Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Martha Washington was the wife of George Washington, the first President of the United States. Although the title was not coined until after her death, Martha Washington served as the inaugural First Lady of the United States. During her lifetime she was referred to as "Lady Washington", she had first married Daniel Parke Custis, with whom she had four children, was widowed by the age of 25. Two of her children by Custis survived to young adulthood, she brought her vast wealth to her marriage to Washington, which enabled him to buy land to add to his personal estate. She brought nearly 100 dower slaves for her use during her lifetime, they and their descendants reverted to her first husband's estate at her death and were inherited by his heirs. She and Washington did not have children together but they did rear her two children by Daniel Parke Custis, including son John "Jacky" Parke Custis, they helped both of their extended families. Martha Dandridge was born on June 2, 1731 on her parents' plantation Chestnut Grove in the British colony, Province of Virginia.
She was the oldest daughter of John Dandridge, a Virginia planter and immigrant from England, by his wife Frances Jones, of American birth and English and French descent. Martha had three brothers and four sisters: John, Bartholomew, Anna Maria "Fanny" Bassett, Frances Dandridge, Elizabeth Aylett Henley and Mary Dandridge. Martha may have had an illegitimate half-sister, Ann Dandridge Costin, born into slavery. Costin's enslaved mother was of African and Cherokee descent, her father was believed to be John Dandridge. Martha's father may have fathered an out-of-wedlock half-brother to Martha named Ralph Dandridge, white. On May 15, 1750, at age 18, Martha married Daniel Parke Custis, a rich planter two decades her senior, moved to his residence, White House Plantation, located on the south shore of the Pamunkey River, a few miles upriver from Chestnut Grove, they had four children together: Daniel, Frances and Martha. Daniel and Frances died in childhood; the other two children, John Parke Custis and Martha Parke Custis, survived to young adulthood.
Her husband's death in 1757 left Martha a rich young widow at age 25, with independent control over a dower inheritance for her lifetime, trustee control over the inheritance of her minor children. In all, she was left in custody of some 17,500 acres of land and 300 slaves, apart from other investments and cash. According to her biographer, "she capably ran the five plantations left to her when her first husband died, bargaining with London merchants for the best tobacco prices." Martha Custis, age 27, George Washington, age 27, married on January 6, 1759, at the White House plantation. As a man who lived and owned property in the area, Washington knew both Martha and Daniel Parke Custis for some time before Daniel's death. During March 1758 he visited her twice at the White House. At the time, she was being courted by the planter Charles Carter, wealthier than Washington; the wedding was grand. Washington's suit was of silver cloth with red trimming and gold knee buckles; the bride wore purple silk shoes with spangled buckles.
The couple honeymooned at the White House for several weeks before setting up house at Washington's Mount Vernon estate. They appeared to have had a solid marriage. Martha and George Washington had no children together, but they raised Martha's two surviving children, her daughter, nicknamed Patsy, died as a teenager during an epileptic seizure. John Parke "Jacky" Custis returned from college to comfort his mother. Custis married and had children, he died of "camp fever". After his death, the Washingtons raised the youngest two of John's four children, Eleanor Parke Custis, George Washington Parke Custis; the two older girls remained with their mother. The Washingtons provided personal and financial support to nieces and other family members in both the Dandridge and Washington families. Content to live a private life at Mount Vernon and her homes from the Custis estate, Martha Washington followed Washington to his winter encampments for each of eight years, she helped keep up morale among the officers.
By tradition, Washington was described as spending her days at the Revolutionary War winter encampments visiting with the common soldiers in their huts. But Nancy Loane, author of Following the Drum: Women at the Valley Forge Encampment, says there is no evidence that Washington visited with the common soldiers, noting that Martha Washington was fashionably dressed, a woman of great wealth and independent means. Mrs. Washington joined her husband during the Revolution for all the Continental Army's winter encampments. Before the revolution began, she had kept close to home. General Lafayette observed that she loved "her husband madly"; the Continental Army settled in Valley Forge, the third of the eight winter encampments of the Revolution, on December 19, 1777. Martha W
Oney "Ona" Judge, known as Oney Judge Staines after marriage, was an enslaved woman owned by Martha Washington who worked on George Washington's plantation, Mount Vernon, in Virginia. Beginning in 1789, she worked as a lady's maid to First Lady Martha Washington in the presidential households in New York City and Philadelphia. With the aid of Philadelphia's free black community, Judge liberated herself in 1796 and lived as a fugitive slave in New Hampshire for the rest of her life. More is known about her than any other enslaved person on the Mount Vernon plantation because she was twice interviewed by abolitionist newspapers in the mid-1840s. Judge was born about 1773 at Mount Vernon, her mother, was an enslaved woman who worked as a seamstress. Oney had a half-brother, a half-sister, Delphy. Betty had been among the 285 African persons enslaved by Martha Washington's first husband, Daniel Parke Custis. Custis died intestate, so his widow received a "dower share" – the lifetime use of one third of his estate, which included at least 85 enslaved Africans.
Martha did not have the legal power to sell or free them. Upon Martha's marriage to George Washington in 1759, the "dower slaves" came with her to Mount Vernon, including Betty and then-infant Austin. Under the legal principle of partus sequitur ventrem, incorporated into Virginia colonial law in 1662, the legal status of a child was the same as that of the enslaved mother, no matter who the father was; because Betty was a "dower slave", Austin and Delphy were enslaved by the Custis Estate. Upon the completion of his indenture, Andrew Judge settled in Alexandria, some 11 miles away; when she was around 10 years old, Judge was brought to live at the Mansion House at Mount Vernon as a playmate for Martha Washington's granddaughter Nelly Custis. She became the personal attendant or body servant to Martha Washington. In an interview when she was nearly 75, Oney said she had received no education under the Washingtons, nor religious instruction. In 1789 Washington took seven enslaved Africans, including Judge 16, to New York City to work in his presidential household.
Following the transfer of the national capital to Philadelphia in 1790, Judge was one of nine enslaved persons, two of whom were female, Washington took to that city to work in the President's House, together with Austin, Paris, Hercules, Christopher Sheels, "Postilion Joe". With the 1780 Gradual Abolition Act, Pennsylvania became the first state to establish a process to emancipate its slaves, but no one was freed at first. The process was to play out over decades and not end until the death of the last enslaved person in Pennsylvania; the law prohibited importation of slaves into the state, required an annual registration of those held there. But it protected the property rights of Pennsylvania slaveholders—if a slaveholder failed to register his slaves, they would be confiscated and freed; every future child of an enslaved mother would be born free, but the child was required to work as an indentured servant to the mother's master until age 28. A slaveholder from another state could reside in Pennsylvania with his personal slaves for up to six months, but if those slaves were held in Pennsylvania beyond that deadline, the law gave them the power to free themselves.
Congress the only branch of the federal government, was meeting in Philadelphia in 1780. Pennsylvania exempted members of Congress from the Gradual Abolition Act. A 1788 amendment to the state law closed loopholes – such as prohibiting a Pennsylvania slaveholder from transporting a pregnant woman out of the state and prohibiting a non-resident slaveholder from rotating his slaves in and out of the state to prevent them from establishing the six-month Pennsylvania residency required to qualify for freedom This last point would affect the lives of Judge and the other people enslaved in the President's household. In March 1789, the U. S. Constitution was ratified. New York City was the first national capital under the Constitution. In 1790, Congress transferred the national capital to Philadelphia for a ten-year period while the permanent national capital was under construction on the banks of the Potomac River. With the move, there was uncertainty about whether Pennsylvania's slavery laws would apply to officers of the federal government.
By a strict interpretation, the Gradual Abolition Act exempted only slaveholding members of Congress. But there were slaveholders among the officers of the judicial branch and the executive branch, including the President of the United States. Washington contended that his presence in Philadelphia was a consequence of the city's being the temporary seat of the federal government, he held that he remained a resident of Virginia, should not be bound by Pennsylvania law regarding slavery. Attorney General Edmund Randolph – an officer of the executive branch – misunderstood the Pennsylvania law
A Birthday Cake for George Washington
A Birthday Cake for George Washington is a children's book published by Scholastic and first released on January 5, 2016. Written by Ramin Ganeshram and illustrated by Vanessa Brantley-Newton, it is narrated by Delia, the daughter of Hercules, one of George Washington's slaves who worked for him as a cook; the book tells the story of Delia baking a birthday cake for Washington. Scholastic pulled the book on January 17, 2016 in response to criticisms over illustrations depicting an overly-positive portrayal of slavery. While praised by traditional reviewers, Vicky Smith wrote about problems with the book, in "Smiling Slaves in a Post-A Fine Dessert World" in Kirkus Reviews on January 4, 2016. Smith, Kirkus Reviews' teen book editor, compared the book to A Fine Dessert by Emily Jenkins, which proved controversial because it depicted images of smiling slaves, she notes that Ganeshram did not mention in the narrative the fact that when Hercules escaped to freedom from Washington, he was forced to leave his daughter behind.
Smith concluded that "It’s easy to understand why Ganeshram opted to leave those details out of her primary narrative: they’re a serious downer for readers, they don’t have anything to do with the cake. But the story that remains shares much of what ‘A Fine Dessert’’s critics found so objectionable: it’s an incomplete dishonest treatment of slavery.”This was followed by more critiques, including for the illustrations of the characters as “smiling slaves” and thereby whitewashing the history of slavery and presenting an "offensively sanitized version" of slavery to children. Among the critics were Kiera Parrott, who wrote in School Library Journal that the book was "highly problematic" and that it "convey a feeling of joyfulness that contrasts starkly with the reality of slave life"; as of January 18, the book had received over 100 one-star ratings on Amazon.com. On January 13, 2016, a critical review of the book by librarian Edith Campbell was posted on the Facebook page of the Washington, DC-based nonprofit Teaching for Change, along with a photo of the book’s back cover.
On this same day, Leslie MacFadyen of the National #Ferguson Response Network entered the conversation and developed the hashtag #slaverywithasmile. This took the discussion beyond the children’s literature world to parents and activists, it caught the attention of major media outlets, including the Atlanta Black Star, The Root, Fusion. Thousands signed a protest petition at Change.org. Food historian Michael W. Twitty critiqued historical elements of the book in The Guardian while author Steve Sheinkin discussed the book in an Actually podcast. Debbie Reese of American Indians in Children’s Literature—who had played a major role drawing public attention to the Mexican American studies ban in Tucson—documented the evolution of events on her blog. Author Daniel José Older tweeted about the book. Older's tweets, the petition, a summary of the campaign were published on Common Dreams; the books controversy evolved into discussions about how to present enslavement in children’s books and censorship.
Scholastic withdrew the book on January 2016 following this criticism. In a statement, the publisher said: The decision to withdraw the book was criticized by anti-censorship activists like the National Coalition Against Censorship and the PEN American Center, which released a statement saying that "Those who value free speech as an essential human right and a necessary precondition for social change should be alarmed whenever books are removed from circulation because they are controversial"; the NCAC's statement defended the book by saying that it had helped promote discussion about how Americans remember slavery. Scholastic responded to this statement by accusing both the NCAC and PEN of not reading Scholastic's initial statement, asserting that the book was withdrawn "not in response to criticism and purposefully because this title did not meet our publishing standards" although Scholastic, not the author, or illustrator, was in charge of the publishing process. In an interview with the Associated Press, the author responded to the public outcry and withdrawal of the book, stating that she had continually voiced concerns about the “over jovial” depiction of the enslaved characters but that she had been ignored by the publisher.
