Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I was King of the French from 1830 to 1848. His father Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans had taken the name "Philippe Égalité" because he supported the French Revolution. However, following the deposition and execution of his cousin King Louis XVI, Louis Philippe fled the country, his father denounced his actions and voted for his death, but was imprisoned and executed that same year. Louis Philippe spent the next 21 years in exile before returning during the Bourbon Restoration, he was proclaimed king in 1830 after his cousin Charles X was forced to abdicate by the July Revolution. The reign of Louis Philippe is known as the July Monarchy and was dominated by wealthy industrialists and bankers, he followed conservative policies under the influence of French statesman François Guizot during the period 1840–48. He promoted friendship with Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the French conquest of Algeria, his popularity faded as economic conditions in France deteriorated in 1847, he was forced to abdicate after the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1848.
He lived out his life in exile in the United Kingdom. His supporters were known as Orléanists, as opposed to Legitimists who supported the main line of the House of Bourbon. Louis Philippe was born in the Palais Royal, the residence of the Orléans family in Paris, to Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres, Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon; as a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince of the Blood, which entitled him the use of the style "Serene Highness". His mother was an wealthy heiress, descended from Louis XIV of France through a legitimized line. Louis Philippe was the eldest of three sons and a daughter, a family, to have erratic fortunes from the beginning of the French Revolution to the Bourbon Restoration; the elder branch of the House of Bourbon, to which the kings of France belonged distrusted the intentions of the cadet branch, which would succeed to the throne of France should the senior branch die out. Louis Philippe's father was exiled from the royal court, the Orléans confined themselves to studies of the literature and sciences emerging from the Enlightenment.
Louis Philippe was tutored by the Countess of Genlis, beginning in 1782. She instilled in him a fondness for liberal thought; when Louis Philippe's grandfather died in 1785, his father succeeded him as Duke of Orléans and Louis Philippe succeeded his father as Duke of Chartres. In 1788, with the Revolution looming, the young Louis Philippe showed his liberal sympathies when he helped break down the door of a prison cell in Mont Saint-Michel, during a visit there with the Countess of Genlis. From October 1788 to October 1789, the Palais Royal was a meeting-place for the revolutionaries. Louis Philippe grew up in a period that changed Europe as a whole and, following his father's strong support for the Revolution, he involved himself in those changes. In his diary, he reports that he himself took the initiative to join the Jacobin Club, a move that his father supported. In June 1791, Louis Philippe got his first opportunity to become involved in the affairs of France. In 1785, he had been given the hereditary appointment of Colonel of the Chartres Dragoons.
With war imminent in 1791, all proprietary colonels were ordered to join their regiments. Louis Philippe showed himself to be a model officer, he demonstrated his personal bravery in two famous instances. First, three days after Louis XVI's flight to Varennes, a quarrel between two local priests and one of the new constitutional vicars became heated, a crowd surrounded the inn where the priests were staying, demanding blood; the young colonel broke through the crowd and extricated the two priests, who fled. At a river crossing on the same day, another crowd threatened to harm the priests. Louis Philippe put himself between a peasant armed with a carbine and the priests, saving their lives; the next day, Louis Philippe dove into a river to save a drowning local engineer. For this action, he received a civic crown from the local municipality, his regiment was moved north to Flanders at the end of 1791 after the August 27, 1791 Declaration of Pillnitz. Louis Philippe served under his father's crony, Armand Louis de Gontaut the Duke of Biron, along with several officers who gained distinction in Napoleon's empire and afterwards.
