Gorillaz are a British virtual band created in 1998 by musician Damon Albarn and artist Jamie Hewlett. The band consists of four animated members: 2-D, Murdoc Niccals and Russel Hobbs, their fictional universe is explored through music videos and other short cartoons. In reality, Albarn is the only permanent musical contributor, collaborates with other musicians. With Gorillaz, Albarn departed from the distinct Britpop of his band Blur and explored influences including hip hop, electronic music, world music through an "eccentrically postmodern" approach; the band's 2001 debut album Gorillaz went Triple Platinum in the UK and Double Platinum in Europe and earned the group an entry in the Guinness Book of World Records as the Most Successful Virtual Band. It was nominated for the Mercury Prize, their second studio album, Demon Days, went six times platinum in the UK and double platinum in the US, The band has won other awards, including one Grammy Award, two MTV Video Music Awards, an NME Award and three MTV Europe Music Awards.
The third Gorillaz studio album, Plastic Beach, was released on 3 March 2010. The fourth, The Fall, was released on 25 December 2010 as a surprise gift for paying fan club members on 18 April 2011 as an official release; the fifth, was released after a five-year hiatus on 28 April 2017. Their sixth studio album, The Now Now, was released on 29 June 2018. Gorillaz have been nominated for ten Brit Awards, won Best British Group at the 2018 Brit Awards. Musician Damon Albarn and comic creator Jamie Hewlett met in 1990 when guitarist Graham Coxon, a fan of Hewlett's work, asked him to interview Blur, a band Albarn and Coxon had formed; the interview was published in Deadline magazine, home of Hewlett's comic strip Tank Girl. Hewlett thought Albarn was "arsey, a wanker". Despite this and Hewlett started sharing a flat on Westbourne Grove in London in 1997. Hewlett had broken up with Olliver and Albarn was at the end of his publicised relationship with Justine Frischmann of Elastica; the idea to create Gorillaz came about when Albarn and Hewlett were watching MTV.
Hewlett said, "If you watch MTV for too long, it's a bit like hell – there's nothing of substance there. So we got this idea for a virtual band, something that would be a comment on that." The band identified themselves as "Gorilla" and the first song they recorded was "Ghost Train", released as a B-side on their single "Rock the House" and the B-side compilation G Sides. The musicians behind Gorillaz' first incarnation included Albarn, Del the Funky Homosapien, Dan the Automator and Kid Koala, who had worked together on the track "Time Keeps on Slipping" for Deltron 3030's eponymous debut album. Although not released under the Gorillaz name, Albarn has said that "one of the first Gorillaz tunes" was Blur's 1997 single "On Your Own", released for their fifth studio album Blur; the band's first release was the EP Tomorrow Comes Today, released on 27 November 2000. The band's first single was "Clint Eastwood" and was released on 5 March 2001, it was produced by hip hop producer Dan the Automator and featured UK rap group Phi Life Cypher, but the version that appears on the album features American rapper Del the Funky Homosapien, known on the album as Del tha' Ghost Rapper, a spirit in the band's drummer Russel Hobbs.
The Phi Life Cypher version of "Clint Eastwood" appears on the B-side album G Sides. That same month, their first full-length album, the self-titled Gorillaz, was released, producing four singles: "Clint Eastwood", "19-2000", "Rock the House", "Tomorrow Comes Today". In June 2001, "19-2000" a remix of the song was used as the title theme for EA Sports FIFA video game FIFA Football 2002. On 7 December, the song "911" was released, a collaboration between Gorillaz and hip hop group D12 and Terry Hall about the September 11 attacks. Meanwhile, G Sides, a compilation of the B-sides from the Tomorrow Comes Today EP and first three singles, was released in Japan on 12 December. Gorillaz performed at the 2002 Brit Awards in London on 22 February, appearing in 3D animation on four large screens along with rap accompaniment by Phi Life Cypher; the band were nominated for four Brit Awards, including Best British Group, Best British Album and British Breakthrough Act, but did not win any awards. On 1 July 2002, a remix album titled Laika Come Home by Gorillaz was released.