The book’s editor Andrea Davis Pinkney and illustrator Vanessa Brantley-Newton did not respond for requests for comment from the Associated Press. Farah Mendlesohn wrote that the decision by Scholastic to withdraw the book was product recall, not censorship, argued that if "it is acceptable and “free speech” to turn into a happy little story about a slave serving his master joyfully I look forward to Scholastic producing a bright little picture book called The Children’s Choir of Terezin." Slavery in children's books: What works? in the Chicago Tribune by Nara Schoenberg, February 15, 2016 Children's Literature About Slavery: The Struggle Continues Storify of tweets, compiled by Ebony Elizabeth-Thomas
Tobias Lear is best known as the personal secretary to President George Washington. Lear served Washington from 1784 until the former-President's death in 1799. Through Lear's journal, we receive the account of Washington's final moments and his last words:'Tis well. Tobias Lear served as third President Thomas Jefferson's envoy to Saint-Domingue, as peace envoy in the Mediterranean Sea and North Africa during the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War, he was responsible for negotiating a peace treaty with the Bey of Tripoli that ended the first Barbary War. Lear was born on Hunking Street in the seaport town of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on September 19, 1762, a fifth-generation American and the fifth generation of his family named Tobias, his parents were Mary Stillson Lear. His parents were married on December 29, 1757; the family home on Hunking Street, which still stands today, had been built in 1742 by the Stillson family. Lear had an older sister named Mary. Before going to college, Lear attended Dummer Charity School where Samuel Moody helped prepare Lear for college.
Instead of joining the Continental Army, as many of his contemporaries did, Lear attended Harvard College, beginning in 1779, during the American Revolutionary War. He graduated with 30 classmates in 1783, he began his career by being an apprentice until his uncle, Benjamin Lincoln, recommended him for the job of tutoring Martha Washington's grandchildren and to the post of George Washington's personal secretary, both to which he was hired in 1784. He was integrated into Washington's house and his post evolved beyond clerk to being Washington's right-hand man, doing whatever Washington needed, such as tutoring, filling out expense reports, writing letters, he performed all his duties well. Lear moved with Washington to New York City in 1789, when Washington became president, they dined alone together during his presidency. Lear was responsible for filling out Washington's expense reports as president, which Washington had wisely chosen instead of a $25,000 salary, as they turned out to be much more.
In 1793, at the start of Washington's second term, Lear decided to leave Washington and start out on his own. He started a company, T. Lear & Company, which focused on two things: working with Washington's Potomac Company to promote river traffic to the soon-to-be nation's capitol and participating in land speculation there. Lear was unsuccessful, his engineering work related to the Potomac Company failed to enable navigation around two waterfalls on the Potomac River. He lost money in this failed venture despite his wealthy partners. Lear married Mary Long, his childhood sweetheart, in 1790. Together they had a son, Benjamin Lincoln Lear, but Polly died in the President's House in Philadelphia during the 1793 Yellow fever epidemic that claimed around 5,000 people. In 1795, he married Frances Bassett Washington, recent widow of the President's nephew, George Augustine Washington, but Fanny died in 1796 of tuberculosis. Tobias married again, his new wife was nicknamed Fanny and was the niece of Martha Washington.
In the late 1790s, Lear's finances became more distraught. During this period, he continued to run unpaid errands for Washington. On one of these errands, Lear collected rent from one of Washington's tenants, but pocketed the funds. Washington found out. Washington was furious for at least two days but Lear apologized and was forgiven; the next year, Lear was given the rank of colonel as chief aide to Washington, reappointed by Congress to command the troops during a period when a French attack was feared. He preferred to be addressed as Colonel Lear for the rest of his life despite the fact that the French never attacked by land and he never faced active duty. Lear kept the funds, he feigned illness for several months before meeting the man and apologizing and agreeing to reimburse him. In 1799, Washington unexpectedly died while Lear was visiting him at Mount Vernon, leading to Lear's famous diary entry: About ten o'clk, Saturday December 14, 1799, Washington made several attempts to speak to me before he could effect it, at length he said,—"I am just going.