These included Lieutenant Colonel Alexandre de Beauharnais. After war was declared by the Kingdom of France on the Habsburg Monarchy on April 20, 1792, Louis Philippe saw his first exchanges of fire of the French Revolutionary Wars within the invaded by France Austrian Netherlands at Boussu, Walloon, on about April 28, 1792, at Quaregnon, Walloon, on about April 29, 1792, at Quiévrain, near Jemappes, Walloon, on about April 30, 1792, where he was instrumental in rallying a unit of retreating soldiers after the victorious Battle of Quiévrain only two days earlier on April 28th of 1792. Biron wrote to War Minister de Grave, praising the young colonel, promoted to brigadier, commanding a brigade of cavalry in Lückner's Army of the North. In the Army of the North, Louis Philippe served with four future Marshals of France: Macdonald, Mortier and Oudinot. Dumouriez was appointed to command the Army of the North in August 1792. Louis Philippe commanded a division under him in the Valmy campaign. At the September 20, 1792 Battle of Va
President's House (Philadelphia)
The President's House, at 524–30 Market Street in Philadelphia, was the third Presidential Mansion. It housed George Washington from November 27, 1790, to March 10, 1797, John Adams from March 21, 1797, to May 30, 1800; the three-and-a-half-story brick mansion on the south side of Market Street was built in 1767 by widow Mary Lawrence Masters. In 1772, she gave it as a wedding gift to her elder daughter, who married Richard Penn, a grandson of William Penn and the lieutenant-governor of the Colony; the Penns and the Masterses moved to England during the early days of the American Revolutionary War. During the British occupation of Philadelphia, September 1777 to June 1778, the house was headquarters for General Sir William Howe. Following the British evacuation, it housed the American military governor, Benedict Arnold, it was here that he began his treason. After Arnold left Philadelphia, the next resident was John Holker. Holker was a purchasing agent for the French. During his residency the house suffered a fire, was sold to a man whom Holker knew well, financier Robert Morris.
In 1781, Morris purchased and expanded the house. Washington lodged here with Morris during the 1787 Constitutional Convention. In 1790, Morris gave up the house for his friend to use as the Executive Mansion, moved to the house next door. President Washington occupied the President's House from November 1790 to March 1797, President Adams from March 1797 to May 1800. Adams oversaw the transfer of the federal government from the temporary capital of Philadelphia to the District of Columbia, first occupied the White House there on November 1, 1800; the main Morris house in Philadelphia was demolished in 1832. The four-story east and west walls survived. These, along with surviving sections of the backbuildings, were demolished in the 1950s during the development of Independence Mall. In late 2000, during excavation for the new Liberty Bell Center, foundations of the President's House were uncovered. Intense interest arose in the project after it was revealed that the center's planned main entrance would be just feet from the site of Washington's slave quarters.
Although reluctant, Independence National Historical Park expanded its interpretation at the center to include more about slavery, including material about the nine enslaved African Americans: Moll, Christopher Sheels, his son Richmond, Oney Judge, her brother Austin, Giles and Joe, who had worked at the President's House. The Park undertook a public archaeology project in 2007 that uncovered foundations of the backbuildings, the President's office, the massive Bow Window designed by Washington as a ceremonial space, it commissioned a memorial at the site, which opened in 2010 to mark the site of the President's House, as well as to acknowledge the slaves and their place in Philadelphia and United States history, with material about the black community in the city, both free and enslaved. Washington had a household staff of about 24, several of whom were enslaved African Americans, plus an office staff of 4 or 5, all of whom lived and worked in the house, his wife Martha and two of her grandchildren, "Wash" Custis and Nelly Custis, were part of the First Family.
The house was too small for the 30-plus occupants, so the President made additions: "...a large two-story bow to be added to south side of the main house making the rooms at the rear thirty-four feet in length, a long one-story servants' hall to be built on the east side of the kitchen ell, the bathtubs to be removed from the bath house's second floor and the bathingroom turned into the President's private office, additional servant rooms to be constructed, an expansion of the stables." Although Pennsylvania passed a law in 1780 for the gradual abolition of slavery in the state, it permitted slaveholders from other states to hold slaves in the free state for up to six months. After that time, slaves would gain their freedom. Members of Congress were exempt from Pennsylvania's Gradual Abolition Act, but not officers of the executive and judicial branches. Washington and other slaveholders rotated their slaves out of the state to prevent the slaves from establishing the 6-month residency needed to qualify for manumission.
After Washington's slave Oney Judge escaped from captivity in Philadelphia, the president replaced most of his slaves in the capital with indentured servants who were German immigrants. Hercules, a cook who had worked in Philadelphia, was sent back to Virginia by Washington and assigned to field work, he made his way to freedom in Philadelphia. He was seen living in New York City, he was among the slaves whom Washington freed in his will. Although Washington had stipulated that his slaves should not be freed until after both his and Martha Washington's deaths, his widow decided to free his slaves in 1801. By absent from Mount Vernon for four years, the fugitive Hercules may never have learned that he was free. Major acts as president: Oversaw the ratification of the United States Bill of Rights. Oversaw the establishment and planning of the future District of Columbia. Quashed the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania. Major acts as president: Built 6 frigates for the United States Navy. Established the modern United States Marine Corps.
