Sally Price, including a critical edition of the famous eighteenth-century narrative of John Gabriel Stedman and an exploration of the Caribbean paintings of African American artist Romare Bearden. Since the 1980s, he has experimented with new forms of writing culture, including experiments with typesetting and page layout and authoring books that are in part memoirs and, in one case, an anthropological novel. Despite the label of postmodern sometimes applied to his work, he prefers to consider himself an ethnographic historian. Most of Price's books continue to draw on his continuing ethnography with Suriname Maroons, but one innovative work, The Convict and The Colonel, centers on his four-decades-long relationship with Martinique, where he and Sally Price live for most of each year.

His books have been translated into French, Dutch, German and Saamakatongo. In 2014, at a ceremony in Havana, he received the prestigious Premio Internacional Fernando Ortiz (“El Premio Internacional Fernando Ortiz es el más alto reconocimiento otorgado por la Fundación homónima por la actividad de toda una vida”], the same year in France, he was decorated by France's Minister of Culture as "Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres" for his "contribution déterminante au rayonnement de la recherche anthropologique." 1973. Maroon Societies: Rebel Slave Communities in the Americas 1975. Saramaka Social Structure: Analysis of a Maroon Society in Surinam 1976; the Guiana Maroons: A Historical and Bibliographical Introduction 1980. Afro-American Arts of the Suriname Rain Forest 1983. First-Time: The Historical Vision of an Afro-American People 1983. To Slay the Hydra: Dutch Colonial Perspectives on the Saramaka Wars 1988. John Gabriel Stedman's Narrative of a Five Years Expedition Against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam 1990.

Alabi's World 1991. Two Evenings in Saramak