Hercules (emulator)

Hercules is a computer emulator allowing software written for IBM mainframe computers and for plug compatible mainframes to run on other types of computer hardware, notably on low-cost personal computers. Development started in 1999 by a mainframe systems programmer. Hercules runs under multiple parent operating systems including GNU/Linux, Microsoft Windows, FreeBSD, Mac OS X and is released under the open source software license QPL, it is analogous to Bochs and QEMU in that it emulates CPU instructions and select peripheral devices only. A vendor must still provide an operating system, the user must install it. Hercules was the first mainframe emulator to incorporate 64-bit z/Architecture support; the emulator is written entirely in C. Its developers ruled out using machine-specific assembly code to avoid problems with portability though such code could improve performance. There are two exceptions: Hercules uses hardware assists to provide inter-processor consistency when emulating multiple CPUs on SMP host systems, Hercules uses assembler assists to convert between little-endian and big-endian data on platforms where the operating system provides such services and on x86/x86-64 processors.

Hercules is technically compatible with all IBM mainframe operating systems older versions which no longer run on newer mainframes. However, many mainframe operating systems require vendor licenses to run legally. Newer licensed operating systems, such as OS/390, z/OS, VSE/ESA, z/VSE, VM/ESA, z/VM, TPF/ESA, z/TPF are technically compatible but cannot run on the Hercules emulator except in limited circumstances, they must always be licensed from IBM. IBM's Coupling Facility control code, which enables Parallel Sysplex, UTS require licenses to run. Operating systems which may be run, without license costs, on Hercules include: Older IBM operating systems including OS/360, DOS/360, DOS/VS, MVS, VM/370, TSS/370 which are either public domain or "copyrighted software provided without charge." The MUSIC/SP operating system may be available for educational and demonstration purposes upon request to its copyright holder, McGill University. Some of MUSIC/SP's features, notably networking, require z/VM.

However, a complete demonstration version of MUSIC/SP, packaged with the alternative Sim390 mainframe emulator, is available. The Michigan Terminal System version 6.0A has been tailored to run under Hercules. There is no known legal restriction to running open-source operating systems Linux on IBM Z and OpenSolaris for System z on the Hercules emulator, they run well on Hercules, many Linux on IBM Z developers do their work using Hercules. Several distributors provide 64-bit z/Architecture versions of Linux, some provide ESA/390-compatible versions. Mainframe Linux distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Debian GNU/Linux, CentOS, Slackware. Sine Nomine Associates brought OpenSolaris to System z, relying on features provided by z/VM. Emulation of those specific z/VM features for OpenSolaris is included starting with Hercules Version 3.07. Certain unencumbered editors and utilities which can run on a mainframe without a parent operating system may be available to run on Hercules as well.

PDOS/3X0 Hercules can be used as a development environment to verify that code is portable, supports symmetric multiprocessing, is 64-bit "clean." There is a large community of current and former mainframe operators and programmers, as well as those with no prior experience, who use Hercules and the public domain IBM operating systems as a hobby and for learning purposes. Most of the skills acquired when exploring classic IBM mainframe operating system versions are still relevant when transitioning to licensed IBM machines running the latest versions; the open source nature of Hercules means that anyone can produce their own customized version of the emulator. For example, a group of developers independent of the Hercules project implemented a hybrid mainframe architecture which they dubbed "S/380" using modifications to both Hercules and to available classic versions of MVS, enhancing the operating systems with some degree of 31-bit binary compatibility with operating system versions, it is difficult to determine how Hercules emulation performance corresponds to real mainframe hardware, but the performance characteristics are understandably quite different.

This is due to the difficulty of comparing real mainframe hardware to other PCs and servers as well as the lack of concrete, controlled performance comparisons. Performance comparisons are legally impossible for licensed IBM operating systems, those operating systems are quite different from other operating systems, such as Linux. Hercules expresses its processing performance in MIPS. Due to the age of the earlier System/360 and System/370 hardware, it is a safe assumption that Hercules will outperform them when running on moderately powerful hardware, despite the considerable overhead of emulating a computer architecture in software. However, newer or configured System z machines outperform Hercules by a wide margin. A fast dual processor X86 machine running Hercules is capable of sustaining about 50 to 60 MIPS for code that utilizes both processors in a realistic environment, with sustained rates rising to a reported 300 MIPS on leading-edge PC-class systems. Hercules can produce peaks of

2013 Kane County Dawgs season

The 2013 Kane County Dawgs season was a short-lived season for the Continental Indoor Football League franchise. The franchise was to be called the DeKalb Dawgs, were to play in the American Professional Football League in 2013, before announcing that they would be joining the Continental Indoor Football League as its tenth member in October 2012. On October 10, 2012, the franchise announced that former National Football League and Arena Football League player Matt Griebel was named the team's first head coach; the team announced that they would be playing their home games at the Seven Bridges Ice Arena in Woodridge, Illinois. After having the first two weeks of the season off with a bye weeks, the Dawgs forfeit their first game, when the turf they purchased did not adequately fit the Seven Bridges Ice Arena; the following week, the Dawgs would lose their first played game in franchise history, with a 13-69 loss to the Erie Explosion. The loss to the Explosion, would end up being the team's only game, as the following week the league announced on their website that the Dawgs franchise was "indefinitely suspending operations" to protect the integrity of the league.