French seizure of more than 300 American ships and the XYZ Affair's demand for bribes led to the Quasi War with France. Completed construction of the White House and much of the United S
George Washington and slavery
In U. S. history, the relationship between George Washington and slavery was a complex one in that, while he held people as slaves for all of his life, he expressed reservations about the institution during his career. During Washington's presidency, increasing abolitionist sentiments in the U. S. caused him to have misgivings about his own slave ownership. Though publicly Washington said little against the institution he expressed a belief that slavery's end would be necessary for the nation's survival, he supported legislation both restricting it. Washington's will included manumission for the enslaved people he held upon the death of his widow Martha Washington, she freed her husband's slaves in January 1801, just over a year after his death. However, while she lived, Martha did not emancipate any of the slaves she herself owned; when she died, on May 22, 1802, at the age of 70, all of those enslaved people went to the descendants of her first husband, Daniel Parke Custis. When George Washington was eleven years old, he inherited ten slaves.
While these dower slaves were designated for Martha's use during her lifetime, they were part of the estate of her first husband Daniel Parke Custis, the Washingtons could not sell or manumit them. As on other plantations during that era, Washington's slaves worked from dawn until dusk unless injured or ill. Visitors recorded varying impressions of slave life at Mount Vernon: one visitor in 1798 wrote that Washington treated his slaves "with more severity" than his neighbors, while another around the same time stated that "Washington treat his slaves far more humanely than did his fellow citizens of Virginia."Though Washington considered himself benevolent as a slave master, he did not tolerate suspected shirkers among those who were pregnant, old, or crippled. When a slave in an arm sling pleaded that it kept him from working, Washington demonstrated how to use a rake with one arm and scolded him, saying, "If you use your hand to eat, why can't you use it to work?" He would ship stubbornly disobedient slaves, such as one man named Waggoner Jack, to the West Indies, where the tropical climate and relentless toil tended to shorten life.
Washington urged one of his estate managers persistently to keep an 83-year-old slave named Gunner hard at work to "continue throwing up brick earth". When the Potomac River froze over for five weeks in 1788, with nine inches of snow on the ground, Washington kept them at exhausting outdoor labor, such as sending the female slaves to dig up tree stumps from a frozen swamp. After his own heading out during this unusually frigid weather to inspect his farms, Washington wrote in his diary that, "finding the cold disagreeable I returned". Washington was convinced. Before the American Revolution, Washington expressed no moral reservations about slavery, but by 1778 he had stopped selling slaves because he did not want to break up their families; the historian Henry Wiencek speculates that Washington's slave buying his participation in a raffle of 55 slaves in 1769, may have initiated a gradual reassessment of slavery. According to Wiencek, his thoughts on slavery may have been influenced by the rhetoric of the American Revolution, the example of the thousands of blacks who enlisted in the army to fight for independence, the anti-slavery sentiments of his idealistic aide John Laurens, his knowledge of the ability of the enslaved black poet Phillis Wheatley, who in 1775 wrote a poem in his honor.
Washington and his wife were strict as slaveowners. "There are few Negroes who will work unless there be a constant eye on them," Washington advised one overseer, warning of their "idleness and deceit" unless treated firmly. When their "bondmen and women did flee", Washington and his wife appeared to consider them as "disloyal ingrates". In 1766, tired of a slave who ran away once too Washington wrote to Captain John Thompson, asking him to sell one Washington's slaves, whom he described as "a rogue and a run-away". Expressing little concern for the slave's comfort, Washington recommended that Thompson keep him "handcuffed until you get to sea or in the bay." When, to Washington's humiliation, some of his slaves ran away during the Revolutionary War to find protection with the enemy, Washington did not cease trying to "reclaim what he saw as his property". According to one contemporary British memo, after the war, Washington demanded the return of escaped slaves "with all the grossness and ferocity of a captain of banditti".