It contains most of the songs from the Gorillaz' first album, but remixed in dub and reggae style. On 18 November, a DVD titled Phase One: Celebrity Take Down was released; the DVD contains four promotional videos, the abandoned video for "5/4", the Charts of Darkness documentary, the five Gorilla Bitez, a tour of the website by the MEL 9000 server and more. The DVD's menu depicts an abandoned Kong Studios. Rumours were circulating at this time that the Gorillaz team were busy preparing a film, but Hewlett said that the film project had been abandoned: "We lost all interest in doing it as soon as we started meeting with studios and talking to these Hollywood executive types, we just weren't on the same page. We said, fuck it, we'll sit on the idea until we can do it ourselves, maybe raise the money ourselves." The album Demon Days was released on 11 May 2005. The album debuted at No. 1 on the UK Albums C
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
Blur are an English rock band, formed in London in 1988. The group consists of singer/keyboardist Damon Albarn, guitarist/singer Graham Coxon, bassist Alex James and drummer Dave Rowntree, their debut album Leisure shoegazing. Following a stylistic change influenced by English guitar pop groups such as the Kinks, the Beatles and XTC, Blur released Modern Life Is Rubbish and The Great Escape. In the process, the band became central to the Britpop music and culture movement, achieved mass popularity in the UK, aided by a chart battle with rivals Oasis in 1995 dubbed the "Battle of Britpop". In recording their follow-up, the band underwent another reinvention, showing influence from the lo-fi style of American indie rock groups; the band's third UK number one album, Blur included the "Song 2" single, which brought them mainstream success in the US. Their next album, 13 saw the band members experimenting with electronic and gospel music, featured more personal lyrics from Albarn. In May 2002, Coxon left.
Containing electronic sounds and more minimal guitar work, the album was marked by Albarn's growing interest in hip hop and African music. After a 2003 tour without Coxon, Blur did no studio work or touring as a band, as members engaged in other projects. Blur reunited, with Coxon back in the fold, for a series of concerts in 2009. In the following years they released several singles and retrospective compilations, toured internationally. In 2012, the group received a Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music, their first major release in twelve years, The Magic Whip, became the sixth consecutive Blur studio album to top the British charts. Childhood friends Damon Albarn and Graham Coxon from Essex met Alex James when they began studying at London's Goldsmiths College in 1988. Albarn was in a group named Circus that October. Circus requested the services of Coxon after the departure of their guitarist; that December, Circus fired James joined as the group's bassist. This new group named themselves Seymour in December 1988, inspired by J. D. Salinger's Seymour: An Introduction.
The group performed live for the first time in summer 1989. In November, Food Records' A&R representative Andy Ross attended a Seymour performance that convinced him to court the group for his label; the only concern held by Ross and Food was. Food drew up a list of alternatives, from which the group decided on "Blur". Food Records signed the newly christened band in March 1990. From March to July 1990, Blur toured Britain, opening for the Cramps, testing out new songs. In October 1990, after their tour was over, Blur released the "She's So High" single, which reached number 48 in the UK Singles Chart; the band had trouble creating a follow-up single, but they made progress when paired with producer Stephen Street. The resulting single release, became a hit, peaking at number eight; as a result of the single's success, Blur became pop stars and were accepted into a clique of bands who frequented the Syndrome club in London dubbed "The Scene That Celebrates Itself". NME magazine wrote in 1991, " are acceptable pretty face of a whole clump of bands that have emerged since the whole Manchester thing started to run out of steam."The band's third single, "Bang", performed disappointingly, reaching only number 24.