Have me decently buried. I bowed assent, he looked at me again and said, "Do you understand me?" I replied "Yes." "'Tis well" said he. Lear oversaw the funeral arrangements to the detail of measuring the corpse at 6 feet 3.5 inches long and 1 foot 9 inches from shoulder to shoulder. Lear inherited a lifetime interest in Walnut Tree Farm. Lear's only biographer, Ray Brighton, was convinced that Lear destroyed many of Washington's letters and diary entries, which he had possession of for about a year after Washington's death. Lear was to work on a Washington biography with Bushrod Washington, a Washington nephew, who had contacted Lear about collecting Washington's papers and collaborating on a Washington biography. Swaths of Washington's diary and a few key letters were discovered missing about a year after their transfer to Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall, who had instead volunteered to write the biography. Lear denied destroying any papers in a long letter to Marshall.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
Manumission, or affranchisement, is the act of an owner freeing his or her slaves. Different approaches developed, each specific to the time and place of a particular society. Jamaican historian Verene Shepherd states that the most used term is gratuitous manumission, "the conferment of freedom on the enslaved by enslavers before the end of the slave system"; the motivations for manumission were complex and varied. Firstly, it may present itself as a benevolent gesture. One typical scenario was the freeing in the master's will of a devoted servant after long years of service. A trusted bailiff might be manumitted as a gesture of gratitude. For those working as agricultural laborers or in workshops, there was little likelihood of being so noticed; such feelings of benevolence may have been of value to slave owners themselves as it allowed them to focus on a "humane component" in the human traffic of slavery. In general, it was more common for older slaves to be given freedom once they had reached the age at which they were beginning to be less useful.
Legislation under the early Roman Empire put limits on the number of slaves that could be freed in wills, which suggests that it had been used. Freeing slaves could serve the pragmatic interests of the owner; the prospect of manumission worked as an incentive for slaves to be compliant. Roman slaves were paid a wage. Manumission contracts found, in some abundance at Delphi, specify in detail the prerequisites for liberation. Manumission was not always altruistic. In one of the stories in the Arabian Nights, in the Richard Francis Burton translation, a slave owner threatens to free his slave for lying to him; the slave says, "thou shall not manumit me, for I have no handicraft whereby to gain my living". Burton notes: "Here the slave refuses to be set starve. For a master to do so without ample reason is held disgraceful". A History of Ancient Greece explains that in the context of Ancient Greece, affranchisement came in many forms. A master choosing to free his slave would most do so only "at his death, specifying his desire in his will".
In rare cases, slaves who were able to earn enough money in their labour were able to buy their own freedom and were known as choris oikointes. Two 4th-century bankers and Phormio, had been slaves before they bought their freedom. A slave could be sold fictitiously to a sanctuary from where a god could enfranchise him. In rare circumstances, the city could affranchise a slave. A notable example is that Athens liberated everyone, present at the Battle of Arginusae. Once a slave was freed, he was not permitted to become a citizen, but would become a metic; the master became a prostatès. The former slave could be bound to some continuing duty to the master and was required to live near the former master. Breaches of these conditions could lead to prosecution at law and re-enslavement. Sometimes, extra payments were specified by which a freed slave could liberate himself from such residual duties. However, ex-slaves were able to own property outright, their children were free of all constraint. Under Roman law, a slave had no personhood and was protected under law as his or her master's property.
In Ancient Rome, a slave, manumitted was a libertus and a citizen. A freed slave customarily took the former owner's family name, the nomen of the master's gens; the former owner became the patron and the freed slave became a client and retained certain obligations to the former master, who owed certain obligations in return. A freed slave could acquire multiple patrons. A freed slave became a citizen. Not all citizens, held the same rights and privileges; the freed slave's rights were defined by particular statutes. A freed slave could become a civil servant but not hold higher magistracies, serve as priests of the emperor or hold any of the other highly-respected public positions. If they were sharp at business, there were no social limits to the wealth that freedmen could amass, their children held full legal rights. One of the most famous Romans to have been the son of a freedman was the poet Horace, who enjoyed the patronage of Augustus. A notable character of Latin literature is Trimalchio, the ostentatiously nouveau riche freedman in the Satyricon, by Petronius.
In colonial Peru, the laws around manumission were influenced by the Siete Partidas a Castilian law code. According to the Siete Partidas, a master who manumitted their slaves should be honored and obeyed by their former slaves for giving such a generous gift. Due to the closer intimacy between masters and household slaves and children were more to be manumitted than men; as in other parts of Latin America under the system of coartación, slaves could purchase their freedom by negotiating with their master for a purchase price and this was the most common way for slaves to be freed. Manumission occurred during baptism, or as part of an owner’s last will and testament. In baptismal manumission, enslaved children were freed at baptism. Many of these freedoms came with stipulations which could include servitude until the end of an owner’s life. Children freed at baptism were frequently the children of still enslaved parents. A child, freed at baptism but continued to live with enslaved family was far more to be reenslaved.