The British refused to take the dishonorable step of returning the slaves as this would be a breach of faith, "delivering them up, some to execution, others to severe punishment."Wiencek notes that in 1778, while Washington was at war, he wrote to his manager at Mount Vernon that he wished to sell his slaves and "to get quit of negroes", since maintaining a large slave population was no longer economically efficient. Washington could not sell his wife's "dower slaves" and, because they had long intermarried with his own slaves, he dropped the plan for sales in order to avoid breaking up families, which he had resolved not to do. At the end of the War, the British sought to evacuate their soldiers, including the Black Company of Pioneers who fought on their side and secured their freedom as a result. Washington opposed this measure, tried in vain to force the British to give the Pioneers back to their former American owners. In 1
Manumission, or affranchisement, is the act of an owner freeing his or her slaves. Different approaches developed, each specific to the time and place of a particular society. Jamaican historian Verene Shepherd states that the most used term is gratuitous manumission, "the conferment of freedom on the enslaved by enslavers before the end of the slave system"; the motivations for manumission were complex and varied. Firstly, it may present itself as a benevolent gesture. One typical scenario was the freeing in the master's will of a devoted servant after long years of service. A trusted bailiff might be manumitted as a gesture of gratitude. For those working as agricultural laborers or in workshops, there was little likelihood of being so noticed; such feelings of benevolence may have been of value to slave owners themselves as it allowed them to focus on a "humane component" in the human traffic of slavery. In general, it was more common for older slaves to be given freedom once they had reached the age at which they were beginning to be less useful.
Legislation under the early Roman Empire put limits on the number of slaves that could be freed in wills, which suggests that it had been used. Freeing slaves could serve the pragmatic interests of the owner; the prospect of manumission worked as an incentive for slaves to be compliant. Roman slaves were paid a wage. Manumission contracts found, in some abundance at Delphi, specify in detail the prerequisites for liberation. Manumission was not always altruistic. In one of the stories in the Arabian Nights, in the Richard Francis Burton translation, a slave owner threatens to free his slave for lying to him; the slave says, "thou shall not manumit me, for I have no handicraft whereby to gain my living". Burton notes: "Here the slave refuses to be set starve. For a master to do so without ample reason is held disgraceful". A History of Ancient Greece explains that in the context of Ancient Greece, affranchisement came in many forms. A master choosing to free his slave would most do so only "at his death, specifying his desire in his will".
In rare cases, slaves who were able to earn enough money in their labour were able to buy their own freedom and were known as choris oikointes. Two 4th-century bankers and Phormio, had been slaves before they bought their freedom. A slave could be sold fictitiously to a sanctuary from where a god could enfranchise him. In rare circumstances, the city could affranchise a slave. A notable example is that Athens liberated everyone, present at the Battle of Arginusae. Once a slave was freed, he was not permitted to become a citizen, but would become a metic; the master became a prostatès. The former slave could be bound to some continuing duty to the master and was required to live near the former master. Breaches of these conditions could lead to prosecution at law and re-enslavement. Sometimes, extra payments were specified by which a freed slave could liberate himself from such residual duties. However, ex-slaves were able to own property outright, their children were free of all constraint. Under Roman law, a slave had no personhood and was protected under law as his or her master's property.
In Ancient Rome, a slave, manumitted was a libertus and a citizen. A freed slave customarily took the former owner's family name, the nomen of the master's gens; the former owner became the patron and the freed slave became a client and retained certain obligations to the former master, who owed certain obligations in return. A freed slave could acquire multiple patrons. A freed slave became a citizen. Not all citizens, held the same rights and privileges; the freed slave's rights were defined by particular statutes. A freed slave could become a civil servant but not hold higher magistracies, serve as priests of the emperor or hold any of the other highly-respected public positions. If they were sharp at business, there were no social limits to the wealth that freedmen could amass, their children held full legal rights. One of the most famous Romans to have been the son of a freedman was the poet Horace, who enjoyed the patronage of Augustus. A notable character of Latin literature is Trimalchio, the ostentatiously nouveau riche freedman in the Satyricon, by Petronius.
In colonial Peru, the laws around manumission were influenced by the Siete Partidas a Castilian law code. According to the Siete Partidas, a master who manumitted their slaves should be honored and obeyed by their former slaves for giving such a generous gift. Due to the closer intimacy between masters and household slaves and children were more to be manumitted than men; as in other parts of Latin America under the system of coartación, slaves could purchase their freedom by negotiating with their master for a purchase price and this was the most common way for slaves to be freed. Manumission occurred during baptism, or as part of an owner’s last will and testament. In baptismal manumission, enslaved children were freed at baptism. Many of these freedoms came with stipulations which could include servitude until the end of an owner’s life. Children freed at baptism were frequently the children of still enslaved parents. A child, freed at baptism but continued to live with enslaved family was far more to be reenslaved.
A Birthday Cake for George Washington
A Birthday Cake for George Washington is a children's book published by Scholastic and first released on January 5, 2016. Written by Ramin Ganeshram and illustrated by Vanessa Brantley-Newton, it is narrated by Delia, the daughter of Hercules, one of George Washington's slaves who worked for him as a cook; the book tells the story of Delia baking a birthday cake for Washington. Scholastic pulled the book on January 17, 2016 in response to criticisms over illustrations depicting an overly-positive portrayal of slavery. While praised by traditional reviewers, Vicky Smith wrote about problems with the book, in "Smiling Slaves in a Post-A Fine Dessert World" in Kirkus Reviews on January 4, 2016. Smith, Kirkus Reviews' teen book editor, compared the book to A Fine Dessert by Emily Jenkins, which proved controversial because it depicted images of smiling slaves, she notes that Ganeshram did not mention in the narrative the fact that when Hercules escaped to freedom from Washington, he was forced to leave his daughter behind.
Smith concluded that "It’s easy to understand why Ganeshram opted to leave those details out of her primary narrative: they’re a serious downer for readers, they don’t have anything to do with the cake. But the story that remains shares much of what ‘A Fine Dessert’’s critics found so objectionable: it’s an incomplete dishonest treatment of slavery.”This was followed by more critiques, including for the illustrations of the characters as “smiling slaves” and thereby whitewashing the history of slavery and presenting an "offensively sanitized version" of slavery to children. Among the critics were Kiera Parrott, who wrote in School Library Journal that the book was "highly problematic" and that it "convey a feeling of joyfulness that contrasts starkly with the reality of slave life"; as of January 18, the book had received over 100 one-star ratings on Amazon.com. On January 13, 2016, a critical review of the book by librarian Edith Campbell was posted on the Facebook page of the Washington, DC-based nonprofit Teaching for Change, along with a photo of the book’s back cover.
On this same day, Leslie MacFadyen of the National #Ferguson Response Network entered the conversation and developed the hashtag #slaverywithasmile. This took the discussion beyond the children’s literature world to parents and activists, it caught the attention of major media outlets, including the Atlanta Black Star, The Root, Fusion. Thousands signed a protest petition at Change.org. Food historian Michael W. Twitty critiqued historical elements of the book in The Guardian while author Steve Sheinkin discussed the book in an Actually podcast. Debbie Reese of American Indians in Children’s Literature—who had played a major role drawing public attention to the Mexican American studies ban in Tucson—documented the evolution of events on her blog. Author Daniel José Older tweeted about the book. Older's tweets, the petition, a summary of the campaign were published on Common Dreams; the books controversy evolved into discussions about how to present enslavement in children’s books and censorship.
Scholastic withdrew the book on January 2016 following this criticism. In a statement, the publisher said: The decision to withdraw the book was criticized by anti-censorship activists like the National Coalition Against Censorship and the PEN American Center, which released a statement saying that "Those who value free speech as an essential human right and a necessary precondition for social change should be alarmed whenever books are removed from circulation because they are controversial"; the NCAC's statement defended the book by saying that it had helped promote discussion about how Americans remember slavery. Scholastic responded to this statement by accusing both the NCAC and PEN of not reading Scholastic's initial statement, asserting that the book was withdrawn "not in response to criticism and purposefully because this title did not meet our publishing standards" although Scholastic, not the author, or illustrator, was in charge of the publishing process. In an interview with the Associated Press, the author responded to the public outcry and withdrawal of the book, stating that she had continually voiced concerns about the “over jovial” depiction of the enslaved characters but that she had been ignored by the publisher.