Players and coaches were all released and free to sign with other teams in the CIFL or elsewhere

Plaza Mayor, Trinidad, Cuba

The Plaza Mayor in Trinidad, Cuba, is the historic centre of the town, declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1988. The buildings surrounding the plaza date from the 18th and 19th centuries when trade in sugar from the nearby Valle de los Ingenios and the slave trade brought great riches to the area. Many of the buildings surrounding the plaza belonged to the wealthy landowners of the city; when the trade in sugar diminished and the slave trade ended in the mid-19th century, Trinidad became a backwater and little building work occurred until the 1950s. As a result, many of the historic buildings and streets were preserved the grand colonial edifices in the immediate vicinity of the Plaza Mayor. Today, most of the former houses surrounding the square serve to house museums; the small sloping Plaza Mayor has gardens on a raised platform, with paths dividing it in quarters. The resulting four small garden beds are fenced off by white wrought-iron fences. Cobbled streets surround the square. Wrought-iron lamp-posts, statues of English greyhounds, columns with large terra-cotta finials decorate the plaza.

The colonial houses of Trinidad are typified by red terracotta tiled roofs supported beyond the walls by wooden beams. Pastel-coloured paintwork for the houses is normal with wood and plasterwork details picked out in different colours to the brickwork; the large main door has a smaller entrance door cut into it. In contrast to the houses of the same period in Havana the door tends to open directly onto a living area, rather than having a vestibule or entrance hall; the doors are surrounded by architectural plaster mouldings. Windows lack glass, instead they are open to the elements, but have barrotes, bars constructed of small turned wooden columns which allow the air to circulate without allowing entrance to the house. In the 19th century these wooden barriers were replaced by wooden shutters behind a wrought-iron grille; the large windows are raised from ground-level but can be flush to the pavement. Arched windows are common, but are enclosed with radiating wooden slats. 19th-century houses tend to be built around a small courtyard with the rooms facing onto it.

Buildings and plazas within the World Heritage Site include: Above the plaza to the north-east stands the Church of the Holy Trinity. Construction began on the current church in the late 19th century and it was completed in 1892, it was built on the site of a previous 17th-century church, destroyed during the 19th century by a cyclone which damaged a great many buildings in Trinidad. The church contains an 18th-century wooden statue of Christ, "The Lord of the True Cross", an object of particular reverence in Trinidad. Destined for a church in Veracruz in Mexico, the ship carrying the statue was driven back to Trinidad three times by bad weather and was only able to make the journey after abandoning part of its cargo which included the statue of Christ; this was taken as divine intervention by the local population and the statue has been housed in the church since. Housed within the building is a large Gothic revival altar dedicated to Our Lady of Mercy; the church has a Neoclassical façade, but little architectural attention was paid to the concealed rear of the church.

To the right of the church is a flight of steps leading to the Casa de la Musica, a modern building constructed in a style similar to those nearby. Beyond the steps to the left of the Church is the House of the Conspirators; this has a wooden balcony on one corner overlooking the square and is named because it was the former meeting place of the Cuban nationalist secret society La Rosa de Cuba. Further down the street is the Plazuela de la Trova, a small square surrounded by 18th-century houses including the Casa de la Trova which features wooden barrotes and is now a live music venue. To the left of the Church of the Holy Trinity stands the Brunet Palace, built in 1812 by José Mariano Borrell y Padrón, head of the wealthy Borrell family, it takes its name from Count Nicolás de la Cruz Brunet y Muñoz, the husband of Borrell's daughter who inherited the house on Borrell's death. It now houses the Romantic Museum displaying objects that belonged to the Borrell family; the house has a central balustraded courtyard, still features the original marble floor and neoclassical decoration.

In the kitchen the original painted earthenware tiles can still be seen. At the opposite end of Calle Hernández Echerri to the Palacio Brunet stands the Church and Monastery of Saint Francis which houses the Museum of the Fight against Bandits; the bandits in question were the counter-revolution forces that took refuge in the nearby Escambray Mountains after the Cuban revolution and fought against Fidel Castro's government in the Escambray Revolt. Built in 1813 by Franciscan friars, the building became a parish church in 1848, in 1895 was converted into a garrison for Spanish troops; the church fell into disrepair, in 1920 much of it was demolished, leaving only the bell tower and a few nearby buildings. The 25 centavo convertible peso coin shows the bell tower of the church viewed from the corner of the Plaza Mayor on the obverse. Below the Church of Saint Francis is Plazuela del Jigüe, a small square where Bartolomé de Las Casas celebrated the first Mass in Trinidad in 1514; the El Jigüe restaurant is decorated with hand-painted tiles.

On the