Andy Ross and Food owner David Balfe were convinced Blur's best course of action was to continue drawing influence from the Madchester genre. Blur attempted to expand their musical sound, but the recording of the group's debut album was hindered by Albarn having to write his lyrics in the studio. Although the resulting album Leisure peaked at number seven on the UK Albums Chart, it received mixed reviews, according to journalist John Harris, "could not shake off the odour of anti-climax". After discovering they were £60,000 in debt, Blur toured the United States in 1992 in an attempt to recoup their financial losses; the group released the single "Popscene" to coincide with the start of the tour. Featuring "a rush of punk guitars,'60s pop hooks, blaring British horns, controlled fury, postmodern humor", "Popscene" was a turning point for the band musically. However, upon its release it only charted at number 32. "We felt. We put ourselves out on a limb to pursue this English ideal and no-one was interested."
As a result of the single's lacklustre performance, plans to release a single named "Never Clever" were scrapped and work on Blur's second album was pushed back. During the two-month American tour, the band became unhappy venting frustrations on each other, leading to several physical confrontations; the band members were homesick. I missed everything about England so I started writing songs which created an English atmosphere." Upon the group's return to Britain, Blur were upset by the success rival group Suede had achieved while they were gone. After a poor performance at a 1992 gig that featured a well-received set by Suede on the same bill, Blur were in danger of being dropped by Food. By that time, Blur had undergone an ideological and image shift intended to celebrate their English heritage in contrast to the popularity of American grunge bands like Nirvana. Although sceptical of Albarn's new manifesto for Blur, Balfe gave assent for the band's choice of Andy Partridge to produce their follow-up to Leisure.
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
Kingdom of Doom
"Kingdom of Doom" is a song by the British alternative rock supergroup The Good, the Bad and the Queen, made up of Damon Albarn, Paul Simonon, Simon Tong and Tony Allen and is the fourth track on their 2007 album The Good, the Bad and the Queen. The song was released as the band's second single in January 2007. Note that the single release, issued a week before the album came out, quite credits the artist as The Good, The Bad & The Queen, although Albarn claimed the band was unnamed, that The Good, The Bad & The Queen was the name of the album. Upon release, the single charted at #20, the only one of the band's three singles to reach the Top 20. Promo CD CDRDJ6732"Kingdom of Doom" - 2.42Gatefold 7" R6732"Kingdom of Doom" - 2:42 "The Good, the Bad and the Queen" - 4:22Red vinyl 7" RS6732"Kingdom of Doom" - 2:42 "Start Point" - 4:47CD CDR6732"Kingdom of Doom" - 2:42 "Hallsands Waltz" - 2:55 "The Bunting Song - 3:57Download"Kingdom of Doom" - 3:20 The artwork for the red vinyl 7" format of the single was created by the band's bassist Paul Simonon, making reference to the building in which the group recorded the video.
Damon Albarn: Vocals, Organ, Synthesizers Simon Tong: Guitars Paul Simonon: Bass Guitar Danger Mouse: Tambourine, Windchimes Tony Allen: Drums NME.com - Reviews - The Good, The Bad & The Queen: Kingdom of Doom The Downloader "Kingdom of Doom" songography page at The Good, The Bad & The Queen unofficial fansite. "Kingdom of Doom" discography page at The Good, The Bad & The Queen unofficial fansite
Danger Mouse (musician)
Brian Joseph Burton, better known by his stage name Danger Mouse, is an American musician and record producer. He came to prominence in 2004 when he released The Grey Album, which combined vocal performances from Jay-Z's The Black Album with instrumentals from The Beatles' The Beatles, he produced its albums St. Elsewhere and The Odd Couple. In 2009 he collaborated with James Mercer of the indie rock band The Shins to form the band Broken Bells. In addition, Burton worked with rapper MF Doom as Danger Doom and released the album The Mouse and the Mask; as a producer Danger Mouse produced the second Gorillaz album, 2005's Demon Days, as well as Beck's 2008 record Modern Guilt and four albums with The Black Keys. In 2016, Danger Mouse produced, performed on and co-wrote songs for the eleventh studio album by the Red Hot Chili Peppers titled The Getaway. Danger Mouse has produced and co-written albums by Norah Jones, Electric Guest, Portugal; the Man, ASAP Rocky's. He has won six. He's been nominated in the Producer of the Year category five times, won the award in 2011.