The book’s editor Andrea Davis Pinkney and illustrator Vanessa Brantley-Newton did not respond for requests for comment from the Associated Press. Farah Mendlesohn wrote that the decision by Scholastic to withdraw the book was product recall, not censorship, argued that if "it is acceptable and “free speech” to turn into a happy little story about a slave serving his master joyfully I look forward to Scholastic producing a bright little picture book called The Children’s Choir of Terezin." Slavery in children's books: What works? in the Chicago Tribune by Nara Schoenberg, February 15, 2016 Children's Literature About Slavery: The Struggle Continues Storify of tweets, compiled by Ebony Elizabeth-Thomas
Stephen Decatur Jr. was a United States naval officer and commodore. He was born on the eastern shore of Maryland in Worcester County, the son of a U. S. naval officer. His father, Stephen Decatur Sr. was a commodore in the U. S. Navy, brought the younger Stephen into the world of ships and sailing early on. Shortly after attending college, Decatur followed in his father's footsteps and joined the U. S. Navy at the age of nineteen as a midshipman. Decatur supervised the construction of several U. S. naval vessels, one of which he commanded. Promoted at age 25, he is the youngest man to reach the rank of captain in the history of the United States Navy, he served under three presidents, played a major role in the early development of the American navy. In every theater of operation, Decatur's service was characterized by acts of heroism and exceptional performance, his service in the Navy took him through both Barbary Wars in North Africa, the Quasi-War with France, the War of 1812 with Britain. He was renowned for his natural ability to lead and for his genuine concern for the seamen under his command.
His numerous naval victories against Britain and the Barbary states established the United States Navy as a rising power. During this period he served aboard and commanded many naval vessels and became a member of the Board of Navy Commissioners, he built a large home in Washington, known as Decatur House, on Lafayette Square, was the center of Washington society in the early 19th century. He became an affluent member of Washington society and counted James Monroe and other Washington dignitaries among his personal friends. Decatur's career came to an early end. Decatur emerged as a national hero in his own lifetime, becoming the first post-Revolutionary War hero, his name and legacy, like that of John Paul Jones, became identified with the United States Navy. Decatur was born on January 5, 1779 in Sinepuxent, Maryland, to Stephen Decatur Sr. a merchant captain and an officer in the young American navy during the American Revolution, his wife Ann Decatur. The family of Decatur was of French descent on Stephen's father's side, while his mother's family was of Irish ancestry.
His parents had arrived from Philadelphia just three months before Stephen was born, having to flee that city during the American Revolution because of the British occupation. They returned to the same residence they had once left for Philadelphia. Decatur's family returned to Philadelphia shortly after Decatur's birth, Decatur grew up in Philadelphia graduating from the Episcopal Academy. Decatur came to love the sailing in a roundabout manner; when Stephen was eight years old, he developed a severe case of whooping cough. In those days, a supposed tonic for this condition was exposure to the salt air of the sea, it was decided that Stephen Jr. would accompany his father aboard a merchant ship on his next voyage to Europe. Sailing across the Atlantic and back proved to be an effective remedy, Decatur came home recovered. In the days following young Stephen's return he was jubilant about his adventure on the high sea and spoke of wanting to go sailing often, his parents had different aspirations his mother who had hopes that Stephen would one day become an Episcopal clergyman, tried to discourage the eight-year-old from such jaunty ambitions, fearing such would distract Stephen from his studies.
At the direction of his father, Decatur attended the Episcopal Academy, at the time an all-boys school that specialized in Latin and religion. He enrolled for one year at the University of Pennsylvania in 1795, where he better applied himself and focused on his studies. At the university, Decatur met and became friends with Charles Stewart and Richard Somers, who would become naval officers themselves. Decatur found the classic studies prosaic and life at the university disagreeable, at the age of 17, with his heart and mind set on ships and the sea, discontinued his studies there. Though his parents were not pleased with his decision, they were wise enough to now let the aspiring young man pursue his own course through life. Through his father's influence, Stephen gained employment at the shipbuilding firm of Gurney and Smith, business associates of his father, acting as supervisor to the early construction of the frigate United States, he was serving on board this vessel as a midshipman when it was launched on May 10, 1797, under the command of Commodore John Barry.
In the years leading up to the Quasi-War, an undeclared naval war with the revolutionary French Republic involving disputes over U. S. trading and shipping with Britain, the U. S. Congress passed the'Act to provide for a Naval Armament' on March 27, 1794; the act provided for the commissioning of six frigates for the Navy. It was promptly signed by George Washington that same day. There was much opposition to the bill, it was amended and allowed to pass with the condition that work on the proposed ships would stop in the event that peace with the Pasha of Algiers was obtained. Construction of the six new American frigates was progressing when, because of a peace accord with Algiers in March 1796, work was halted. After some debate and at the insistence of President Washington, Congress passed an act on April 20, 1796, allowing the construction and funding to continue, but only on the three ships nearest to completion at the time: USS United States, USS Constellation and USS Constitution. In 1798, John Barry obtained Decatur's appointment as midshipman on United States, under
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R