Brian Joseph Burton was born in New York. He spent much of his childhood in New York. Burton moved to Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta, he lived in Athens, where he pursued a degree in telecommunications at the University of Georgia on scholarship, where his Trip hop works were released while he was still a student. While at the University of Georgia he met Nirvana, Pink Floyd, Portishead, came to know the indie rock scene in Athens, remixed work by several local artists, including Neutral Milk Hotel, DJ'd for University of Georgia radio station WUOG-FM. From 1998 to 2003, Burton created a series of remix CDs and records under the stage name Danger Mouse, he performed in a mouse outfit because he was too shy to show his face, took his name from the British cartoon series Danger Mouse. While in Athens, Burton took second place in a 1998 talent contest and was asked to open for a concert at the University of Georgia featuring OutKast and Goodie Mob. Afterwards, Burton approached CeeLo Green, a member of Goodie Mob, gave him an instrumental demo tape.
It would be several years before the pair made contact again, but the two would collaborate as Gnarls Barkley. Burton moved to Britain for a couple of years, living in New Cross in London and working at the Rose pub near London Bridge. While there, he sent a demo to Lex Records. Burton relocated to Los Angeles. While the Danger Mouse debut was well received by critics, he did not rise to fame until he created The Grey Album, mixing a cappella versions of Jay-Z's The Black Album over beats crafted from samples of The Beatles"White Album'; the remix album created just for his friends, spread over the Internet and became popular with both the general audience and critics, with Rolling Stone calling it the ultimate remix record and Entertainment Weekly ranking it the best record of that year. He discussed his feelings about any controversy the album may have created in the documentary Alternative Freedom. Danger Mouse was named among the Men of the Year by GQ in 2004 and won a 2005 Wired Rave Award.
The Grey Album got the attention of Damon Albarn, who enlisted Danger Mouse to produce the Gorillaz' second studio album, Demon Days. Demon Days earned Burton a Grammy Award nomination for Producer of the Year. Danger Mouse's next project was The Mouse and the Mask, a collaboration with MF DOOM about and for Cartoon Network's Adult Swim; the two had collaborated on the Danger Mouse remix of Zero 7's "Somersault", on the Prince Po track "Social Distortion", on Gorillaz' "November Has Come". A year DANGERDOOM released a follow-up EP called Occult Hymn; the 7-track EP featured new songs as well as remixes of tracks from The Mouse & The Mask and was released as a free download on Adult Swim's site. In 2006, Danger Mouse and CeeLo released their first album, St. Elsewhere, which included the international hit single "Crazy". "Crazy" became the first UK number-one single based on downloads. Gnarls Barkley set out on tour and was one of the main opening acts on the Red Hot Chili Peppers' Stadium Arcadium World Tour.
The Gnarls Barkley touring lineup featured future Chili Peppers guitarist, Josh Klinghoffer. He produced two tracks on The Rapture's 2006 album Pieces of the People We Love. In the autumn of 2006, Sparklehorse released his fourth album, Dreamt for Light Years in the Belly of a Mountain, a collaboration with Danger Mouse and Steven Drozd of The Flaming Lips. In August and September 2006, Danger Mouse collaborated with British graffiti artist Banksy to replace 500 copies of Paris Hilton's album Paris in English music stores with altered album artwork and a 40-minute instrumental song containing various statements she had made. Danger Mouse gave a rare interview to Charlie Rose on August 31, 2006. In January 2007, Danger Mouse produced another collaboration with Damon Albarn on The Good, the Bad and the Queen, along with Clash bassist Paul Simonon, former Verve guitarist Simon Tong and Afrobeat pioneer and Africa 70 drummer Tony Allen. In March 2008, The Odd Couple, the second album of his and Cee
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt